A new species of Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda; Caligidae) parasitic on three Kelpfish species (Clinidae) from the Southern California coast.
Members of the copepod family Caligidae Burmeister, 1835, commonly known as sea lice, are predominantly external parasites of marine fishes (Dojiri and Ho 2013). Among the 30 valid caligid genera, Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann, 1832 is one of the more speciose genera, with 121 valid species and 2 recognized subspecies (Boxshall and Walter 2016). Lepeophtheirus parasitizes marine teleosts worldwide, but is more diverse in temperate latitudes (Kabata 1979). One species, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Kroyer, 1837) sensu lato, is the most pathogenic ectoparasite on farmed salmonids in the northern hemisphere (Johnson et al. 2004; Costello 2006). Presently, 17 species of Lepeophtheirus have been reported from 16 fish families along the California coast, from San Francisco Bay in the north to La Jolla in the south of the state (Table 1). Recent samples of Giant Kelpfish (Heterostichus rostratus Girard, 1854) and Striped Kelpfish (Gibbonsia metzi Hubbs, 1927) (Clinidae Swainson, 1839) collected within the Port of Los Angeles during Cabrillo Marine Aquarium's Inner Cabrillo Beach Survey (ICBS) were infected with an unidentified species of Lepeophtheirus. The ICBS is a long-term, tri-annual survey designed to monitor the abundance and diversity of the invertebrates and fishes living in subtidal eelgrass beds off Inner Cabrillo Beach. Subsequent examination of the unidentified Lepeophtheirus specimens revealed they were not conspecific with Lepeophtheirus parviventris Wilson, 1905, a species previously reported by Wilson (1935) from the Giant Kelpfish in Newport Bay, California. Indeed, the Lepeophtheirus specimens from Inner Cabrillo Beach, as well as those of Wilson (1935), represent an undescribed species, which is described in detail herein.
Materials and Methods
Nearly all copepod specimens of the new taxon were obtained from Heterostichus rostratus samples that were collected in beach seines at three stations along Inner Cabrillo Beach during the 2011-2014ICBS. Only two copepod specimens were obtained from one individual of Gibbonsia metzi captured in a winter 2011 ICBS. Copepod samples were preserved in 70% ethanol upon removal from the host. Copepod specimens were later soaked in lactophenol prior to examination using an Olympus SZX10 dissection microscope and an Olympus BX53 compound microscope equipped with differential interference contrast optics. Selected specimens were also measured intact using an ocular micrometer and/or dissected and examined according to the wooden slide procedure of Humes and Gooding (1964). In the description, length measurements are provided first, followed by width measurements; all measurements given are expressed as the mean followed by the range in parentheses. Pencil drawings of the copepod body and appendages were made with the aid of a drawing tube. Drawings were subsequently inked in with Sakura Pigma Micron[TM] pens on 110 g/[m.sup.2] tracing paper, digitized with a CanoScan LiDE 500F scanner, and assembled into figure plates using Adobe Photoshop. Morphological terminology follows Huys and Boxshall (1991) and Dojiri and Ho (2013). Fish names and classifications conform to Page et al. (2013). Type material and voucher specimens of the new taxon are deposited at the Crustacea Department of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (LACM), Los Angeles, California, U.S.A., and Cabrillo Marine Aquarium (CMA), San Pedro, California, U.S.A.
Type material and voucher specimens of L. parviventris deposited by Wilson (1905, 1908, 1924, 1935) in the National Museum of Natural History (USNM), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., were also examined for comparative purposes: syntypes comprising 22 females, 15 males, and 11 juveniles (USNM 42064), ex Gadus macrocephalus Tilesius, 1810 (Gadidae Rafinesque, 1810), ChignikBay, Alaska, 1903; 2 females and 1 male (USNM 69798), ex skin of Gibbonsia evides (Jordan & Gilbert, 1883) (=Gibbonsia elegans (Cooper, 1864)) (as Heterostichus rostratus), Newport Bay, California, 1934; 5 females and 1 male (USNM 38566), ex Sebastes rubrivinctus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880) (as Sebastodes rubrivinctus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880)) (Scorpaenidae Risso, 1827), Station 4417, off Santa Barbara Island, 29 fathoms, April 12, 1904; 1 female (USNM 53491), exHalichoeres semicinctus (Ayres, 1859) (as Iridio semicinctus (Ayres, 1859)) (Labridae Cuvier, 1816), southern California, April 12, 1913.
Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp. (Figs. 1-6)
Type material. Holotype female (LACM CR-2011-3), allotype male (LACM CR-2011-4), and 1 male and 2 female paratypes (CMA 2017.04.0002), ex Heterostichus rostratus (222 mm SL), Station 2 (33[degrees] 42' 38.3" N, 118[degrees]16'58.5"W), off Inner Cabrillo Beach, San Pedro, California, U.S.A., February 5, 2011.
Other material examined. From Station 1 (33[degrees]42'42.6"N, 118[degrees]16'59.1"W), off Inner Cabrillo Beach, San Pedro, California, U.S.A.: 10 females (7 with an unidentified species of Udonella Johnston, 1835 (Monogenea) attached to the genital complex) and 4 males (3 with Udonella sp. attached to the genital complex) (CMA 2017.04.0006), ex H. rostratus (330 mm SL), October 10, 2014; 2 females (each with Udonella sp. attached to the genital complex and egg sacs) (CMA 2017.04.0005), ex H. rostratus (169 mm SL), October 11, 2014; 3 females (LACM MBPC 17851), ex H. rostratus (193 mm SL), October 11, 2014; 1 female and 1 male (LACM MBPC 17852), ex H. rostratus (197 mm SL), October 11, 2014. From Station 2 (33[degrees]42'38.3"N, 118[degrees]16'58.5"W), off Inner Cabrillo Beach, San Pedro, California, U.S.A.: 1 female and 1 male (CMA 2017.04.0014), ex Gibbonsia metzi (110 mm SL), February 5, 2011; 1 female (CMA 2017.04.0003), ex H. rostratus (170 mm SL), February 5, 2011; 1 female and 1 male (CMA 2017.04.0004), ex H. rostratus (120 mm SL), February 5, 2011; 1 female and 1 male (CMA 2017.04.0010), ex H. rostratus (86 mm SL), October 28, 2011; 1 female (CMA 2017.04.0011), ex H. rostratus (182 mm SL), October 28, 2011; 2 females and 2 males (CMA 2017.04.0012), ex H. rostratus (163 mm SL), October 28, 2011; 1 female and 2 males (CMA 2017.04.0013), ex H. rostratus (178 mm SL), October 28, 2011; 4 females (CMA 2017.04.0008), ex H. rostratus (200 mm SL), October 17, 2013; 1 female (CMA 2017.04.0009), ex H. rostratus (245 mm SL), October 17, 2013. From Station 3 (33[degrees]42'35.5"N, 118[degrees]16'51.3"W), off Inner Cabrillo Beach, San Pedro, California, U.S.A.: 1 female (dissected and mounted on glass slide) and 3 males (1 male partially dissected and mounted on glass slide) (CMA 2017.04.0007), ex H. rostratus (260 mm SL), June 10,2013.
Description of adult female. Body (Figure 1A) 4.08 (3.85-4.25) mm long (excluding caudal setae) (n=7). Cephalothoracic shield subcircular, nearly as long as wide [2.19 (2.05-2.35) x 2.11 (1.98-2.33) mm], with well-developed paired frontal plates, posterior margin of thoracic zone extending beyond posterior limit of lateral zone, and hyaline membrane along frontal and lateral rims. Free fourth pedigerous somite about three times wider than long [209 (170230) x 609 (560-645) [micro]m] and indistinctly separated from genital complex. Genital complex large, more than half the length of cephalothoracic shield, marginally wider than long [1.41 (1.30-1.55) x 1.52 (1.38-1.78) mm], with nearly parallel lateral margins and protruded posterolateral corners. Abdomen (Fig. 1B) composed of 1 somite, 247 (220-280) x 416 (370-460) [micro]m, widest anteriorly, and indistinctly separated from genital complex. Caudal ramus (Fig. 1C) slightly longer than wide [111 (105-120) x 99 (90-110) [micro]m], with 6 plumose setae (seta I absent) and short row of setules along inner margin. Egg sacs (Fig. 1A) uniseriate.
Antennule (Fig. 1D) 2-segmented. Proximal segment longer than distal segment, bearing 1 tiny semispherical knob and 1 bifid process on posterodistal corner and 27 setae (25 hirsute, 2 naked) along anterior margin. Distal segment cylindrical, bearing 12 setae (2 setae near posterodistal corner share a common base) and 2 aesthetascs.
Antenna (Fig. 2A) 3-segmented, comprising coxa, basis and 1-segmented endopod incorporating distal claw. Coxa with long, apically rounded process on posterolateral corner. Basis stout, with corrugated surface on protruded, inner distal corner and 1 large, outer distal adhesion pad on dorsal surface. Endopod long, uncinate, bearing 2 naked setae.
