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A model for the automation of HTML form creation and validation.


Forms are an essential part of web applications, but handling large forms proves to be very time consuming. This article proposes a model for automating HTML form creation and validation and shows how it could be used to greatly speed up web application development.

Keywords: html, form, web, automation, validation, class, model.


One of the most common tasks in web application development is form processing. Along with data presentation (tabular data most of the times), form building and processing takes the most amount of time and work. HTML form elements look, feel and act different. This is because the HTML standard had a rough evolution. Elements don't really follow a clear pattern. They don't have the same structure, attributes, behavior and don't send data to the server in the same way. Furthermore, certain elements became deprecated over time and others changed ever so slightly. Designing an automated system that builds forms and validates them would help save developer time and effort and also ensure that the markup follows standards.

Forms are important because they allow users to enter data. But the HTML standards are quite counterintuitive. For example, one can define a text box by using the input element with the value text set for the type attribute. That seems normal, but when trying to create a text box that spans multiple rows, the textarea element needs to be used. The differences don't stop here. While the input element doesn't have a closing tag, the textarea has one.

Html Standards And Form Elements

Below, there is a list of classical form elements (prior to HTML 5), their status and the time they were introduced in the HTML standards, as listed by Wikipedia:
Element          Description

form             Creates a form. The form element specifies and
                 operates the overall action of a form area, using the
                 required action attribute.
                 Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current.
button           A generic form button which can contain a range of
                 other elements to create complex buttons.
                 Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current.
fieldset         A container for adding structure to forms. For
                 example, a series of related controls can be grouped
                 within a fieldset, which can then have a legend added
                 in order to identify their function.
                 Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current.
isindex          isindex could either appear in the document head or
                 in the body, but only once in a document.
                 Isindex operated as a primitive HTML search form;
                 but was de-facto obsoleted by more advanced HTML forms
                 introduced in the early to mid-1990s. Represents a set
                 of hyperlinks composed of a base URI, an ampersand and
                 percent-encoded keywords separated by plus signs.
                 ISINDEX existed in HTML Tags; standardized in HTML 2.0;
                 deprecated in HTML 4.0 Transitional; invalid in HTML
                 4.0 Strict.
label            Creates a label for a form input (e.g. radio button).
                 Clicking on the label fires a click on the matching
                 Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current.
legend           A legend (caption) for a fieldset.
                 Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current.
option           Creates an item in a select list.
                 Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current.
optgroup         Identifies a group of options in a select list.
                 Standardized in HTML 4.0; still current.
select           Creates a selection list, from which the user
                 can select a single option. May be rendered as a
                 dropdown list.
                 Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current.
textarea         A multiple-line text area, the size of which is
                 specified by cols (where a col is a one-character
                 width of text) and rows attributes.
                 The content of this element is restricted to plain
                 text, which appears in the text area as default text
                 when the page is loaded.
                 Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current.
input            input elements allow a variety of standard form
                 controls to be implemented.
                 Standardized in HTML 2.0; still current.
                 The different input types are listed below:
type="checkbox"  A checkbox. Can be checked or unchecked.
type="radio"     A radio button. If multiple radio buttons are given
                 the same name, the user will only be able to select
                 one of them from this group.
type="button"    A general-purpose button. The element <button> is
                 preferred if possible (i.e. if the client supports
                 it) as it provides richer possibilities.
type="submit"    A submit button.
type="image"     An image button. The image URL may be specified with
                 the src attribute.
type=" reset"    A reset button for resetting the form to default
type="text"      A one-line text input field. The size attribute
                 specifies the default width of the input in
                 character-widths. maxlength sets the maximum number
                 of characters the user can enter (which may be greater
                 than size).
type="password"  A variation of text. The difference is that text typed
                 in this field is masked - characters are displayed as
                 an asterisk, a dot or another replacement. It should
                 be noted, however, that the password is still
                 submitted to the server as clear text, so an
                 underlying secure transport layer like HTTPS is needed
                 if confidentiality is a concern.
type="file"      A file select field (for uploading files to a server).
type="hidden"    hidden inputs are not visible in the rendered page,
                 but allow a designer to maintain a copy of data that
                 needs to be submitted to the server as part of the
                 form. This may, for example, be data that this web
                 user entered or selected on a previous form that needs
                 to be processed in conjunction with the current form.

