A new Cryptotermes (Blattodea (Isoptera): Kalotermitidae) from Honduras and known distribution of New World Cryptotermes species.
Cryptotermes brevis (Walker), endemic to the coastal desert of Peru and Chile (Atacama), is the most economically important and widespread kalotermitid pest of dry wood worldwide (Scheffrahn etal. 2009). Both Cryptotermes dudleyi Banks, a pest species from the Indian subcontinent, and C. havllondi (Sjostedt), a pest from equatorial Africa, have been introduced by human commerce to the New World. I herein describe Cryptotermes garifunae sp. nov. from a single colony collected on the Caribbean coast of Honduras. I also update the distribution of all described Cryptotermes species in the New World from records in the University of Florida Termite Collection and from the literature.
Materials and Methods
Microphotographs (Figs. 1, 2) were taken as multi-layer montages using a Leica M205C stereomicroscope controlled by Leica Application Suite version 3 software (Leica Geosystems, Inc., Norcross, Georgia, USA). Preserved specimens were taken from 85% ethanol and suspended in a pool of Purell[R] Hand Sanitizer (GOJO Industries, Akron, Ohio, USA) to position the specimens on a transparent Petri dish background.
Cryptotermes distribution records were taken either from unpublished localities in the University of Florida Termite Collection in Davie, Florida, or from the literature (Table 1). Distribution maps (Figs. 3-5) were prepared using ArcMap 10.3 software (ESRI, Redlands, California, USA).
Cryptotermes garifunae Scheffrahn sp. nov. 2018 (Figs. 1, 2)
DEALATED MALE IMAGO (Fig. 1, Table 2). Head and nota light yellowish brown. Postclypeus hyaline. Chevron pattern on fore wing scales slightly darker than mesonotum. Legs very light yellow concolorous with abdominal sternites. Eyes dark grey, occupying 2/5 distance between vertex and genal margin, the latter of which are closer; ellipsoid with rectate margin at antennal socket. Ocelli moderately large, hyaline, touching eyes; oval except for acute wisp at dorsal margin. Antennae article formula 2 > 3 < 4 < 5. Pronotum wider than long, distinctly narrower than head width at eyes; anterior and posterior margins nearly rectate, sides slightly convex. Arolia present.
SOLDIER (Fig. 2, Table 3). Head, in lateral view, grading from hyaline at the cervical margin to dark ferruginous brown at frontal flange; in dorsal view coloration is a patchwork of reddish brown to dark ferruginous brown corresponding with thickness of cuticular rugosity.
Mandibles concolorous with frons. Anterior pronotal margin yellowish brown, remainder yellowish. Head capsule cuboidal in dorsal view, sides nearly parallel until anterior protrusion of frontal flange; dorsal outline of head capsule, in lateral view, forming a weak "s" shape from flange to occiput.
Texture of dorsal rugosity moderate; more rugose in anterior half including frontal flange and frons. Frons deeply concave. Frontal flange robust, elevated, with median notch continuous with mid-vertex concavity; in dorsal view, flange forms circular 120[degrees] arch. Eye spots very faint.
Labrum short, apex upturned. Mandibles short, angular, bent about 120[degrees]; finely rugose. Dentition weakly developed.
In dorsal view, frontal horns large, globular, projecting beyond the frontal flange reaching the posterior margin of the postclypeus; genal horns small blunt, apex in line with anterior margin of antennal socket. In lateral view, frontal horns nearly semicircular, projecting beyond base of genal horns. Antenna with 11 articles; formula 2 > 3 = 4 < 5. Anterior margin of pronotum incised with weak irregular sinuosity; anterolateral corners square, lateral margins and posterior margin form an evenly rounded outline.
HOLOTYPE soldier HONDURAS: Kerala, Laguna Guaimoreto (16.0132[degrees]N, 85.9184[degrees]W, elev. 6 m asl), 29-V-2007, J.A. Chase (UF no. HN273).
Named after the Garifuna people who live along the coastline of Honduras.
The dealated imago of C. garifunae, along with C. fatulus (Light) and C. undulans Scheffrahn & Krecek, are the smallest of the New World Cryptotermes. However, the C. garifunae imago has a lighter yellowish coloration than the other 2. The soldier of C. garifunae is the smallest of the New World Cryptotermes with the exception of C. fatulus (Light) which is of similar size but lacks head capsule rugosity.
In the key given by Scheffrahn and Krecek (1999), the new species will key out at couplet 10 leading to C. darlingtonae sp. nov. and modified as follows:
10. Frontal horns, in lateral view, about 3 times larger than genal horns 11 10'. Frontal horns, in lateral view either subequal or about 5 times larger than genal horns 12 11. Genal horns projecting forward and only slightly recessed behind frontal horns, left mandible 0.68 to 0.75 mm long (Figs. 40-42) C. darlingtonae sp. nov. 11'. Genal horns blunt, apex in line with anterior margin of antennal fossae, left mandible 0.57 mm long C. garifunae 12. Frontal horns, in lateral view, about 5 times larger than genal horns; genal horns projecting more dorsally and greatly recessed behind frontal horns, left mandible 0.63 to 0.72 mm long (Figs. 67-69) C. pyrodomus 12'. Frontal horns, in lateral view, subequal; smaller species, left mandible 0.56 to 0.62 mm long (Figs. 19-21) C. aequacornis n. sp.