Postantennal process (Fig. 2A) with small bump midway on anterior margin of basal section, pair of setulose papillae on base, 1 setulose papilla posterior to base, and recurved, apically rounded hook.
Mandible (Fig. 2B) modified into elongate stylet bearing distolateral hyaline membrane and 12 distomedial teeth (1 blunt, 11 sharp).
Maxillule (Fig. 2A) composed of trisetose papilla and bifid dentiform process. Sclerite anterior to papilla with posteriorly-directed triangular process. Tines on dentiform process subequal, with thin ridge on inner tine.
Postoral process (Fig. 2A) small, triangular.
Maxilla (Fig. 2C), brachiform, 2-segmented, composed of elongate, unarmed syncoxa and slender basis. Basis with large flabellum and long apical calamus and shorter apical canna; calamus furnished with finely serrated membranes; canna with finely serrated posterior margin.
Maxilliped (Fig. 2D) large, subchelate, 3-segmented, comprising long protopod (corpus) and subchela consisting of free endopodal segment (shaft) and claw. Protopod with 2 large patches of denticles near inner margin and small patch of denticles on distolateral corner. Shaft urnarmed. Claw with long, naked basal seta and 2 thin ridges and fine striations distally.
Tines of sternal furca (Fig. 2E) longer than box, slightly divergent, and apically rounded; shallow T-shaped depression present, situated anterior to base of box.
Legs 1 to 3 (Figs. 3A-B and 4A) biramous; leg 4 (Fig. 4C) uniramous. Armature formula of legs 1-4 is shown in Table 2.
Leg 1 (Fig. 3A) intercoxal sclerite naked and elongate. Protopod with 1 outer and 1 inner plumose setae, 1 proximolateral setulose papilla, and 1 mid-lateral pore. First exopodal segment with 1 small, naked outer spine and inner row of setules. Second exopodal segment with 4 apical elements (3 spines, 1 seta), 3 inner plumose setae, tiny inflated process near apical margin, and pectinate membrane at base of each apical spine; outer apical spine with row of tiny denticles on anterior and posterior sides (denticles on posterior side not drawn); middle and inner apical spines each with serrations on anterior and posterior sides (serrations on posterior side not drawn) and an accessory process; apical seta plumose, shorter than outer apical spine. Endopod digitiform, bearing 2 elements apically.
Leg 2 (Fig. 3B) intercoxal sclerite subquadrate, with large hyaline membrane along distal margin. Coxa with 1 inner plumose seta and 2 pores on anterior surface. Basis with 1 outer short, plumose seta, 1 minute pore near outer margin, 1 inner sensillum, and large hyaline membrane along inner margin. Exopod 3-segmented, with large hyaline membrane covering dorsal surface of ramus. First segment with 1 inner plumose seta, inner row of setules, and pectinate membrane at base of large outer spine; latter with sclerotized flange along outer margin and fine serrations along inner margin. Second segment with 1 inner plumose seta, inner row of setules, 1 outer serrate spine, and 1 minute pore on anterior surface. Third segment with inner row of setules, 5 inner plumose setae, 3 outer spines, and 1 minute pore near lateral margin; proximal outer spine with serrated margins; middle outer spine with hyaline membrane along both margins; outer distal spine with hyaline membrane along outer margin and row of setules along inner margin. Endopod 3-segmented. First segment with 1 inner plumose seta and row of setules on distolateral corner. Second segment with 2 inner plumose setae, row of setules along inner and outer margins, and 1 minute pore on anterior surface. Third segment with 6 plumose setae and short row of setules along proximolateral and proximomedial margins.
Leg 3 (Fig. 4A) protopod large, modified to form apron, with 1 outer plumose seta situated near base of exopod, 1 inner plumose seta near large intercoxal sclerite, 1 proximolateral corrugated pad on dorsal surface, 3 marginal membranes, minute pores scattered on ventral surface, and 2 unequal sensilla along posterior margin. Exopod (Fig. 4B) 3-segmented. First segment with 1 inner plumose seta, 1 apical spine reflexed over second segment and furnished with sclerotized flange along outer margin, and 1 minute pore, several sensilla and sclerotized flange on outer basal swelling. Second segment with 1 outer naked spine, 1 inner plumose seta, 1 minute pore, and setules along lateral and medial margins. Third segment with 4 plumose setae, 3 naked spines, and setules along proximal margins. Endopod 2-segmented. First segment with 1 inner plumose seta and outer row of setules. Second segment with 6 plumose setae and setules along outer and inner margins.