HTML 5 introduces some new elements and further improves existing ones. Still, some features are unsupported in most browsers, but this is because HTML5 is a work in progress. Below there are some tables with the improvements that HTML5 brings to forms, as described by the World Wide Web Consortium and the website. Below each table there is browser support table outlining how each feature is supported across modern browsers. The + sign means "this version and above", the--sign means "this version and below". A green (or light gray) color denotes that the feature is supported. Red (or dark gray) marks the lack of browser support, while orange (or gray) was used to mark partial support. The browser support tables are found at

HTML5 introduces 5 new elements related to input and forms.
Element   Purpose                                 Notes

progress  Represents completion of a task.        The progress element
                                                  could represent the
                                                  progress of a file
                                                  being uploaded.
meter     Represents a scalar measurement         The meter element
          within a known range.                   could be used to
                                                  represent something
                                                  like a temperature
                                                  or weight measurement.
datalist  Represents a set of option elements     When the input with
          that can be used in combination with    the associated
          the new list attribute for input to     datalist gets focus,
          make dropdown menus.                    a dropdown menu
                                                  appears and contains
                                                  the values from the
keygen    A control for key-pair generation.      When the form is
                                                  submitted, the private
                                                  key gets stored in the
                                                  local keystore, and
                                                  the public key is sent
                                                  to the server.
output    Displays the results of a calculation.  An example use of the
                                                  output element could
                                                  be to display the sum
                                                  of the values of two
                                                  input elements.


HTML5 introduces 13 new input types. When viewed in a browser that doesn't support them, these input types fall back to text input.
Input Type  Purpose

tel         For entering a telephone
search      To prompt users to enter text
            that they want to search for.
url         For entering a single URL.
email       For entering either a single
            email address or a list of email
datetime    For entering a date and time
            with the time zone set to UTC.
date        For entering a date with no
            time zone.
month       For entering a date with a year
            and a month, but no time zone.
week        For entering a date that
            consists of a week-year
            number and a week number,
            but no time zone.
time        For entering a time value with
            hour, minute, seconds, and
            fractional seconds, but no time
datetime-   For entering a date and time
local       with no time zone.
number      For numerical input.
range       For numerical input, but
            unlike number, the actual is
            not important.
color       For choosing color through a
            color well control.

Input Type  Notes

tel         tel does not enforce a particular syntax,
            so if you want to ensure a particular
            format, you can use pattern or
            setCustomValidity() to do additional
search      The difference between search and text
            is primarily stylistic. Using an input type
            of search might result in the input field
            being styled in a way that is consistent
            with that platform's search fields.
url         url is intended for entering a single,
            absolute URL, which represents a pretty
            wide range of values.
email       If the multiple attribute is specified, then
            multiple email addresses can be entered,
            separated by commas.
week        An example of this format is 2011-W05
            for the fifth week of 2011.
number      Valid values are floating point numbers.
range       The implementation of the range control
            is a slider in most browsers that support
color       The value must be a valid lowercase
            simple color such as #ffffff.


HTML5 also introduces several new attributes for the input and form elements.
Attribute       Purpose

autofocus       Focuses the input on the
                element when the page is
placeholder     Gives the user a hint about
                what sort of data they should
form            Specifies one or more forms to
                which the input element
required        A boolean attribute that means
                the element is required.
autocomplete    For specifying that a field
                should not autocomplete or be
                pre-filled by the browser based
                on a user's past entries.
pattern         For validating an element's
                value against a regular
dirname         For submitting the
                directionality of the control
                with the form.
novalidate      For disabling form submission
                validation when specified on a
                form element.
formaction      For overriding the action
                attribute on the form element.
formenctype     For overriding the enctype
                attribute on the form element.
formmethod      For overriding the method
                attribute on the form element.
formnovalidate  For overriding the novalidate
                attribute on the form element.
formtarget      For overriding the target
                attribute on the form element.

Attribute       Notes

autofocus       autofocus can be applied to input,
                select, textarea, and button.
placeholder     The placeholder value is displayed in
                light text until the element gets focus
                and the user enters some data. It can
                be specified on input and textarea.
form            By using the form attribute, the input
                elements can be placed anywhere on
                the page, not just within the form
                element. Also, a single input element
                can be associated with more than one
required        The required attribute is helpful for
                doing browser-based validation
                without using custom JavaScript.
autocomplete    The autocomplete attribute for fields
                like a credit card number or one-time
                password, which you don't want
                autocomplete. By default,
                autocomplete is in the on state, so if
                you want to disable it, set it to off.
pattern         When using a pattern, you should
                also specify a title value to give the
                user a description of the pattern that's
dirname         For example, if the user entered text
                data with right-to-left directionality
                and the input element contained the
                dirname attribute, then an indication
                of the right-to-left directionality
                would be submitted along with the
                input value.
formaction      This attribute is supported on input
                and button elements.
formenctype     This attribute is supported on input
                and button elements.
formmethod      This attribute is supported on input
                and button elements.
formnovalidate  This attribute is supported on input
                and button elements.
formtarget      This attribute is supported on input
                and button elements.


