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A limited vegetation survey of Cocoparra National Park and Cocoparra nature reserve.

Introduction

The Cocoparra Ranges are part of a series of low ranges and rocky sandstone scarp ridges that lie along the eastern boundary of the south-western alluvial plains of New South Wales (Fig. 1). These outcrops are separated from each other and from the western foothills of the Dividing Range by alluvial valleys. Being less accessible and on poorer skeletal soils, they have retained a covering of natural vegetation in a landscape substantially modified by agricultural use.

Most of the Cocoparra Ranges between Griffith and Rankins Springs was declared as a Nature Reserve (CNR) in 1963, in the northern half, and as a National Park (CNP) in 1969, in the southern half, to conserve a significant part of this landscape.

Prior to the 1990s, there was little information on the vegetation of the outcrops (Norris and Thomas 1991). A list of plant species was available for Cocoparra National Park (NPWS, Griffith Office, no date) and a vegetation map based on structural form, as interpreted from 1965 aerial photos of CNP and CNR, was drawn by John Brickhill in 1976. At the time, verification of the vegetation by field work was limited. A full survey of the two areas was undertaken in 1992-96 to verify the structural vegetation map, to classify the plant communities, and to obtain information relevant to pest species control programs (Whiting 1997).

During the 1992-96 survey, the average rainfall was c. 420 mm per year (Bureau of Meteorology, taken from Yenda for the period 1925 to present and Binya for the period 1876 to 2012. www.bom.gov.au). Subsequently, the climate changed to an El Nino pattern with continued drought years. Vegetation changed noticeably (pers. obs. over several visits) so a decision was made in 2004 to repeat the original survey and document any changes in vegetation. The survey was extended to include cryptogams and surface soil characteristics.

Cryptogams have been termed the 'Forgotten Flora' in Australia. The term is particularly justified in inland areas despite the fundamental role that soil crust organisms play in preventing soil erosion (Rogers and Lange 1972; Eldridge 1996; Eldridge and Tozer 1997; Eldridge et al. 2000). Lists of cryptogams, or even of the major component taxa, are rare, and more rarely published. Easily available distribution data are, therefore, woefully inadequate. Lepp and Curnow collected specimens in 1995 from four sites in the CNP for the Australian National Botanic Gardens Herbarium (now Australian National Herbarium), at Woolshed Flats, Woolshed Bluff, Jacks Creek and Mt. Caley (Curnow pers. comm. 2011). Elix collected a few specimens in the Rankins Springs area at the north end of the Cocoparra Ranges in 1990 (Chapple pers. comm. 2011). Eldridge collected in 1995 and 1996 at two sites in the CNP at Spring Hill and Jacks Creek (Eldridge pers comm. 2011) and McPherson, Cuddy and Porter collected in 2002 from three sites at Mt Bingar in the CNP, on the west side of the CNP and in the adjacent Binya State Forest (Chapple pers. comm. 2011). Hyperphyscia isidiata, a lichen species new to Australia, recently was reported from two sites around Rankins Springs (Rogers 2011). Eldridge also has collected in the nearby Griffith area, the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area and in Bunganbil State Forest in the Narrandera Ranges to the south of the Cocoparra Ranges. A systematic or comprehensive survey of cryptogams has never been undertaken for the Cocoparra National Park and Cocoparra Nature Reserve.

Methods

Location and surveying sites

The 1992-96 survey sites were not permanently marked. Positions of 35 sites surveyed in 199-293 were recorded only as estimates on topographic maps. The 70 sites surveyed in 1996 were recorded as GPS readings; however, accuracy was never better than [+ or -] 50 m with the technology then available. Relocation, therefore, relied on matching vegetation structure data within an area of 1 ha or greater. At a few sites, memory of distinctive features helped in the relocation.

Twenty-two of the 26 sites in the 2004-05 survey were within metres of the original sites of the 1992-95 survey, or at least in the general area. Four sites in the latter survey were considered either too disturbed or simply could not be located, so replacement sites were sampled within the same vegetation community as occurred in the earlier survey, although the vegetation was considered structurally different.

In the 2004-05 survey, sites were not permanently marked, but photographs were taken and a sketch map made of each to aid any future visits.

Vascular flora

As in the 1992-96 survey, each site constituted a 20 m x 20 m quadrat with the following data collected on both occasions: physical data-altitude; slope; aspect; topography; azimuth of horizon for eight compass points; drainage; rock outcropping; basic lithology; and evidence of fire: vegetation data--structural height with cover abundance (Braun-Blanquet scale) for dominant species; a species list with abundance; and estimate of maturity of canopy.

Cryptogam flora

Within each quadrat, samples of bryophytes and lichens were collected from nine c. 1 [m.sup.2] areas, four from near the corners, four from near the sides and one from near the centre of the quadrat. Collections of saxicolous lichens were restricted to those on pebbles or small stones. Except for a few readily identifiable taxa that were easily identified in the field, all specimens were identified at my work station at home using a stereo dissecting microscope (ISSCO SZM-3TL) and a compound microscope with a magnification up to 400x (ISSCO BM-Lab). Lichen substances were identified using spot tests for K, C, and Pd only (White and James 1985).

Many specimens of crustose lichens were either sterile or had immature ascospores and were not able to be identified. In addition, several of the taxa of this group do not have published keys for Australian species and the taxonomy is in a state of flux.

Identification and Nomenclature

Identification and nomenclature of vascular flora follows the Flora of New South Wales (Harden 1990-93).

Identification keys used for cryptogams were from Flora Australia (vols. 54, 55, 56A, 56B and 57 for lichens and vol. 51 for mosses) where appropriate. Otherwise, taxa were identified from published works (Scott and Stone 1976; Catcheside 1980; and Meagher and Fuhrer 2003 for mosses and liverworts, and Filson and Rogers 1979 for lichens). Nomenclature follows Streimann and Klazenga (2002) for mosses, McCarthy (2003) for liverworts and hornworts, and McCarthy (2003; including online amendments up to 2010) for lichens.

Soil tests

One surface soil sample was taken from each quadrat (except, inadvertently, one quadrat) and assessed for texture (after Northcote 1979), pH (Manutec Soil pH Test Kit), and colour (Munsell 2000).

Results

Relocating sites

Fourteen of the 16 vegetation units (Table 1) occurring in the area were sampled in this survey. A Grey Box Low Woodland (unit 1b) and the distinctive Broombush community (unit 5) were not examined, both occurring in more remote regions of the Nature Reserve and at higher altitudes. Only one site was examined in each of seven of the vegetation units, two sites within each of four units (2a, 4d, 6a and 6c), three sites within unit 4e, and four sites within each of units 2b and 6b. Sampling effort did not reflect distribution of vegetation units.

Number of vascular plant species recorded

From the 26 sites, 208 species and subspecies were recorded in the 2004-05 survey, including 43 introduced species (Table 2). These figures are comparable to the totals from the same sites in the previous survey (225 species with 37 introduced). This similarity is apparently coincidental, as 41 species recorded in the 2004-05 survey were not recorded in the same 26 sites in 1992-96, and 48 species were not recorded in the 2004-05 survey but were in the former survey. Such vegetation change was more notable when individual vegetation units were considered. For example, vegetation unit 1a had 50 species that were not recorded in the 1992-96 survey but were recorded in the later survey and 28 species that were not recorded in the 2004-05 survey were recorded in the 1992-96 survey. The four sites in vegetation unit 2b had 26, 26, 25, and 40 species respectively that were not recorded in the 1992-96 survey but were present in the later survey, and 8, 29, 28, and 26 species respectively that were not recorded in the 2004-05 survey but were present in the earlier survey. For these four sites, a species recorded in one survey often was absent in the other survey. For each site, the number of species recorded in both surveys was less than the number of species occurring in only one of the surveys.

Species occurring in only one of the surveys mostly were herbaceous or semi-shrub to small-shrub species that are annuals, biennials or ephemeral in growth habit. Some trends were discernible within some families. The species gained were predominantly by members of the Asteraceae. The Poaceae, Juncaceae and Cyperaceae lost a greater number of species over the time period between surveys than they gained (7, 3 and 4 species compared to 5, 1 and 0 species).