Leg 4 (Fig. 4C) protopod with 1 distolateral plumose seta. First exopodal segment with pectinate membrane at base of small, outer naked spine and serrations and several sensilla along outer margin. Second exopodal segment similar to first segment but with much larger outer spine furnished with pectinate margins. Third exopodal segment with 3 apical pectinate spines, pectinate membrane at base of each spine, and tiny serrations along outer margin; spines progressively increase in length from outer to inner apical margin.
Leg 5 (Fig. 4D) vestigial, comprised of small setiferous papilla and broad trisetose lobe on posteroventral surface of genital complex.
Leg 6 (not figured) rudimentary, represented by unarmed genital operculum at gonopore opening.
Description of adult male. Body (Fig. 5A) 2.64 (2.53-2.78) mm long (excluding caudal setae) (n=4). Cephalothoracic shield slightly longer than wide [1.73 (1.65-1.83) x 1.62 (1.58-1.65) mm], ornamented as in female. Free fourth pedigerous somite wider than long [170 (160-180) x 406 (385-420) [micro]m]. Genital complex wider than long [448 (420-470) x 514 (490-540) [micro]m]. Abdomen composed of 1 somite, 210 (210-210) x 268 (260-275) [micro]m], narrowed at junction with genital complex. Caudal ramus longer than wide [120 (110-130) x 110 (100-115) [micro]m], armed as in female.
All limbs as in female, except for the following. Antennule (Fig. 5B) with 29 setae (27 hirsute, 2 naked) on proximal segment. Antenna (Fig. 5C-E) 3-segmented, comprising coxa, basis, and 1-segmented endopod incorporating distal claw. Coxa with large corrugated pad along outer margin on posterior side and fine striations on inner distal margin on anterior side. Basis with 1 large and 1 small corrugated pad on posterior side and 3 unequal corrugated pads on anterior side. Endopod forming robust terminal claw with sclerotized flange on posterior side and bearing 2 naked setae and 3 accessory claws. Maxillule (Fig. 5F) with hyaline digitiform process medial to bifid dentiform process. Postoral process (Fig. 5F) elongate and corrugated. Maxilliped (Fig. 6A) lacking small patch of denticles on distolateral corner of protopod and fine apical striations on claw. Weakly sclerotized adhesion pad (Fig. 6B) present, situated anterior to sternal furca. Leg 5 (Fig. 6C) lobate, bearing 2 plumose and 2 unipinnate setae. Leg 6 (Fig. 6C) forming genital operculum, armed distally with 1 pinnate and 2 plumose setae.
Variability. Female specimen from H. rostratus captured at Station 3 without row of setules along inner margin of caudal rami (Fig. 1B) and with one apically bifurcate seta on distal endopodal segment of right leg 3 (Fig. 6D).
Attachment site. Body surface.
Prevalence and mean intensity. From a total of 655 Giant Kelpfish that were inspected for Lepeophtherius infections between June 2011 and February 2013, 233 L. schaadti n. sp. were removed from 86 fish (prevalence = 13.1%; mean intensity = 2.71). By contrast, from a total of 2716 Striped Kelpfish captured within the same time period at Inner Cabrillo Beach, only two L. schaadti n. sp. were recovered from one fish (prevalence = 0.04%; mean intensity = 2).
Etymology. This species is named in honor of Mike Schaadt, the Director of the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium.
Remarks. Examination of Wilson's (1908, 1924) Lepeophtherius specimens from the Flag Rockfish, Sebastes rubrivinctus, and Rock Wrasse, Halichoeres semicinctus, captured in California waters revealed they are not conspecific with L. parviventris. More importantly, examination of Wilson's (1935) Lepeophtherius specimens from Newport Bay, California, revealed they are conspecific with L. schaadti n. sp. and the host was the Spotted Kelpfish, Gibbonsia elegans, rather than the Giant Kelpfish, as indicated on the vial label.
L. schaadti n. sp. resembles L. elegans Gusev, 1951, L. hexagrammi Gusev, 1951, and L. hospitalis Fraser, 1920 by having in the female a genital complex that is at least half the length of the cephalothoracic shield (including frontal plates) and with small, rounded posterolateral lobes, a 1-segmented abdomen that is less than one-quarter the length of the genital complex, a maxillule with two large tines on the dentiform process, a maxilliped without a myxal process, a pair of non-bifid tines on the sternal furca, the spine on the first exopodal segment of leg 3 inserted distally on the basal swelling, a 3-segmented leg 4 exopod, and the inner lobe of leg 5 not protruding beyond the posterior margin of the genital complex.