The Model For Automated Form Creation And Validation

Before starting to build the model, a few key requirements have to be set for the model to work. These are:

* The ability to build a form as a standalone HTML element

* The ability to build a form by supplying a collection of form elements

* The ability to build a form based on a database table

* The ability to add a certain field to an already built form

* The ability to retrieve an element from the form by id or elements by attribute value or tag name

* The ability to set filters on form fields, such as the field being required (the form will not validate if the field is empty), certain minimum and maximum lengths for the field values, validating an email, equality between two fields in the same form and so on

* The ability to build user-friendly forms

* The form also has to validate file uploads

Some of the requirements will be met if the model extends from the HTMLElement model introduced in an earlier article (JISOM 5.2). The HTMLElement has the following structure:
         Property                    Description

element                              The type of the element itself; can
                                     be any of the
                                     supported (X)HTML elements, like an
                                     anchor, a
                                     paragraph, an image, a list and so
attributes                           The attribute list of the element.
                                     Implemented as an
                                     array of key=>value pairs, with
                                     the key being the name
                                     of the attribute.
innerHTML                            The inner text of the html
                                     element. This would be text
                                     if the element is a paragraph,
                                     for example, but it may
                                     also be html text like the list
                                     items in an unordered list.
                                     Elements that don't have a
                                     closing tag are not allowed
                                     to have innerHTML.
children                             An array of instances of the
                                     HTMLElement class that
                                     are direct descendants of the
                                     current element. This
                                     greatly helps in keeping track
                                     and managing tree-like
parent                               A reference to the HTMLElement
                                     parent of the current
                                     element, if it has any. Also helps
                                     with nesting of html
code                                 The rendering of the element as a
                                     string to be placed in
         Method                      a web page.
constructor                          Description
                                     Optionally receives the tag name
                                     and a list of attributes
add_child                            for the element to be created
                                     Requires an HTMLElement as an
                                     argument and
                                     appends that element to the end
                                     of children array of the
                                     current element. In effect it adds
                                     a child just before the
add_child_after                      closing tag of the current element.
                                     Requires an HTMLElement and
                                     a neighbor id.
                                     Searches among the children of the
                                     current element for
                                     the child with the id given as
                                     the second argument and
prepend_child                        adds the first argument as a
                                     neighbor after it.
                                     Requires an HTMLElement as the
                                     only argument and
get_child_by_id                      adds it as the first child of
                                     the current element.
                                     Searches among the children of
                                     the current element
                                     and returns the one that has
                                     an id equal to the
get_child_by_property                argument that the method received.
                                     Searches for the first child of
                                     the current element that
                                     has an attribute with a value
                                     given as arguments to the
get_children_by_property             method.
                                     Returns all children with
                                     the attribute=>value pair
get_children_by_tag_name             supplied as arguments.
                                     Returns all children of
                                     the current element that are
                                     instances of a certain html
                                     element. Requires the tag
code                                 name as an argument.
                                     Method responsible with
                                     rendering the html string
                                     representation of the element
                                     with all attributes and

Building on the above structure, the Form model adds the following:
     Property   Description

model or table  If the form being built reflects the structure
                of a database
                table or a model in an mvc architecture, this
                would be the name of that object.
fields          An array containing the names of the fields
                from the table or model that should be included
                in the form.
filters         An array of filters against which the form is
                This array could be implemented as a series of
                arrays indexed by field id and having name, value
                and error message dimensions. It could also be
                implemented as objects of a type Filter.
submit          The string label of the submit button
description     An array of descriptions for fields in the form.
     Method     Description
constructor     This is actually a very complex method. It builds the
                as an HTMLElement and adds all the attributes and the
                If the form is not built from a database table, a set of
                options can be passed to the constructor. These options
                are the fields of the form, following a structure that
                provides the type of the element and other attributes.
from_model      If the form is being built from a table or model, this
                method reads the structure of the table or model and
                builds the elements based on column type. For example,
                for a MySQL table, fields of type varchar, int, date
                be rendered as input elements with the type attribute
                to text, enum fields would be renderd as select lists,
                fields as textareas and so on.
check           The method receives data posted from the client and
                validates it against the filters set during the
                building of
                the form. If all filters pass validations the method
                true, otherwise it returns false. If any given
                field fails
                validation, the error message set when the filter was
                applied gets added to the form and classes are added or
                removed from the form element to provide more visual
                awareness to the user.
add_element     Add a new form element to an existing form. The element
                can be added at the end of the form, at beginning of
                form, after a given element of before a given element.

Test Implementation Of The Form Model

Following are some examples of how the form class is used after the model has been implemented using the PHP programing language. Due to length, we cannot show the entire codebase for the implementation, but examples should help make an idea of how it works.