Cryptogams

Twenty-three species of mosses, 13 species of liverworts and hornworts and 47 species of lichens were recorded and identified at least to genus level from the 26 sites. The number of sites was insufficient to establish any clear patterns of distribution or preferences for particular vegetation units. The additional information gathered from opportunistic observations by the author between 1998 and 2002 also failed to elucidate any patterns. Instead, the impression was that occurrence has a greater dependence on microhabitats than any correlation with vascular flora communities.

Soil sampling

Most of the sites were of sandy loam or clayey sand, with other sites varying slightly from these two types (Table 1). Likewise, the pH of the soils mostly was in the range of 4.5 to 5.5 with only two sites as high as 6.0 (in vegetation unit 1a and one gully site in vegetation unit 6b). Soil colour was determined in the dry state. A sample was not collected from the site in vegetation unit 1b.

Discussion

Changes in the vascular flora

The canopy dominants Eucalyptus populnea, E. dwyeri, Callitris glaucophylla and C. endlicheri are all slow-growing species and well adapted to semi arid conditions. The assumption was made on trying to relocate the sites that there would be little change in mature trees. It is unclear whether the recorded changes in vegetation structure were due to the natural maturing-decaying-regeneration cycle, the adverse affect of the drought that occurred between surveys, or the heterogeneity of the vegetation units. Only regular observations of identifiable trees over a period of time covering drought and non-drought conditions could give the answers.

The taller shrubs Acacia doratoxylon, Acacia homophylla, Acacia deanei and Allocasuarina verticillata are considered to be dis-climax species in the region, with life spans of 30 to 50 years. They are all early dominants after disturbance such as bushfires. Generally, they have shown declines in cover abundance with some becoming absent in the 2004-05 survey. From this, and later observations by the author as the drought progressed, it can be seen that at least the older shrubs are susceptible to drought.

Allocasuarina verticillata may have benefited from reduced competition early in the progress of the drought but soon showed a lack of fruiting, then dieback. Since it is the main source of food for the threatened Glossy Black Cockatoo, there was considerable concern for the survival of the small population of this threatened species in this area.

Acacia deanei is the only wattle in the region with true (i.e. bipinnate) leaves. It was seen to decline overall and was clearly affected where it has had a major role in recolonising the cleared areas around the fringes of the Ranges.

Most of the medium-sized shrubs, such as Acacia paradoxa, Persoonia curvifolia, Grevillea floribunda, Dodonaea species and subspecies, also showed a general decline in cover abundance. It is possible that these shorter life-spanned species suffered as much from an absence of viable recruitment as from death of the existing plants.

Acacia paradoxa was noted as very common around the Mount Binger Trig Point in 1993 and entirely dominant as the middle structural layer at site 23 (approximately 200 m SE of the Trig Point) such that the setting out of the quadrat was extremely difficult. In 2005 the bushes were recorded as dead. At the time, drought was thought to be the cause.

Pomaderris cocoparrana has a short but prolific flowering period. A dense stand is a striking sight in the bush, much like the massed flowering of some wattles. The 1996 survey of site 35, 'Oscars Gully', coincided with the flowering of the Pomaderris there and was a memorable sight. The sparsity of bushes found during the 2005 survey was very noticeable. Pomaderris was also a noticeable component of the shrub layer around the Bingar Trig Point but sadly hard to find in the latter part of the 2000-l0 decade. Again the decline has been attributed to drought although, recently, Pomaderris has been suggested as being a bushfire-stimulated species (David Egan pers. comm. 2011).

Calytrix tetragona and Leptospermum divaricatum appear to be somewhat more resistant, although it was the easier movement through the Leptospermum scrubs that prompted the awareness that drought was causing a major change in the habitat. It is surmised that, initially, new growth and leaves were shed after the shortened growing season at the time the surveys took place, giving a later appearance of dieback.

The situation for the herbs and smaller shrubs is much more complicated. It is not known how populations change from year to year, regardless of changes in climate. Is there a cycle of different species rotating according to nutrient utilisation or can species exist in one site year in year out? As outlined above, a small shift in location of a quadrat can give different results due to the heterogeneity of the vegetation.

Relationship of vegetation units and soil characteristics

The paucity of data for each vegetation unit restricts the validity of the relationships that can be inferred, and the summary of soil characteristics for each vegetation unit as given in Table 1 is tentative and requires further investigation.

Cryptogams

Due to drought conditions and the early desiccation of the herbaceous flora, the combined survey was limited to 26 sites. This was insufficient to establish any clear patterns of distribution of the cryptogam flora. The additional information gathered from casual observations also failed to elucidate distribution patterns. Rather, the impression was that occurrence has a greater dependence on microhabitats rather than any correlation with vascular flora communities.

Table 3 lists the species recorded by Lepp and Curnow, Eldridge and Elix that are not recorded in this survey. The species recorded by Lepp and Curnow and also by Eldridge are listed as only by Lepp and Curnow because the list supplied by Eldridge included both sets without annotation.

Suggestions for further work

Although the survey was not able to show the effects of drought conclusively, it did highlight the need for further work to study the vegetation over a long period of time. Such work will require better site recognition via photographs or sketch maps of the sites where sites are not permanently marked. Survey intervals need to be shorter--ideally every 3 to 5 years. As droughts cannot be predicted reliably, a project may have to run for decades. Under current funding schemes, long-term projects have difficulties in being accepted. It would be useful if projected surveys could be done as part of a teaching course in ecology. Although participants would change from year to year, steps could be taken to maintain recording consistency. The outcomes of extended studies would be a greater understanding of the life cycles and ecology of species, particularly herbs and shrubs in semi-arid environments. This will be invaluable for restoration or rehabilitation work in the future.

Cryptogams are poorly reported from inland New South Wales, resulting in very incomplete distribution data. In the Cocoparra Ranges there is still need for further work, especially on crustose and other saxicolous lichens.

Acknowledgements

Collections taken for identification and reported here were done under Scientific Licence No. S 10358. Sincere thanks are given to the staff of the Griffith Office of the National Parks and Wildlife Service for access to the areas and for encouragement to do the work. Thanks also are given to the cryptogam staff of the Australian National Botanic Gardens in Canberra, in particular to Heino Lepp and Judith Curnow, to Greg Chapple and the staff of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney for supplying Herbarium records, and to David Eldridge for permission to quote from his Cocoparra observations. Finally I wish to acknowledge Dr Maria Gibson and her colleagues for the advice given to me as an isolated amateur on the presentation of this paper.

References

Bureau of Meteorology website www.bom.gov. au, accessed November 2013.

Catcheside DG (1980) Mosses of South Australia. (Academic Press: London)

Eldridge DG (1996) Distribution and Floristics of Terricolous Lichens in Soil Crusts in Arid and Semi-arid New South Wales. Australian Journal of Botany 44, 581-599.

Eldridge DJ and Tozer ME (1997) A Practical Guide to Soil Lichens and Bryophytes of Australia's Dry Country, Department of Land and Water Conservation, Sydney.

Eldridge DJ, Semple WS and Koen TB (2000) Dynamics of Cryptogam Soil Crusts in a Derived Grassland in Southeastern Australia. Austral Ecology 25, 232-240.

Filson RB and Rogers RW (1979) Lichens of South Australia. (Government Printer South Australia: Adelaide)

Flora of Australia, Volume 51 Mosses (2006)

--Volume 54 Lichens, Introduction and Lecanorales 1 (1992)

--Volume 55 Lichens - Lecanorales 2, Parmeliaceae (1994)

--Volume 56A Lichens 4 (2004)

--Volume 57 Lichens 5 (2001)

--Volume 58A Lichens 3 (2001). (ABRS and CSIRO: Canberra and Melbourne)

Harden GJ (ed) (1990-93) Flora of New South Wales. Vol. 1-4. (NSW University Press: Kensington, NSW)

McCarthy PM (2003) Catalogue of Australian Lichens. (ABRS: Canberra)

McCarthy PM (2003) Catalogue of Australian Liverworts and Hornworts. (ABRS: Canberra)

Meagher D and Fuhrer B (2003) A Field Guide to the Mosses and Allied Plants of Southern Australia. (ABRS and Field Naturalists Club of Victoria: Canberra and Melbourne)

Munsell (2000) Munsell Soil Color Charts, Year 2000 Revised Washable Edition. (Gretag Macbeth: New Windsor, New York)

Norris EH and Thomas J (1991) Vegetation on rocky outcrops and ranges in central and south-western New South Wales. Cunninghamia 2(3), 411-441.