L. elegans can be distinguished from L. schaadti n. sp. by having a smooth inner distal corner on the basis of the female antenna, pointed tines and no ridge on the inner tine of the dentiform process of the female maxillule, no denticles on the outer distal corner of the protopod of the female maxilliped, pointed tines on the female sternal furca, a subtriangular inner lobe on the female leg 5, no accessory claws on the endopod of the male antenna, and a large, cone-shaped myxal process on the protopod of the male maxilliped.
L. hexagrammi can be differentiated from L. schaadti n. sp. by the presence of a smooth inner distal corner on the basis of the female antenna, a broader and less recurved hook on the postantennal process of both sexes, both an outer basal knob and a ridge on both tines on the dentiform process of the female maxillule, more tapered tines on the female sternal furca, one accessory claw on the endopod of the male antenna, and a large, cone-shaped myxal process on the protopod of the male maxilliped.
L. hospitalis can be discerned from L. schaadti n. sp. by having a pointed and less recurved hook on the postantennal process of both sexes, a basal semispherical knob on the dentiform process of the maxillule of both sexes, broad flanges on the pointed tines of the female sternal furca, a subtriangular inner lobe on the female leg 5, and two accessory claws on the endopod of the male antenna.
Discussion and Conclusions
The discovery of L. schaadti n. sp. represents the first account of an ectoparasitic species from the Striped Kelpfish and Spotted Kelpfish, as well as the fourth ectoparasitic species reported from the Giant Kelpfish. The copepods Chondracanthus heterostichi Ho, 1972 and C. horridus Heller, 1865 (Chondracanthidae Milne Edwards, 1840) and the leech Heptacyclus cabrilloi Burreson, Kalman Passarelli & Kim, 2012 (Piscicolidae Johnston, 1865) were previously recorded from the Giant Kelpfish (Wilson 1935; Ho 1972b; Burreson et al. 2012). It must be noted, however, that Wilson's record of C. horridus on the Giant Kelpfish requires verification, as C. horridus was originally described from the Black Goby, Gobius niger Linnaeus, 1758 (as Gobius jozo Linnaeus, 1758) (Gobiidae Cuvier, 1816), from the Mediterranean Sea (Heller 1865).
In this study, 13.1% of the Giant Kelpfish were infected with L. schaadti n. sp. as compared to only 0.04% of the Striped Kelpfish. These disparate infection levels suggest that the Giant Kelpfish is a more common host of L. schaadti n. sp. at Inner Cabrillo Beach. It remains to be determined how common L. schaadti n. sp. is throughout the geographical range of its kelpfish hosts, including the Spotted Kelpfish.
From 2011 to 2014, 20 individuals of L. schaadti n. sp. were infected with the hyperparasitic monogene Udonella sp. (Udonellidae Taschenberg, 1879). Nearly all Udonella specimens were attached to the external surface of the copepod's genital complex, with a few on the cephalothorax and egg sacs. In California, Udonella caligorum Johnston, 1835 has been reported from the copepods Trebius caudatus Kroyer, 1838 and T. latifurcatus Wilson, 1921 (Trebiidae Wilson, 1905) parasitic on the Bat Ray, Myliobatis californica Gill, 1865 (Myliobatidae Bonaparte, 1835); on the Curlfin Sole, Pleuronichthys decurrens Jordan & Gilbert, 1881 (Pleuronectidae Rafinesque, 1815); and on the isopod Elthusa vulgaris (Stimpson, 1857) (as Lironeca vulgaris Stimpson, 1857) (Cymothoidae Leach, 1818) parasitic on the Sand Sole, Psettichthys melanostictus Girard, 1854 (Pleuronectidae) (Love and Moser, 1983). Identification of the Udonella material is currently underway and will be dealt with in detail elsewhere.
We thank Don Buth (University of California, Los Angeles) for support during parasite collections, Rafael Lemaitre and Chad Walter (Smithsonian Institution) for kindly arranging the loan of copepod material, and Mas Dojiri (City of Los Angeles) for guidance during the initial phase of this study. We also thank all the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium staff and volunteers for help with collection of kelpfishes during the Inner Cabrillo Beach Survey.
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Julianne Kalman Passarelli (1) and Danny Tang (2)
(1) Cabrillo Marine Aquarium, 3720 Stephen M. White Drive, San Pedro, CA 90731, USA
(2) Laboratory, Monitoring, and Compliance Division, Orange County Sanitation District, 10844 Ellis Ave, Fountain Valley, CA 92708, USA
Corresponding author: email@example.com
Caption: Fig 1. Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp., adult female. A) Habitus, dorsal; B) Abdomen and caudal rami, dorsal; C) Right caudal ramus, dorsal; D) Right antennule (arrowheads indicate naked setae on proximal segment), ventral. Scale bars: 1.00 mm for A; 200 [micro]m for B; 50 [micro]m for C; 100 [micro]m for D.