In addition to Cryptotermes localities reported in Casalla et al. (2016), Scheffrahn & Krecek (1999), Scheffrahn et al. (2003), and Scheffrahn et al. (2009); Figures 3 to 5 include 1,452 new Cryptotermes records and localities recorded in the University of Florida Termite Collection. Only endemic C. brevis localities are included in these figures because of its expansive non-endemic pest localities (Scheffrahn et al. 2009). Some localities yielded more than 1 sample of the same Cryptotermes species. New records are from Florida and Georgia, the West Indies (The Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Turks and Caicos Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, and The US Virgin Islands), Central America (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama), and South America (Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela).
Although the imago morphology is quite conserved, the head capsules of Cryptotermes soldiers are variously adorned with protuberances and rugosities that facilitate their phragmotic defensive strategies. The most extreme case of phragmosis is exemplified by Cryptotermes cryptognathus from Jamaica, which has a wine cork-shaped head capsule and functionless mandibles (Scheffrahn et al. 1998). Cryptotermes chasei, on the other hand, has very long crushing mandibles and weak cephalic phragmosis (Scheffrahn 1993). Cryptotermes garifunae is intermediate between these 2 soldier forms.
Presently, C. garifunae and C cubioceps are the only Cryptotermes known from their type localities. Cryptotermes bracketti is known only from San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, but it is present throughout the island. All other New World Cryptotermes species show much greater distributions (Figs. 3-5). Cryptotermes cubioceps was described by Emerson (1925) from a single soldier collected in Guyana. It has not been collected again, even though considerable collecting efforts have been conducted in French Guiana (Bourguignon et al. 2011; Davies 2002). Whereas C. garifunae is the smallest New World Cryptotermes, C. cubioceps, with a head width of 2.12 mm, is the largest.
Figures 3 to 5 have reduced the Wallacean shortfall, defined as the state of incompleteness in understanding of geographical distributions of taxa (Lomolino 2004) for New World Cryptotermes. The maxium range extensions are increased as follows: C abruptus - 437 km; C aequicornis - 864 km; C. cavifrons - 681 km; C cylindroceps - 471 km; C. chacoensis - 379 km; and C veruculosus - 2,447 km.
Thanks to Jim Chase for persisting through thick brush and a heavy mosquito presence to collect C. garifunae.
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Nickle DA, Collins MS. 1990. The termite fauna (Isoptera) in the vicinity of Chamela, State of Jalisco, Mexico. Folia Entomologica Mexicana 77: 85-122.
Nickle DA, Collins MS. 1992. The termites of Panama (Isoptera), pp. 208-241 In Quintero D, Aiello A [eds.], Insects of Panama and Mesoamerica: Selected Studies. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
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Scheffrahn RH. 1993. Cryptotermes chasei, a new drywood termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) from the Dominican Republic. Florida Entomologist 76: 500-507.
Scheffrahn RH, Krecek J. 1999. Termites of the genus Cryptotermes Banks (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) from the West Indies. Insecta Mundi 13: 111-171. High resolution images are available at: https://figshare.com/articles/West_lndies_Cryptotermes_lsoptera_Kalotermitidae_/6144137
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Rudolf H. Scheffrahn (1)
(1) University of Florida, Fort Lauderdale Research & Education Center, 3205 College Avenue, Davie, Florida 33314, USA; E-mail: email@example.com
Corresponding author; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Caption: Fig. 1. Dorsal (A) and lateral (B) views of the Cryptotermes garifunae female dealate (vertex of head capsule partially collapsed). Arrow of fore tarsus (C) points to arolium of dealate.
Caption: Fig. 2. Dorsal (A), anterodorsal (B), lateral (C), and ventral (D) views of Cryptotermes garifunae soldier head capsule. Arrows in lateral view of area near antennal fossa (E) point to frontal horn (FH) and genal horn (GH).
Caption: Fig. 3. Distribution of Cryptotermes species (Group 1) in Florida, the West Indies, and Caribbean Basin from the University of Florida termite collection and literature records. "UF collection ALL" represents other collection locations in the University of Florida termite collection.
Caption: Fig. 4. Distribution of Cryptotermes species (Group 2) in the West Indies, and Caribbean Basin from the University of Florida termite collection and literature records.
Caption: Fig. 5. Distribution of Cryptotermes species in South America from the University of Florida termite collection and literature records. Only endemic records of C. brevis are shown.
Please Note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.