Northcote KH (1979) A Factual Key for the Recognition of Australian Soils. 4 edn. (Rellim Technical Publication: Glenside, South Australia)

Rogers RW (2011) Hyperphyscia, Australian Physciaceae (Lichenised Ascomycota) http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/ lichenlist/Hyperphyscia.pdf.

Rogers RW and Lange RT (1972) Soil Surface Lichens in Arid and Semi-arid South-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Botany 20, 197-213.

Scott GAM (1985) Southern Australian Liverworts. (Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra)

Scott GAM and Stone IG (1976) The Mosses of Southern Australia. (Academic Press: London)

Streimann H and Klazenga N (2002) Catalogue of Australian Mosses. (ABRS: Canberra)

White FJ and James PW (1985) A New Guide to Microchemical Techniques for the Identification of Lichen substances. British Lichen Society Bulletin 57.

Whiting E (1997) Vegetation Survey of Cocoparra National Park and Cocoparra Nature Reserve. Unpublished report for National Parks and Wildlife Service (Griffith Area).

Received 21 June 2012: accepted 22 January 2014

Eric Whiting

6 Cypress Street, Leeton NSW 2705

Table 1. Summary of description of Vegetation Units.

Unit   Definitive characteristics         Soil description

1a     Low open Box woodlands of flat     Sandy clay loam with pH 6.01
       ridgetops, mostly Eucalyptus       and a red-brown colour.
       populnea and Callitris
       glaucophylla woodlands with an
       understorey of Acacia deanei and
       Calytrix tetragona located in
       the western parts of the Nature
       Reserve north from Woolshed
       Flats.

1b     Low open Box woodlands of the      No information.
       level ridgetops, mostly
       Eucalyptus microcarpa and
       Callitris endlicheri with a
       sparse understorey including
       Acacia decora.

2a     Open woodlands of level            Clayey loam-sandy to sandy
       ridgetops with gravel surface,     loam with pH 5.0 and a light
       mostly Eucalyptus populnea and     brown to strong brown
       Acacia homalophylla with sparse    colour. Surface
       understorey.                       characteristically covered
                                          with buckshot gravel.

2b     Box woodlands of the alluvial      Clayey loam-sandy to clayey
       aprons and river terraces,         sand or sandy loam with pH
       mostly Eucalyptus populnea and     5.0 to 5.5 and a brown to
       Callitris glaucophylla with an     red-brown colour.
       understorey of mostly
       Chrysocephalum semipapposum.

2c     Box woodlands of alluvial          Clayey sand with pH 5.5 and
       aprons, mostly Eucalyptus          a brown colour.
       populnea and Callitris
       glaucophylla with Eremophila or
       Myoporum in understorey located
       around Spring Hill Picnic Ground
       and eastwards.

3      Remnant Box woodlands largely      Clayey sand with pH 5.5 and
       cleared. Occasional remaining      a dark red-brown colour.
       Eucalyptus populnea with
       regenerating Acacia deanei.
       Introduced grasses, Echium
       plantagineum and Marrubium
       vulgare frequent.

4a     Low grassy woodlands of the        Clayey loam-sandy with pH
       western slopes, mostly             5.5 and a light yellow-
       Eucalyptus dwyeri, Callitris       brown colour.
       glaucophylla and Acacia
       doratoxylon, understorey mainly
       Thyridolepis mitchellii. Located
       between Homestead and Store
       Creeks.

4b     Low grassy woodlands, mostly       Sandy loam with pH 5.0 and a
       Eucalyptus dwyeri, Callitris       dark brown colour.
       glaucophylla and Acacia
       doratoxylon; understorey of
       Calytrix tetragona in patches
       with Leptospermum divaricatum
       and Lomandra patens located on
       the western slopes north from
       Homestead Creek.

4c     Woodlands to low woodlands of      Sandy loam with pH 4.5 and a
       upper sheltered slopes, with       brown colour.
       Eucalyptus dwyeri, Callitris
       endlicheri and Acacia
       doratoxylon; understorey sparse
       to moderately dense. Amphipogon
       caricinnatus common in northern
       parts.

4d     Low woodlands or low open          Clayey sand with pH 4.5 to
       woodlands mostly on steeper        5.0 and brown to dark brown
       slopes in south and around         in colour.
       Woolshed Creek, mostly
       Eucalyptus dwyeri, Callitris
       endlicheri or C. glaucophylla,
       and Acacia doratoxylon.
       Understorey moderately dense
       with only Leptospermum
       divaricatum in northern valleys.

4e     Woodlands, low woodlands or low    Sandy clay-loam, a sandy
       open woodlands of the slopes to    loam or a clayey sand with
       open ridgetops, mainly with        pH 4.5 and brown to dark
       Eucalyptus dwyeri or E.            brown in colour.
       sideroxylon, together with
       Callitris endlicheri, Acacia
       doratoxylon, E. microcarpa and
       E. macrorhyncha. Understorey
       dense with Leptospermum
       divaricatum and/or Calytrix
       tetragona. Acacia paradoxa often
       prominent.

5      Shrubland of Melaleuca uncinata    No information.
       with occasional Allocasuarina
       verticillata or Allocasuarina
       havilandioranum or dense with
       Calytrix tetragona and Acacia
       paradoxa on ridgetops or upper
       gullies.

6a     Woodlands of the upper sheltered   Clayey sand with pH 4.5 and
       slopes mainly of Eucalyptus        very dark brown in colour.
       dwyeri, Callitris glaucophylla
       and Acacia doratoxylon. Acacia
       deanei often as mid-storey.
       Understorey sparse (Leptospermum
       divaricatum and Calytrix
       tetragona absent). Located from
       Mt Elliot to Pleasant Valley.

6b     Woodlands of sheltered gullies,    Clayey sand to sandy loam or
       mainly Eucalyptus dwyeri or E.     loamy sand with pH 4.5 to
       populnea with Callitris            5.5 and either a brown to
       endlicheri or C. glaucophylla,     dark brown colour or yellow-
       Acacia deanei or Acacia            red.
       doratoxylon, Eucalyptus blakelyi
       or E. melliodora. Understorey
       sparse.

6c     Woodlands to open forests of       Sandy loam with pH 4.5 to
       steep slopes, south facing or      5.0 and brown to dark brown
       under cliff faces, mainly          in colour.
       Eucalyptus dwyeri with Callitris
       endlicheri and Allocasuarina
       verticillata. Understorey of
       mainly Leptospermum divaricatum
       scattered around rock outcrops.

6d     Woodlands of deep gullies or       Sandy loam with pH 5.5 and a
       gorges mainly Eucalyptus           brown colour.
       macrorhyncha and Callitris
       endlicheri with E. dwyeri and
       Acacia deanei. Understorey
       moderately dense and mixed.

Table 2. List of species recorded from the 2004-05 survey.
* indicates introduced species.