Caption: Fig 2. Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp., adult female. A) Right antenna (A2) (ap = adhesion pad), postantennal process (PAP), maxillule (MX1) and postoral process (POP), ventral; B) Left mandible, posterior; C) Right maxilla, anterior; D) Right maxilliped, anterior; E) Sternal furca, ventral. Scale bars: 100 [micro]m for A, E; 50 [micro]m for B; 150 [micro]m for C, D.
Caption: Fig 3. Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp., adult female. A) Right leg 1 with detail of endopod and apical spines on second exopodal segment, anterior; B) Left leg 2 (mm = marginal membrane) with detail of outer spine on first and second exopodal segments and proximalmost outer spine on third exopodal segment, anterior. Scale bars: 200 M-m for A, B.
Caption: Fig 4. Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp., adult female. A) Left leg 3, ventral; B) Left leg 3 exopod, ventral; C) Left leg 4 with detail of serrations along outer margin of first exopodal segment and fine teeth along outer margin of spine on second exopodal segment, anterior; D) Left leg 5 (P5), spermatophore (S) and egg sac (ES), ventral. Scale bars: 200 [micro]m for A, C, D; 50 [micro]m for B.
Caption: Fig 5. Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp., adult male. A) Habitus, dorsal; B) Left antennule, ventral; C) Left antenna, posteromedial; D) Left antenna, anterolateral; E) Distal endopodal segment of left antenna, posterior; F) Left maxillule (MX1) and postoral process (POP), ventral. Scale bars: 1.00 mm for A; 100 [micro]m for B, C, D, F; 50 [micro]m for E.
Caption: Fig 6. Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp., adult male (A-C) and adult female (D). A) Left maxilliped, anterior; B) Sternal furca (SF) and adhesion pad (AP), ventral; C) Left legs 5 (P5) and 6 (P6), ventral; D) Distal endopodal segment of right leg 3 (arrow indicates abnormal seta), ventral. Scale bars: 100 [micro]m for A, B, C; 50 [micro]m for D.
Table 1. Fish hosts and locality records for species of Lepeophtheirus reported from California, U.S.A. Copepod species Host family Host species Lepeophtheirus sp. Kyphosidae Medialuna californiensis (Steindachner. 1876) Labridae Oxyjulis californica (Gunther. 1861) Pomacentridae Hypsypops rubicundus (Girard. 1854) (as Hypsypops rubicunda) Sciaenidae Genyonemus lineatus (Ayres. 1855) Sciaenidae Menticirrhus undulatus (Girard. 1854) Scorpaenidae Sebastes paucispinis Ayres. 1854 Lepeophtheirus Paralichthyidae Paralichthys bifidus Fraser. 1920 californiens (Ayres. 1859) Pleuronectidae Pleuronichthys guttulatus Girard. 1856 (as Hypsopsetta guttulata) Lepeophtheirus Embiotocidae Cymatogaster bifurcatus Wilson. aggregata Gibbons. 1905 1854 Embiotocidae Phanerodon/meatus Girard. 1854 Paralichthyidae Paralichthys californiens (Ayres. 1859) Pleuronectidae Pleuronichthys verticalis Jordan & Gilbert. 1880 Pleuronectidae Psettichthys melanostictus Girard. 1854 Lepeophtheirus Scorpaenidae Scorpaena guttata brachyurus Heller. Girard. 1854 1865 Lepeophtheirus Serranidae Paralabrax clathratus constrictus Wilson. (Girard. 1854) 1908 Serranidae Paralabrax maculatofasciatus (Steindachner. 1868) Serranidae Paralabrax nebulifer (Girard. 1854) Lepeophtheirus Sciaenidae Atractoscion nobilis longiabdominis (Ayres. 1860) (as Shiino. 1960 Cynoscion nobilis) Lepeophtheirus Polyp rionidae Stereolepis gigas longipes Wilson 1905 Ayres. 1859 Scorpaenidae Sebastes setriceps (Jordan & Gilbert. 1880) Serranidae Paralabrax clathratus (Girard. 1854) Lepeophtheirus Molidae Mola mola (Linnaeus. nordmanni (Milne 1758) Edwards. 