The following is an example of a form built using an array of options. The form contains text fields, radio buttons, file upload fields and select elements. Also, there are some filters applied that restrict the PNC field to exactly 13 characters long and only allow it to contain numbers and the file field is set to only accept jpeg and gif pictures. In addition, some fields are marked as required.
$form = new Form(
      array("method"=>"post", "action"=>"employees/add",
        "Personal information"=>
          array("element"=>"input", "type"=>"text",
                "name"=>"first_name", "label"=>"First name: ",
          array("element"=>"input", "type"=>"text",
                "name"=>"last_name", "label"=>"Last name:",
          array("element"=>"input", "type"=>"radio",
                "label"=>"Sex: ", "required"=>false),
            array("element"=>"input", "type"=>"text",
               "label"=>"Personal num. code: ",
            array("element"=>"input", "type"=>"file",
                 "label"=>"Avatar: ", "required"=>false),
           "Employment information"=>
                   "id"=>"id_position", "name"=>"id_position",
"label"=>"Position: ",
             array("element"=>"input", "type"=>"text",
                  "name"=>"hiring_date", "label"=>"Hiring date: ",
                   "readonly"=>"readonly", "class"=>"calendar",
       "Add employee"
$form->filters = array(

"pnc"=> array(
  "min"=>array("value"=>13, "error_message"=>"The PNC must
be exaclty 13 chars"),
  "max"=>array("value"=>13, "errorjnessage"=>"The PNC must
be exaclty 13 chars"),
numbers allowed")
 "avatar"=> array(
"error_message"=>"The file must be gif or jp(e)g.")
if ($f orm->check ($_POST, $_FILES)
   //form passed validation
 //form didn't pass validation and now contains error messages

Another usage scenario would be to build the form from a database table or an MVC model. The following example follows this scenario.
$form = new Form ();
$form->model = "user";
$form->class = "input_edit";
$form->submit_label = "Modify!";
$form->method = "post";
$form->action = "cont/edit/cont";
$form->fields = array("username", "parola");
$form->reguired = array("parola");
$form->description = array("username"=>"The username for
the account",
"parola" => "The password");
$form->filters = array(
"parola2" => array("egual" => array("value"=>"parola",
"error_message"=>"The password fields need to be identical."));
$form->from_model() ;
$parola2 = new HtmlElement("input", array("type"=>"text",
"id"=>"parola2", "name"=>"parola2"));
$parola2->label = "Retype password: ";
$parola2->description = "Please retype the password" ;
$parola2->reguired = "yes";
$parola2->type = "password";
$form->add_element($parola2, "append", "parola");
$form->get_child_by_id("parola")->type = "password";
$form->get_child_by_property("for","parola")->innerHTML =
"Password: ";
$form->get_child_by_id("username")->disabled = "disabled";
$form->get_child_by_property("element", "legend")->innerHTML =
if ($f orm->check ($_POST, $_FILES)
//form passed validation
//form didn't pass validation and now contains error messages


The proposed model makes form generation and validation a really easy job and takes a lot of work off the shoulders of developers. Automated validation is a huge gain when dealing with large forms or large numbers of forms. Also, because no HTML is actually written by the developer (aside from the HTMLElement class) standards compliance is ensured. Furthermore, when the model gets updated, all forms created using it automatically follow the updates.

The model could easily be used to create standalone classes or modules that are part of a greater MVC architecture.


This work was co-financed from the European Social Fund through Sectorial Operational Program Human Resources Development 2007-2013, projects POSDRU/107/1.5/S/77213 and POSDRU/88/1.2/S/55287 "Ph.D. for a career in interdisciplinary economic research at the European standards"


1. M. Pilgrim, HTML5: Up and Running, O'Reilly Media, August, 2010



4. W. J. Gilmore, Easy PHP Websites, Columbus, Ohio: W.J. Gilmore, LLC, 2009.

5. D. Ciccarelli, "Web 2.0 Definition," 16.09.2006. http:/

6. K. MCArthur, Pro PHP Patterns, Frameworks, Testing and More, Apress, 2008.

7. A. Freeman, S. Sanderson, Pro ASP.NET MVC 3 Framework, Apress, 2011.

8. J. Galloway, P. Haack, B. Wilson, K. S. Allen, Professional ASP.NET MVC 3, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011.


Dragos-Paul Pop (1)

Adam Altar (2)

(1) Ph.D. Student at the Academy of Economic Studies and Teaching Assistant at the Romanian-American University, Bucharest, Romania; email:

(2) Ph.D. Student at the Academy of Economic Studies and Teaching Assistant at the Romanian-American University, Bucharest, Romania; email:
COPYRIGHT 2012 Romanian-American University
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
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Author:Pop, Dragos-Paul; Altar, Adam
Publication:Journal of Information Systems & Operations Management
Date:May 1, 2012
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