                                          Vegetation unit

                                     la   2a   2b   2c   3

Number of quadrats surveyed          1    2    4    l    1
(n=26)
Vascular plants
  Pteridophyta
Aspleniaceae
  Pleurosorus rutifolius
Ophioglossaceae
  Ophioglossum lusitanicum                x    x
Sinopteridaceae
  Cheilanthes sieberi                x    x    x
Gymnospermae
Cupressaceae
  Callitris endlicheri               x         x
  Callitris glaucophylla             x    x    x    x    x
Monocotyledonae
Anthericaceae
  Arthropodium minus                 x    x    x         x
  Dichopogon fimbriatus              x         x
  Thysanotus patersonii                   x
  Tricoryne elatior                  x
Asphodelaceae
  Bulbine bulbosa                              x
  Bulbine semibarbata                x    x    x    x    x
Colchicaceae
  Wurmbea dioica                          x    x
Hypoxidaceae
  Hypoxis glabella                        x    x
Juncaceae
  Juncus filicaulis
Lomandraceae
  Lomandra filiformis                     x    x
  Lomandra multiflora
  Lomandra patens                    x
Orchidaceae
  Caladenia caerula                            x
  Caladenia fuscata                       x    x
  Caladenia stellata
  Caladenia tentaculata                   x    x
  Calochilus robertsonii
  Diuris pardina
  Microtis unifolia                       x    x
  Pterostylis mutica                      x    x
  Pterostylis nana                        x    x
  Pterostylis sp. aff. biseta
  Thelymitra pauciflora              x
Poaceae
  * Aira cupaniana
  * Aira elegantissima               x
  Amphipogon caricinus               x
  * Avena fatua                                x
  * Bromus rubens                    x
  Danthonia eriantha                 x    x    x
  Elymus scaber
  * Hordeum leporinum                x
  * Lolium perenne                   x
  Monachather paradoxa
  Poa sieberana                      x
  Polypogon monspeliensis            x
  Stipa bigeniculata                 x
  Stipa densiflora                        x
  Stipa scabra                       x         x    x    x
  Thyridolepis mitchelliana          x
  * Vulpia myuros                    x
Phormiaceae
  Dianella longifolia                               x
  Dianella revoluta
  Stypandra glauca
Dicotyledonae
Amaranthaceae
  Ptilotus spathulatus               x    x    x
Apiaceae
  Daucus glochidiatus                x    x    x         x
  Hydrocotyle callicarpa                       x
  Hydrocotyle laxiflora                        x
  Platysace lanceolata
  Trachymene cyanopetala                  x    x
  Trachymene ornata
Asteraceae
  Actinobole uliginosa                    x    x         x
  * Arctotheca calendula             x    x    x    x    x
  * Aster subulatus                                      x
  Brachycome gracilis                          x
  Brachycome lineariloba                  x    x
  Brachycome perpusilla
  Bracteantha bracteata              x         x
  Bracteantha viscosa
  Calotis cuneifolia                           x
  Calotis hispidula                  x    x    x
  * Carthamus lanatus                x
  Cassinia laevis
  Chrysocephalum apiculatum          x    x              x
  Chrysocephalum semipapposum        x    x    x
  * Cirsium vulgare                  x         x
  Cotula australis                             x         x
  * Cotula bipinnata
  Cymbonotus preissianus                       x    x
  Gnaphalium sphaericum              x
  * Hedypnois rhagadioloides         x              x
  Hyalosperma semisterile
  * Hypochaeris glabra               x    x    x         x
  * Hypochaeris radicata
  Isoetopsis graminifolia            x    x    x
  * Lactuca serriola                      x    x
  * Leontodon taraxacoides
  Microseris lanceolata
  Millotia myosotidifolia                 x    x
  Minuria leptophylla                     x
  Myriocephalus rhizocephalus             x
  Podolepis arachnoidea              x    x    x
  Rhodanthe corymbiflora                       x
  Rhodanthe diffusa                            x
  Rhodanthe laevis                        x    x
  Rhodanthe pygmaea                       x    x
  Senecio glossanthus
  Senecio hispidulus
  Senecio quadridentatus
  * Silybum marianum                                     x
  * Sonchus asper
  * Sonchus oleraceus                x         x    x    x
  Stuartina muelleri                 x    x    x         x
  Triptilodiscus pygmaeus            x    x    x
  Vittadinia cuneata
  Vittadinia dissecta                          x
  Vittadinia gracilis                     x
Bignoniaceae
  Pandorea pandorana
Boraginaceae
  * Echium plantagineum              x         x    x    x
Brassicaceae
  * Capsella bursapastoris                     x
  Harmsiodoxa blennodioides               x    x         x
  * Sisymbrium erysimoides           x         x    x
  * Sisymbrium irio                            x         x
  Stenopetalum lineare                         x
Campanulaceae
  Wahlenbergia communis              x         x         x
  Wahlenbergia gracilenta            x         x
  Wahlenbergia gracilis                        x
  Wahlenbergia stricta               x         x
  Caryop hyllaceae
  * Cerastium glomeratum                       x
  * Silene nocturna
  * Stellaria media                            x         x
Casuarinaceae
  Allocasuarina verticillata
Chenopodiaceae
  Chenopodium desertorum                            x    x
    subsp. anidiophyllum
  Chenopodium desertorum                       x         x
    subsp. microphyllum
  Einadia hastata                              x
  Einadia nutans                          x    x    x    x
  Enchylaena tomentosa                         x
  Maireana enchylaenoides
  Salsola kali                                           x
  Sclerolaena diacantha
Clusiaceae
  Hypericum gramineum                x
Convolvulaceae
  Convolvulus erubescens             x
Crassulaceae
  Crassula colorata                                 x
  Crassula decumbens
  Crassula sieberiana                x    x    x         x
Dilleniaceae
  Hibbertia sericea
Droseraceae
  Drosera peltata
Epacridaceae
  Astroloma humifusum                     x    x
  Melichrus urceolatus                    x    x
Euphorbiaceae
  Phyllanthus fuernrohrii
  Phyllanthus occidentale
  Poranthera microphyllum
Fabaceae
  Glycine canescens                  x
  Glycine clandestine
  Glycine tabacina                   x
  Indigofera australis
  * Medicago minima                            x    x
  * Medicago polymorpha                        x         x
  * Medicago truncatula              x
  * Trifolium arvense                x         x
  * Trifolium campestre              x
  * Trifolium glomeratum             x
  * Trifolium subterraneum                     x    x
Fumariaceae
  * Fumaria capreolata                         x
  * Fumaria muralis                       x    x
Geraniaceae
  Erodium crinitum                   x    x    x    x    x
  Geranium retrorsum
  Goodeniaceae
  Dampiera lanceolata
  Goodenia cycloptera                     x
  Goodenia fascicularis                        x
  Goodenia glabra
  Goodenia pinnatifida
  Goodenia pusilliflora              x    x    x
  Scaevola spinescens                x
  Velleia paradoxa
Haloragaceae
  Gonocarpus elatus                       x    x
Lamiaceae
  * Marrubium vulgare                               x    x
  Prostanthera nivea
Loganiaceae
  Mitrasacme paradoxa                     x
Malvaceae
  Malva parviflora                                       x
  Sida corrugata                               x         x
  Sida cunninghamii                  x
Mimosaceae
  Acacia deanei                                x         x
  Acacia decora
  Acacia doratoxylon
  Acacia homalophylla                     x
  Acacia paradoxa                              x
Myoporaceae
  Eremophila glabra                  x
Myrtaceae
  Calytrix tetragona
  Eucalyptus blakelyi                          x
  Eucalyptus dwyeri                       x    x
  Eucalyptus macrorhyncha
  Eucalyptus melliodora                        x         x
  Eucalyptus populnea                x    x    x    x
  Eucalyptus sideroxylon                       x
  Leptospermum divaricatum
  Melaleuca erubescens
Oxalidaceae
  Oxalis perennans                        x    x    x    x
  Oxalis radicosa                                   x
Pittosporaceae
  Bursaria spinosa
  Pittosporum phylliraeoides                   x
Polygonaceae
  Rumex brownii                                x         x
Portulacaceae
  Calandrinia eremaea                x    x    x    x    x
Primulaceae
  * Anagallis arvensis                    x    x
Proteaceae
  Grevillea floribunda
  Hakea tephrosperma                      x         x
  Persoonia curvifolia
Ranunculaceae
  Ranunculus pachycarpus                       x
  Ranunculus sessiliflorus                     x         x
Rhamnaceae
  Pomaderris cocoparrana
Rosaceae
  * Aphanes australiana                        x
Rubiaceae
  Asperula conferta                  x
  * Galium aparine                             x         x
  Galium gaudichaudii                          x
Rutaceae
  Eriostemon brevifolius             x
  Geijera parviflora                 x
  Phebalium obcordatum
Santalaceae
  Exocarpos cupressiformis                x
Sapindaceae
  Dodonaea viscosa subsp. cuneata
Scrophulariaceae
  Parentucellia latifolia            x
Solanaceae
  Nicotiana suaveolens
  Solanum ferocissimum
Stackhousiaceae
  Stackhousia monogyna                    x    x    x
Sterculiaceae
  Brachychiton populneus             x
Thymelaeaceae
  Pimelea linifolia                  x
Urticariaceae
  Parietaria debilis                           x    x
  Urtica urens                                 x         x
Violaceae
  Hybanthus monopetalus
Cryptogams
Mosses
  Acaulon integrifolium                        x    x
  Barbula calycina                   x    x    x         x
  Bryum argentium                              x
  Campylopus clavatus                     x    x
  Campylopus introflexus                  x    x
  Ceratodon purpurescens             x    x    x         x
  Didymodon torquatus                     x    x    x
  Eccremidium arcuatum               x    x    x         x
  Eccremidium pulchellum             x    x    x
  Entosthodon apophysatus            x    x    x
  Entosthodon subnudus
  subsp. gracilis
  Ephemerum cristatum                          x
  Fissidens taylori                  x    x    x
  Fissidens tenellus                      x
  Gemmabryum pachytheca              x    x    x         x
  Gigaspermum repens                 x    x    x
  Grimmia laevigata                       x              x
  Pleuridium nervosum                x    x    x
  Polytrichadelphus magellanicus
  Rosulabryum billarderi
  Rosulabryum campylothecium         x    x    x    x
  Triquetrella papillata             x         x    x
  Weissia controversa                     x    x
Liverworts and Hornworts
  Asterella drummondii               x    x    x         x
  Cephaloziella hirta                x    x    x
  Fossombronia sp.                   x    x    x         x
  Gongylanthus scariosus             x    x    x
  Lethocolea pansa                   x    x    x
  Phaeoceros laevis                       x
  Riccia bifurca                          x    x
  Riccia crinita                     x    x    x
  Riccia crystallina
  Riccia lamellosa                             x
  Riccia nigrella                    x         x         x
  Riccia sorocarpa                   x    x    x         x
  Targionia hypophylla
Lichens
Fruticose
  Cladia aggregata                   x    x    x
  Cladia corallazion                 x
  Cladonia cervicornis
  Neophyllis mucrolemma
  Siphula coriacea
  Teloschistes sieberiana                           x
  Thysanothecium scutellum
  Usnea scabrida subsp. elegans
Squamulose
  Collema sp.                             x
  Endocarpon sp.                     x    x    x         x
  Placidium pilosellum               x
  Toninia sp.                        x    x    x         x
Crustose
  Acarospora sp.                                         x
  Aspicilia contorta
  Caloplaca sp.                           x              x
  Carbonea sp.                                 x
  Diploschistes ocellatus            x    x
  Diploschistes scruposus                      x
  Diploschistes sp.                       x    x
  Lecanora sp.
  Micarea sp.                             x
  Rhizocarpon geographicum                               x
  Trapelia coarctata                           x
Foliose
  Heterodea beaugleholei             x    x    x
  Heterodea muelleri                 x         x
  Punctelia borreri                                 x
  Punctelia subrudecta
  Xanthoparmelia amphixantha         x
  Xanthoparmelia barbatica           x    x
  Xanthoparmelia bungendorensis
  Xanthoparmelia elixii                                  x
  Xanthoparmelia exillima                                x
  Xanthoparmelia                                         x
  flavescentireagens
  Xanthoparmelia flindersiana             x
  Xanthoparmelia glabrans            x    x
  Xanthoparmelia incerta
  Xanthoparmelia metastrigosa
  Xanthoparmelia neorimalis          x
  Xanthoparmelia                     x    x
  pseudoamphixantha
  Xanthoparmelia pseudohypoleia
  Xanthoparmelia remanens
  Xanthoparmelia subcrustacea             x
  Xanthoparmelia substrigosa
  Xanthoparmelia taractica
  Xanthoparmelia tasmanica
  Xanthoparmelia versicolor
  Xanthoparmelia sp.                      x