1840) Lepeophtheims Clinidae Heterostichus patviventris Wilson, rostratas Girard 1905 1854b Labridae Halichoeres semicinctus (Ayres, 1859) (as Iridio semicinctus) Scorpaenidae Sebastes rubrivinctus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880) (as Sebastodes rubrivinctus) Urotrygonidae Urobatis halleri (Cooper, 1863) (as Urolophus halleri) Lepeophtheims parvus Embiotocidae Cymatogaster Wilson, 1908 aggregata Gibbons, 1854 Embiotocidae Damalichthys vacca (Girard, 1855) Labridae Semicossyphus pulcher (Ayres, 1854) (as Pimelometopon pulcher and P. pulchrum) Lepeophtheims paulus Scorpaenidae Sebastes serriceps Cressey, 1969 (Jordan & Gilbert, 1880) (as Sebastodes serriceps) Lepeophtheims Hexagrammidae Ophiodon elongatus pravipes Wilson, 1912 Girard 1854 Scorpaenidae Scorpaena guttata Girard, 1854 Lepeophtheims Batrachoididae Porichthys notatus remiopsis Dojiri, Girard, 1854 1979 Paralichthyidae Hippoglossina stomata Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1890 Paralichthyidae Xystreurys liolepis Jordan & Gilbert, 1880 Pleuronectidae Parophtys vetulus Girard, 1854 Pleuronectidae Pleuronichthys verticalis Jordan & Gilbert, 1880 Cottidae Chitonotus pugetensis (Steindachner, 1876) Lepeophtheims Paralichthyidae Citharichthys rotundipes Dojiri, stigmaeus Jordan & 1979 Gilbert, 1882 Scorpaenidae Scorpaen a guttata Girard, 1854 Lepeophtheirus Salmonidae Oncorhynchus salmonis oncorhynchi tshawytscha (Walbaum, Skern-Mauritzen, 1792) Torrissen and Glover, 2014 Lepeophtheirus spatha Paralichthyidae Paralichthys Dojiri and Brantley, californiens (Ayres, 1991 1859) Lepeophtheirus Sciaenidae Atractoscion nobilis thompsoni Baird, 1850 (Ayres, 1860) (as Cynoscion nobilis) Copepod species Host family Locality Lepeophtheirus sp. Kyphosidae Off La Jolla Labridae Off La Jolla Pomacentridae Off La Jolla Sciaenidae Southern California Sciaenidae Southern California Scorpaenidae Southern California Lepeophtheirus Paralichthyidae Anaheim Bay bifidus Fraser. 1920 Pleuronectidae Anaheim Bay Lepeophtheirus Embiotocidae Southern California bifurcatus Wilson. 1905 Embiotocidae Southern California Paralichthyidae Santa Monica Bay Pleuronectidae Santa Monica Bay Pleuronectidae San Francisco Bay Lepeophtheirus Scorpaenidae Off La Jolla brachyurus Heller. 1865 Lepeophtheirus Serranidae Southern California constrictus Wilson. 1908 Serranidae Off La Jolla Serranidae Southern California Lepeophtheirus Sciaenidae Off La Jolla longiabdominis Shiino. 1960 Lepeophtheirus Polyp rionidae Off La Jolla longipes Wilson 1905 Scorpaenidae Off La Jolla Serranidae Catalina Island Lepeophtheirus Molidae Santa Catalina Island nordmanni (Milne Southern California Edwards. 1840) Monterey Bay Lepeophtheims Clinidae Newport Bay patviventris Wilson, 1905 Labridae Southern California Scorpaenidae Off Santa Barbara Island Urotrygonidae California Lepeophtheims parvus Embiotocidae Southern California Wilson, 1908 Embiotocidae Southern California Labridae Off San Diego Off La Jolla Lepeophtheims paulus Scorpaenidae Off La Jolla Cressey, 1969 Lepeophtheims Hexagrammidae Off San Diego pravipes Wilson, 1912 Scorpaenidae Off Pacific Grove Lepeophtheims Batrachoididae Off Huntington Beach remiopsis Dojiri, 1979 Paralichthyidae Off Huntington Beach Santa Monica Bay Paralichthyidae Santa Monica Bay Pleuronectidae Off Huntington Beach Santa Monica Bay Pleuronectidae Off Huntington Beach Santa Monica Bay Cottidae Off Huntington Beach Lepeophtheims Paralichthyidae Off Huntington Beach rotundipes Dojiri, 1979 Scorpaenidae Off Huntington Beach Santa Monica Bay Lepeophtheirus Salmonidae Monterey Bay salmonis oncorhynchi Skern-Mauritzen, Torrissen and Glover, 2014 Lepeophtheirus spatha Paralichthyidae Santa Monica Bay Dojiri and Brantley, 1991 Lepeophtheirus Sciaenidae Off La Jolla thompsoni Baird, 1850 Copepod species Host family Reference Lepeophtheirus sp. Kyphosidae Hobson (1971) Labridae Hobson (1971) Pomacentridae Hobson (1971) Sciaenidae Love and Moser (1983) Sciaenidae Love and Moser (1983) Scorpaenidae Love and Moser (1983) Lepeophtheirus Paralichthyidae Ho (1972a) bifidus Fraser. 