Table 1. Literature localities of New World Cryptotermes species not encompassed in the University of Florida collection. Species Latitude Longitude C. cavifrons 32.3[degrees]N 64.76[degrees]W C. chacoensis 20.695[degrees]S 61.929[degrees]W C. chacoensis 25.046[degrees]S 58.059[degrees]W C. colombianus 11.323[degrees]N 74.109[degrees]W C. contognathus 21.3[degrees]S 40.96[degrees]W C. cubicoceps 6.383[degrees]N 58.7[degrees]W C. darwini 1.26[degrees]S 90.43[degrees]W C. dudleyi 9.93[degrees]N 84.09[degrees]W C. dudleyi 1.46[degrees]S 48.5[degrees]W C. dudleyi 7.13[degrees]S 34.84[degrees]W C. dudleyi 22.9[degrees]S 43.21[degrees]W C. dudleyi 12.48[degrees]N 81.68[degrees]W C. fatulus 2.025[degrees]S 80.735[degrees]W C. fatulus 21.64[degrees]N 106.56[degrees]W C. fatulus 19.21[degrees]N 104.68[degrees]W C. fatulus 0.95[degrees]S 91.14[degrees]W C. havilandi 1.46[degrees]S 81.68[degrees]W C. havilandi 1.29[degrees]S 48.47[degrees]W C. havilandi 23.96[degrees]S 46.33[degrees]W C. havilandi 22.9[degrees]S 43.21[degrees]W C. havilandi 3.72[degrees]S 38.54[degrees]W C. longicollis 23.06[degrees]N 106.21[degrees]W C. longicollis 19.527[degrees]N 105.075[degrees]W C. longicollis 9.22[degrees]N 79.85[degrees]W C. verruculosus 6.383[degrees]N 58.7[degrees]W Species Location C. cavifrons Bermuda C. chacoensis Paraguay: Nueva Asuncion C. chacoensis Argentina: P. N. Rio Pilcomayo C. colombianus Colombia: P. N. Tayrona C. contognathus Brazil: Espfrito Santo, Praia das Neves C. cubicoceps Guyana: Kartabo C. darwini Galapagos Islands, Floriana Island C. dudleyi Costa Rica: San Jose C. dudleyi Brazil: Para, Belem C. dudleyi Brazil: Parafba, Joao Pessoa C. dudleyi Brazil: Rio de Janeiro C. dudleyi Colombia: San Andres Island C. fatulus Ecuador: Palmar C. fatulus Mexico: Maria Madre Island C. fatulus Mexico: Jalisco, Barra de Navidad C. fatulus Galapagos Islands, Isabela Island C. havilandi Brazil: Para, Belem C. havilandi Brazil: Para, Icoaraci C. havilandi Brazil: Sao Paulo, Santos C. havilandi Brazil: Rio de Janeiro C. havilandi Brazil: Ceara, Fortaleza C. longicollis Mexico: 30 km S. Matzatlan C. longicollis Mexico: Chamela C. longicollis Panama C. verruculosus Guyana: Kartabo Species Reference C. cavifrons Snyder 1956 C. chacoensis Roisin 2003 C. chacoensis Roisin 2003 C. colombianus Casalla et al. 2016 C. contognathus Constantino 2000 C. cubicoceps Emerson 1925 C. darwini Light 1935 C. dudleyi Snyder 1934 C. dudleyi Constantino & Cancello 1992 C. dudleyi Fontes & Milano 2002 C. dudleyi Fontes & Milano 2002 C. dudleyi Fontes & Milano 2002 C. fatulus Bacchus 1987 C. fatulus Light 1935 C. fatulus Nutting 1970 C. fatulus Light 1935 C. havilandi Constantino & Cancello 1992 C. havilandi Constantino & Cancello 1992 C. havilandi Fontes 1998 C. havilandi Fontes 1998 C. havilandi Fontes 1998 C. longicollis Light 1933 C. longicollis Nickle & Collins 1990 (*) C. longicollis Nickle & Collins 1992 C. verruculosus Emerson 1925 (*) Misidentified as C. fatulus Table 2. Measurements (mm) of the Cryptotermes garifunae sp. nov. male dealate (n = 1). Measurement Head length with labrum 1.05 Head length to postclypeus 0.96 Head width, maximum at eyes 0.84 Eye diameter, maximum 0.26 Eye to head base, minimum 0.12 Ocellus diameter, maximum 0.05 Pronotum, maximum length 0.61 Pronotum, maximum width 0.77 Total length without wings 5.63 Table 3. Measurements (mm) of the Cryptotermes garifunae sp. nov. soldier (n = 3). Measurement maximum minimum mean Head length to tip of mandibles 1.39 1.23 1.31 Head length to tip frontal horns 1.11 0.98 1.06 Frontal flange width 1.02 1.00 1.01 Frontal horns, outside span 0.74 0.74 0.74 Head width, maximum 1.04 0.96 0.99 Head height, excluding postmentum 0.70 0.63 0.65 Pronotum, maximum length 0.72 0.67 0.70 Pronotum, maximum width 0.96 0.95 0.96 Left mandible length, tip to ventral condyle 0.44 0.39 0.41 Total length 5.13 3.81 4.25
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|Author:||Scheffrahn, Rudolf H.|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2018|
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