                                       Vegetation unit

                                     4a   4b   4c   4d   4e

Number of quadrats surveyed          1    1    1    2    3
(n=26)
Vascular plants
  Pteridophyta
Aspleniaceae
  Pleurosorus rutifolius
Ophioglossaceae
  Ophioglossum lusitanicum
Sinopteridaceae
  Cheilanthes sieberi                x    x    x    x    x
Gymnospermae
Cupressaceae
  Callitris endlicheri               x              x    x
  Callitris glaucophylla                  x    x
Monocotyledonae
Anthericaceae
  Arthropodium minus                      x    x
  Dichopogon fimbriatus                        x
  Thysanotus patersonii              x    x         x    x
  Tricoryne elatior                  x
Asphodelaceae
  Bulbine bulbosa                    x    x
  Bulbine semibarbata                          x    x
Colchicaceae
  Wurmbea dioica
Hypoxidaceae
  Hypoxis glabella
Juncaceae
  Juncus filicaulis
Lomandraceae
  Lomandra filiformis                                    x
  Lomandra multiflora
  Lomandra patens                    x              x
Orchidaceae
  Caladenia caerula                                 x    x
  Caladenia fuscata                       x    x    x    x
  Caladenia stellata                      x
  Caladenia tentaculata                   x              x
  Calochilus robertsonii
  Diuris pardina                     x    x         x    x
  Microtis unifolia                  x    x
  Pterostylis mutica                      x    x    x    x
  Pterostylis nana                        x              x
  Pterostylis sp. aff. biseta                       x
  Thelymitra pauciflora              x
Poaceae
  * Aira cupaniana
  * Aira elegantissima
  Amphipogon caricinus                         x
  * Avena fatua
  * Bromus rubens
  Danthonia eriantha                 x
  Elymus scaber
  * Hordeum leporinum
  * Lolium perenne
  Monachather paradoxa               x
  Poa sieberana                                x         x
  Polypogon monspeliensis
  Stipa bigeniculata
  Stipa densiflora                                  x    x
  Stipa scabra                       x         x         x
  Thyridolepis mitchelliana          x    x    x
  * Vulpia myuros                    x
Phormiaceae
  Dianella longifolia
  Dianella revoluta                                      x
  Stypandra glauca
Dicotyledonae
Amaranthaceae
  Ptilotus spathulatus
Apiaceae
  Daucus glochidiatus                     x    x    x    x
  Hydrocotyle callicarpa                                 x
  Hydrocotyle laxiflora
  Platysace lanceolata                                   x
  Trachymene cyanopetala                  x    x    x
  Trachymene ornata                  x         x    x
Asteraceae
  Actinobole uliginosa                    x    x
  * Arctotheca calendula
  * Aster subulatus
  Brachycome gracilis
  Brachycome lineariloba                                 x
  Brachycome perpusilla
  Bracteantha bracteata              x              x
  Bracteantha viscosa                               x    x
  Calotis cuneifolia                           x    x
  Calotis hispidula                       x    x    x
  * Carthamus lanatus
  Cassinia laevis
  Chrysocephalum apiculatum          x    x    x
  Chrysocephalum semipapposum                       x    x
  * Cirsium vulgare                                 x
  Cotula australis
  * Cotula bipinnata
  Cymbonotus preissianus
  Gnaphalium sphaericum
  * Hedypnois rhagadioloides
  Hyalosperma semisterile            x    x
  * Hypochaeris glabra                              x    x
  * Hypochaeris radicata
  Isoetopsis graminifolia            x    x    x
  * Lactuca serriola
  * Leontodon taraxacoides
  Microseris lanceolata                   x
  Millotia myosotidifolia                 x    x    x
  Minuria leptophylla
  Myriocephalus rhizocephalus             x
  Podolepis arachnoidea              x    x    x    x
  Rhodanthe corymbiflora
  Rhodanthe diffusa
  Rhodanthe laevis                        x    x    x    x
  Rhodanthe pygmaea                       x
  Senecio glossanthus
  Senecio hispidulus
  Senecio quadridentatus                            x
  * Silybum marianum
  * Sonchus asper
  * Sonchus oleraceus                               x    x
  Stuartina muelleri                      x    x    x    x
  Triptilodiscus pygmaeus                      x    x
  Vittadinia cuneata
  Vittadinia dissecta
  Vittadinia gracilis
Bignoniaceae
  Pandorea pandorana                                x
Boraginaceae
  * Echium plantagineum
Brassicaceae
  * Capsella bursapastoris
  Harmsiodoxa blennodioides
  * Sisymbrium erysimoides
  * Sisymbrium irio
  Stenopetalum lineare
Campanulaceae
  Wahlenbergia communis
  Wahlenbergia gracilenta                           x
  Wahlenbergia gracilis
  Wahlenbergia stricta               x              x
  Caryop hyllaceae
  * Cerastium glomeratum
  * Silene nocturna
  * Stellaria media
Casuarinaceae
  Allocasuarina verticillata         x    x
Chenopodiaceae
  Chenopodium desertorum
    subsp. anidiophyllum
  Chenopodium desertorum
    subsp. microphyllum
  Einadia hastata
  Einadia nutans
  Enchylaena tomentosa
  Maireana enchylaenoides
  Salsola kali
  Sclerolaena diacantha
Clusiaceae
  Hypericum gramineum
Convolvulaceae
  Convolvulus erubescens
Crassulaceae
  Crassula colorata
  Crassula decumbens
  Crassula sieberiana                     x    x    x    x
Dilleniaceae
  Hibbertia sericea                                      x
Droseraceae
  Drosera peltata
Epacridaceae
  Astroloma humifusum                                    x
  Melichrus urceolatus                    x         x    x
Euphorbiaceae
  Phyllanthus fuernrohrii                      x
  Phyllanthus occidentale                           x
  Poranthera microphyllum                      x
Fabaceae
  Glycine canescens
  Glycine clandestine
  Glycine tabacina
  Indigofera australis                    x
  * Medicago minima
  * Medicago polymorpha
  * Medicago truncatula
  * Trifolium arvense
  * Trifolium campestre
  * Trifolium glomeratum
  * Trifolium subterraneum
Fumariaceae
  * Fumaria capreolata
  * Fumaria muralis
Geraniaceae
  Erodium crinitum                   x         x    x
  Geranium retrorsum
  Goodeniaceae
  Dampiera lanceolata                x              x
  Goodenia cycloptera
  Goodenia fascicularis                   x
  Goodenia glabra                    x    x    x
  Goodenia pinnatifida
  Goodenia pusilliflora              x
  Scaevola spinescens
  Velleia paradoxa                             x
Haloragaceae
  Gonocarpus elatus                  x    x    x    x    x
Lamiaceae
  * Marrubium vulgare
  Prostanthera nivea                 x
Loganiaceae
  Mitrasacme paradoxa                     x    x         x
Malvaceae
  Malva parviflora
  Sida corrugata
  Sida cunninghamii
Mimosaceae
  Acacia deanei
  Acacia decora
  Acacia doratoxylon                 x    x    x    x    x
  Acacia homalophylla
  Acacia paradoxa
Myoporaceae
  Eremophila glabra
Myrtaceae
  Calytrix tetragona                                     x
  Eucalyptus blakelyi
  Eucalyptus dwyeri                  x    x    x    x    x
  Eucalyptus macrorhyncha                                x
  Eucalyptus melliodora
  Eucalyptus populnea
  Eucalyptus sideroxylon                                 x
  Leptospermum divaricatum                     x    x    x
  Melaleuca erubescens                                   x
Oxalidaceae
  Oxalis perennans                   x    x    x    x    x
  Oxalis radicosa                    x         x    x
Pittosporaceae
  Bursaria spinosa
  Pittosporum phylliraeoides
Polygonaceae
  Rumex brownii
Portulacaceae
  Calandrinia eremaea                x    x         x
Primulaceae
  * Anagallis arvensis
Proteaceae
  Grevillea floribunda                                   x
  Hakea tephrosperma
  Persoonia curvifolia                                   x
Ranunculaceae
  Ranunculus pachycarpus
  Ranunculus sessiliflorus
Rhamnaceae
  Pomaderris cocoparrana
Rosaceae
  * Aphanes australiana
Rubiaceae
  Asperula conferta                            x         x
  * Galium aparine
  Galium gaudichaudii                               x
Rutaceae
  Eriostemon brevifolius             x              x
  Geijera parviflora
  Phebalium obcordatum                              x    x
Santalaceae
  Exocarpos cupressiformis                          x
Sapindaceae
  Dodonaea viscosa subsp. cuneata
Scrophulariaceae
  Parentucellia latifolia
Solanaceae
  Nicotiana suaveolens
  Solanum ferocissimum                    x
Stackhousiaceae
  Stackhousia monogyna                                   x
Sterculiaceae
  Brachychiton populneus
Thymelaeaceae
  Pimelea linifolia                  x
Urticariaceae
  Parietaria debilis
  Urtica urens
Violaceae
  Hybanthus monopetalus              x         x    x
Cryptogams
Mosses
  Acaulon integrifolium                             x    x
  Barbula calycina                   x    x    x    x    x
  Bryum argentium                                   x
  Campylopus clavatus                     x    x    x    x
  Campylopus introflexus             x              x    x
  Ceratodon purpurescens                                 x
  Didymodon torquatus
  Eccremidium arcuatum                    x              x
  Eccremidium pulchellum             x    x    x
  Entosthodon apophysatus            x    x         x
  Entosthodon subnudus                         x
  subsp. gracilis
  Ephemerum cristatum
  Fissidens taylori                       x
  Fissidens tenellus
  Gemmabryum pachytheca              x    x    x         x
  Gigaspermum repens                 x
  Grimmia laevigata                                 x    x
  Pleuridium nervosum                x
  Polytrichadelphus magellanicus
  Rosulabryum billarderi
  Rosulabryum campylothecium         x    x    x    x
  Triquetrella papillata
  Weissia controversa
Liverworts and Hornworts
  Asterella drummondii               x    x    x         x
  Cephaloziella hirta                     x
  Fossombronia sp.                   x    x    x         x
  Gongylanthus scariosus             x    x
  Lethocolea pansa                   x                   x
  Phaeoceros laevis
  Riccia bifurca
  Riccia crinita                          x
  Riccia crystallina                      x
  Riccia lamellosa
  Riccia nigrella
  Riccia sorocarpa                        x
  Targionia hypophylla
Lichens
Fruticose
  Cladia aggregata                   x    x    x         x
  Cladia corallazion                      x    x         x
  Cladonia cervicornis
  Neophyllis mucrolemma                             x
  Siphula coriacea                        x
  Teloschistes sieberiana
  Thysanothecium scutellum
  Usnea scabrida subsp. elegans
Squamulose
  Collema sp.
  Endocarpon sp.
  Placidium pilosellum
  Toninia sp.
Crustose
  Acarospora sp.
  Aspicilia contorta
  Caloplaca sp.                      x              x    x
  Carbonea sp.
  Diploschistes ocellatus
  Diploschistes scruposus
  Diploschistes sp.                       x
  Lecanora sp.                                      x
  Micarea sp.                                  x
  Rhizocarpon geographicum                          x    x
  Trapelia coarctata
Foliose
  Heterodea beaugleholei             x         x    x    x
  Heterodea muelleri                      x         x    x
  Punctelia borreri
  Punctelia subrudecta
  Xanthoparmelia amphixantha
  Xanthoparmelia barbatica
  Xanthoparmelia bungendorensis
  Xanthoparmelia elixii                        x    x    x
  Xanthoparmelia exillima                 x
  Xanthoparmelia
  flavescentireagens
  Xanthoparmelia flindersiana
  Xanthoparmelia glabrans            x         x         x
  Xanthoparmelia incerta                  x
  Xanthoparmelia metastrigosa
  Xanthoparmelia neorimalis                              x
  Xanthoparmelia                          x    x
  pseudoamphixantha
  Xanthoparmelia pseudohypoleia
  Xanthoparmelia remanens                      x
  Xanthoparmelia subcrustacea             x              x
  Xanthoparmelia substrigosa              x
  Xanthoparmelia taractica                x    x         x
  Xanthoparmelia tasmanica                          x
  Xanthoparmelia versicolor
  Xanthoparmelia sp.