1920 Pleuronectidae Ho (1975) Lepeophtheirus Embiotocidae Love and Moser (1983) bifurcatus Wilson. 1905 Embiotocidae Love and Moser (1983) Paralichthyidae Kaiman (2006) Pleuronectidae Kaiman (2006) Pleuronectidae Wilson (1908) Lepeophtheirus Scorpaenidae Wilson (1908) brachyurus Heller. 1865 Lepeophtheirus Serranidae Love and Moser (1983) constrictus Wilson. 1908 Serranidae Wilson (1908) Serranidae Love and Moser (1983) Lepeophtheirus Sciaenidae Shiino (1960) longiabdominis Shiino. 1960 Lepeophtheirus Polyp rionidae Wilson (1908) longipes Wilson 1905 Scorpaenidae Hobson (1971) Serranidae Wilson (1921) Lepeophtheirus Molidae Wilson (1908) nordmanni (Milne Edwards. 1840) Wilson (1908) (a) Wilson (1935) Lepeophtheims Clinidae Wilson (1935) (b) patviventris Wilson, 1905 Labridae Wilson (1924) (c) Scorpaenidae Wilson (1908) (c) Urotrygonidae Wilson (1924) (d) Lepeophtheims parvus Embiotocidae Love and Moser(1983) Wilson, 1908 Embiotocidae Love and Moser(1983) Labridae Wilson (1908); Shiino (1963) Hobson (1971) Lepeophtheims paulus Scorpaenidae Cressey (1969) Cressey, 1969 Lepeophtheims Hexagrammidae Shiino (1965) (e) pravipes Wilson, 1912 Scorpaenidae Wilson (1935) Lepeophtheims Batrachoididae Dojiri (1979) remiopsis Dojiri, 1979 Paralichthyidae Dojiri (1979) Kaiman (2006) Paralichthyidae Kaiman (2006) Pleuronectidae Dojiri (1979) Kaiman (2006) Pleuronectidae Dojiri (1979) Kaiman (2006) Cottidae Dojiri (1979) Lepeophtheims Paralichthyidae Dojiri (1979) rotundipes Dojiri, 1979 Scorpaenidae Dojiri (1979) Kaiman (2006) Lepeophtheirus Salmonidae Wilson (1908) (f) salmonis oncorhynchi Skern-Mauritzen, Torrissen and Glover, 2014 Lepeophtheirus spatha Paralichthyidae Dojiri and Brantley Dojiri and Brantley, (1991); Kaiman (2006) 1991 Lepeophtheirus Sciaenidae Wilson (1908) thompsoni Baird, 1850 (a) Reported as L. insignis. (b) Specimens were reported as L. parviventris, but examination of these specimens revealed they are L. schaadti n. sp. Furthermore, the same specimens were reported from Heterostichus rostratas, but Gibbonsia evides (=Gibbonsia elegans) was handwritten on the vial label. (c) Specimens were reported as L. parviventris, but examination of these specimens revealed they are not conspecific with L. parviventris. (d) Reported from U. hallen held in an aquarium at the marine station of the University of Southern California, at Venice, California. (e) Reported as L. trifidus. (f) Reported asi. salmonis. Table 2. Armature on legs 1-4 (Roman numerals = spines; Arabic numerals = setae). Coxa Basis Exopod Endopod Leg 1 * 0-0 1-1 I-0;0,ffl + 1,3 vestigial Leg 2 0-1 1-0 I-1; I-1; II,I,5 0-1; 0-2; 6 Leg 3 * 0-1 1-0 I-1; I-1; II,I,4 0-1; 6 Leg 4 * 0-0 1-0 I-0; I-0; II,I,0 absent * Although the coxa and basis are fused to form a protopod in this leg, these segments are treated separately in this Table.
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|Author:||Passarelli, Julianne Kalman; Tang, Danny|
|Publication:||Bulletin (Southern California Academy of Sciences)|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2017|
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