                                       Vegetation unit

                                     6a   6b   6c   6d   Number of
                                                         veg. units

Number of quadrats surveyed          2    4    2    1    14
(n=26)
Vascular plants
  Pteridophyta
Aspleniaceae
  Pleurosorus rutifolius                       x         1
Ophioglossaceae
  Ophioglossum lusitanicum                               2
Sinopteridaceae
  Cheilanthes sieberi                x    x    x    x    12
Gymnospermae
Cupressaceae
  Callitris endlicheri               x    x    x    x    9
  Callitris glaucophylla                  x              8
Monocotyledonae
Anthericaceae
  Arthropodium minus                 x    x    x         9
  Dichopogon fimbriatus                   x              4
  Thysanotus patersonii                        x    x    7
  Tricoryne elatior                                      2
Asphodelaceae
  Bulbine bulbosa                    x    x              5
  Bulbine semibarbata                x    x    x         10
Colchicaceae
  Wurmbea dioica                     x    x              4
Hypoxidaceae
  Hypoxis glabella                        x    x         4
Juncaceae
  Juncus filicaulis                       x              1
Lomandraceae
  Lomandra filiformis                x    x              5
  Lomandra multiflora                     x              1
  Lomandra patens                              x         4
Orchidaceae
  Caladenia caerula                       x         x    5
  Caladenia fuscata                       x    x    x    9
  Caladenia stellata                                     1
  Caladenia tentaculata              x    x    x    x    8
  Calochilus robertsonii                       x         1
  Diuris pardina                          x    x    x    7
  Microtis unifolia                            x    x    6
  Pterostylis mutica                 x    x         x    9
  Pterostylis nana                        x    x    x    7
  Pterostylis sp. aff. biseta                            1
  Thelymitra pauciflora                        x    x    4
Poaceae
  * Aira cupaniana                   x                   1
  * Aira elegantissima                         x         2
  Amphipogon caricinus                                   2
  * Avena fatua                                          1
  * Bromus rubens                                        1
  Danthonia eriantha                      x              5
  Elymus scaber                      x                   1
  * Hordeum leporinum                          x         2
  * Lolium perenne                        x              2
  Monachather paradoxa                                   1
  Poa sieberana                           x    x         5
  Polypogon monspeliensis                                1
  Stipa bigeniculata                                     1
  Stipa densiflora                   x    x    x         6
  Stipa scabra                       x    x    x         10
  Thyridolepis mitchelliana          x    x              6
  * Vulpia myuros                    x    x    x    x    6
Phormiaceae
  Dianella longifolia                     x    x         3
  Dianella revoluta                       x    x         3
  Stypandra glauca                             x         1
Dicotyledonae
Amaranthaceae
  Ptilotus spathulatus               x    x              5
Apiaceae
  Daucus glochidiatus                x    x    x    x    12
  Hydrocotyle callicarpa                  x         x    4
  Hydrocotyle laxiflora                   x              2
  Platysace lanceolata                         x         2
  Trachymene cyanopetala             x    x    x         8
  Trachymene ornata                  x    x    x         6
Asteraceae
  Actinobole uliginosa                                   5
  * Arctotheca calendula             x    x    x         8
  * Aster subulatus                                      1
  Brachycome gracilis                                    1
  Brachycome lineariloba                                 3
  Brachycome perpusilla                        n         1
  Bracteantha bracteata              x    x              6
  Bracteantha viscosa                          x         3
  Calotis cuneifolia                      x    x         5
  Calotis hispidula                  x    x              8
  * Carthamus lanatus                                    1
  Cassinia laevis                              x         1
  Chrysocephalum apiculatum               x              7
  Chrysocephalum semipapposum             x    x         7
  * Cirsium vulgare                       x              4
  Cotula australis                                       2
  * Cotula bipinnata                      x              1
  Cymbonotus preissianus                  x              3
  Gnaphalium sphaericum                   x              2
  * Hedypnois rhagadioloides                             2
  Hyalosperma semisterile                 x              2
  * Hypochaeris glabra               x    x    x    x    10
  * Hypochaeris radicata                  x              1
  Isoetopsis graminifolia            x                   7
  * Lactuca serriola                                     2
  * Leontodon taraxacoides           x                   1
  Microseris lanceolata                                  1
  Millotia myosotidifolia            x    x    x         8
  Minuria leptophylla                                    1
  Myriocephalus rhizocephalus                            2
  Podolepis arachnoidea              x    x    x         10
  Rhodanthe corymbiflora                                 1
  Rhodanthe diffusa                            x         2
  Rhodanthe laevis                   x    x         x    9
  Rhodanthe pygmaea                                      3
  Senecio glossanthus                     x              1
  Senecio hispidulus                           x         1
  Senecio quadridentatus                       x         2
  * Silybum marianum                                     1
  * Sonchus asper                              x         1
  * Sonchus oleraceus                x    x    x    x    10
  Stuartina muelleri                 x    x    x    x    12
  Triptilodiscus pygmaeus            x    x    x         8
  Vittadinia cuneata                 x    x              2
  Vittadinia dissecta                     x              2
  Vittadinia gracilis                                    1
Bignoniaceae
  Pandorea pandorana                 x                   2
Boraginaceae
  * Echium plantagineum                   x              5
Brassicaceae
  * Capsella bursapastoris                               1
  Harmsiodoxa blennodioides               x              4
  * Sisymbrium erysimoides                x              4
  * Sisymbrium irio                       x              3
  Stenopetalum lineare                                   1
Campanulaceae
  Wahlenbergia communis                                  3
  Wahlenbergia gracilenta                                3
  Wahlenbergia gracilis                   x              2
  Wahlenbergia stricta               x    x    x    x    8
  Caryop hyllaceae
  * Cerastium glomeratum                                 1
  * Silene nocturna                  x    x              2
  * Stellaria media                                      2
Casuarinaceae
  Allocasuarina verticillata              x    x         4
Chenopodiaceae
  Chenopodium desertorum                  x              3
    subsp. anidiophyllum
  Chenopodium desertorum                  x              3
    subsp. microphyllum
  Einadia hastata                         x              2
  Einadia nutans                          x              5
  Enchylaena tomentosa                    x              2
  Maireana enchylaenoides                 x              1
  Salsola kali                                           1
  Sclerolaena diacantha                   x              1
Clusiaceae
  Hypericum gramineum                                    1
Convolvulaceae
  Convolvulus erubescens                                 1
Crassulaceae
  Crassula colorata                  x                   2
  Crassula decumbens                 x                   1
  Crassula sieberiana                     x    x         10
Dilleniaceae
  Hibbertia sericea                                      1
Droseraceae
  Drosera peltata                         x         x    2
Epacridaceae
  Astroloma humifusum                     x              4
  Melichrus urceolatus               x    x    x    x    9
Euphorbiaceae
  Phyllanthus fuernrohrii                                1
  Phyllanthus occidentale                                1
  Poranthera microphyllum                                1
Fabaceae
  Glycine canescens                                      1
  Glycine clandestine                x    x              2
  Glycine tabacina                                       1
  Indigofera australis               x    x              3
  * Medicago minima                                      2
  * Medicago polymorpha                                  2
  * Medicago truncatula                                  1
  * Trifolium arvense                x                   3
  * Trifolium campestre                                  1
  * Trifolium glomeratum                                 1
  * Trifolium subterraneum                               2
Fumariaceae
  * Fumaria capreolata                                   1
  * Fumaria muralis                       x              3
Geraniaceae
  Erodium crinitum                   x    x              10
  Geranium retrorsum                      x              1
  Goodeniaceae
  Dampiera lanceolata                                    2
  Goodenia cycloptera                     x              2
  Goodenia fascicularis                   x              3
  Goodenia glabra                                        3
  Goodenia pinnatifida                    x              1
  Goodenia pusilliflora                                  4
  Scaevola spinescens                                    1
  Velleia paradoxa                        x              2
Haloragaceae
  Gonocarpus elatus                  x    x    x    x    11
Lamiaceae
  * Marrubium vulgare                     x              3
  Prostanthera nivea                                     1
Loganiaceae
  Mitrasacme paradoxa                     x    x    x    7
Malvaceae
  Malva parviflora                                       1
  Sida corrugata                          x              3
  Sida cunninghamii                  x    x              3
Mimosaceae
  Acacia deanei                           x              3
  Acacia decora                                     x    1
  Acacia doratoxylon                 x         x         7
  Acacia homalophylla                                    1
  Acacia paradoxa                         x              2
Myoporaceae
  Eremophila glabra                                      1
Myrtaceae
  Calytrix tetragona                                x    2
  Eucalyptus blakelyi                                    1
  Eucalyptus dwyeri                  x    x    x         10
  Eucalyptus macrorhyncha                           x    2
  Eucalyptus melliodora                                  2
  Eucalyptus populnea                     x              5
  Eucalyptus sideroxylon                  x              3
  Leptospermum divaricatum                x    x    x    6
  Melaleuca erubescens                                   1
Oxalidaceae
  Oxalis perennans                   x    x    x         12
  Oxalis radicosa                    x    x    x         7
Pittosporaceae
  Bursaria spinosa                             x         1
  Pittosporum phylliraeoides                             1
Polygonaceae
  Rumex brownii                           x              3
Portulacaceae
  Calandrinia eremaea                x    x    x         11
Primulaceae
  * Anagallis arvensis                    x              3
Proteaceae
  Grevillea floribunda                         x         2
  Hakea tephrosperma                                     2
  Persoonia curvifolia                              x    2
Ranunculaceae
  Ranunculus pachycarpus                            x    2
  Ranunculus sessiliflorus                x    x         4
Rhamnaceae
  Pomaderris cocoparrana                       x         1
Rosaceae
  * Aphanes australiana                   x              2
Rubiaceae
  Asperula conferta                  x         x         5
  * Galium aparine                        x              3
  Galium gaudichaudii                x    x    x    x    6
Rutaceae
  Eriostemon brevifolius                                 3
  Geijera parviflora                                     1
  Phebalium obcordatum                    x              3
Santalaceae
  Exocarpos cupressiformis                               2
Sapindaceae
  Dodonaea viscosa subsp. cuneata         x              1
Scrophulariaceae
  Parentucellia latifolia                                1
Solanaceae
  Nicotiana suaveolens                    x              1
  Solanum ferocissimum                                   1
Stackhousiaceae
  Stackhousia monogyna                    x              5
Sterculiaceae
  Brachychiton populneus                                 1
Thymelaeaceae
  Pimelea linifolia                       x    x         4
Urticariaceae
  Parietaria debilis                 x    x    x         5
  Urtica urens                                           2
Violaceae
  Hybanthus monopetalus              x    x              5
Cryptogams
Mosses
  Acaulon integrifolium                             x    5
  Barbula calycina                   x    x              11
  Bryum argentium                                        2
  Campylopus clavatus                     x    x    x    9
  Campylopus introflexus                       x    x    7
  Ceratodon purpurescens             x    x    x         8
  Didymodon torquatus                                    3
  Eccremidium arcuatum               x    x    x         9
  Eccremidium pulchellum                  x              7
  Entosthodon apophysatus            x    x    x    x    10
  Entosthodon subnudus                              x    2
  subsp. gracilis
  Ephemerum cristatum                     x              2
  Fissidens taylori                  x    x    x    x    8
  Fissidens tenellus                                     1
  Gemmabryum pachytheca                   x              9
  Gigaspermum repens                 x                   5
  Grimmia laevigata                  x         x         6
  Pleuridium nervosum                x    x    x         7
  Polytrichadelphus magellanicus          x    x    x    3
  Rosulabryum billarderi             x    x    x         3
  Rosulabryum campylothecium         x    x    x    x    12
  Triquetrella papillata             x    x    x         6
  Weissia controversa                x    x    x    x    6
Liverworts and Hornworts
  Asterella drummondii               x    x    x    x    12
  Cephaloziella hirta                x    x    x    x    8
  Fossombronia sp.                   x    x    x    x    12
  Gongylanthus scariosus                       x         6
  Lethocolea pansa                        x    x    x    8
  Phaeoceros laevis                                      1
  Riccia bifurca                          x              3
  Riccia crinita                                         4
  Riccia crystallina                                     1
  Riccia lamellosa                        x              2
  Riccia nigrella                         x              4
  Riccia sorocarpa                                       5
  Targionia hypophylla                         x         1
Lichens
Fruticose
  Cladia aggregata                   x    x    x    x    11
  Cladia corallazion                           x    x    6
  Cladonia cervicornis                         x         1
  Neophyllis mucrolemma                   x              2
  Siphula coriacea                                       1
  Teloschistes sieberiana                 x              2
  Thysanothecium scutellum                          x    1
  Usnea scabrida subsp. elegans      x                   1
Squamulose
  Collema sp.                                            1
  Endocarpon sp.                     x                   5
  Placidium pilosellum                                   1
  Toninia sp.                             x              5
Crustose
  Acarospora sp.                                         1
  Aspicilia contorta                      x              1
  Caloplaca sp.                      x    x    x         8
  Carbonea sp.                                           1
  Diploschistes ocellatus                                2
  Diploschistes scruposus                 x              2
  Diploschistes sp.                  x                   4
  Lecanora sp.                                           1
  Micarea sp.                        x                   3
  Rhizocarpon geographicum                               3
  Trapelia coarctata                                     1
Foliose
  Heterodea beaugleholei             x    x         x    10
  Heterodea muelleri                 x    x         x    8
  Punctelia borreri                  x                   2
  Punctelia subrudecta                    x              1
  Xanthoparmelia amphixantha                             1
  Xanthoparmelia barbatica           x                   3
  Xanthoparmelia bungendorensis      x                   1
  Xanthoparmelia elixii                                  4
  Xanthoparmelia exillima            x                   3
  Xanthoparmelia                     x         x         3
  flavescentireagens
  Xanthoparmelia flindersiana                            1
  Xanthoparmelia glabrans            x         x    x    8
  Xanthoparmelia incerta                                 1
  Xanthoparmelia metastrigosa        x                   1
  Xanthoparmelia neorimalis                         x    3
  Xanthoparmelia                                         4
  pseudoamphixantha
  Xanthoparmelia pseudohypoleia                x         1
  Xanthoparmelia remanens                                1
  Xanthoparmelia subcrustacea                            3
  Xanthoparmelia substrigosa         x                   2
  Xanthoparmelia taractica                     x         4
  Xanthoparmelia tasmanica                x              2
  Xanthoparmelia versicolor                    x         1
  Xanthoparmelia sp.                                     1

Table 3. Other cryptogams recorded in the Cocoparra Ranges.

Species                           Source

Mosses

Bartramia hampei                  Lepp and Curnow
Bryum dichotomum                  Eldridge
Campylopus bicolor                EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Daltonia splachnoides             EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Dawsonia longiseta                EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Ditrichum difficile               EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Entosthodon productus             Eldridge
Fabronia australis                EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Fissidens curvatus                EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Fissidens leptocladus             Eldridge
Fissidens linearis                Lepp and Curnow
Funaria hygrometrica              Eldridge
Goniomitrium acuminatum subsp.    Eldridge
  enerve
Grimmia pulvinata                 EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Hedwigia ciliata                  Eldridge
Leptobryum pyriforme              Eldridge
Philonotis sp.                    Lepp and Curnow
Polytrichum commune               EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Ptychomitrium australe            Lepp and Curnow
Rosulabryum torquescens           EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Stonea oleaginosa                 Eldridge
Thuidium furfurosa                EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Tortula atrovirens                Eldridge
Tortula pagorum                   Eldridge
Tortula antarctica                EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Tortula papillosa                 Eldridge
Weissia brachycarpa               Eldridge
Weissia rutilans                  Eldridge

Liverworts

Anthoceros sp.                    EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Chiloscyphus semiteres            EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Fossombronia wondraczekii         Lepp and Curnow
Frullania probosciphora           EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Lophochloa squamatus              EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Lunularia cruciata                Lepp and Curnow
Phaeoceros carolinianus           Eldridge
Plagiochasma rupestre             Eldridge
Riccardia bipinnatifida           Eldridge
Riccia albida                     Eldridge
Riccia crozalsii                  EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Riccia spongiosula                EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003

Riccia vesiculosa                 EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003

Lichens

Fruticose
Cladonia sp. aff. fimbriata       Eldridge
Cladonia macilenta                Eldridge
Foliose
Austroparmelina conlabrosa        Elix
Flavoparmelia rutidota            Eldridge
Hyperphyscia isidiata             Elix
Hypogymnia sp.                    Lepp and Curnow
Parmelia erumpens                 Eldridge
Punctelia subalbicans             Eldridge
Punctelia subflava                EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Xanthoparmelia alternata          EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Xanthoparmelia bellatula          Eldridge
Xanthoparmelia digitiformis       Eldridge
Xanthoparmelia eilifii            Eldridge
Xanthoparmelia filarszkyana       EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Xanthoparmelia luteonata          Eldridge EW incidental observation
  Xanthoparmelia metaclystoides     between 2000 and 2003
Xanthoparmelia multipartita       Eldridge
Xanthoparmelia pulla              EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Xanthoparmelia reptans            EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Xanthoparmelia subspodochroa      EW incidental observation between
Squamulose                          2000 and 2003
Collema coccophorum               Eldridge
Endocarpon pusillum               EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Endocarpon simplicatum            EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Crustose
Buellia subcoronata               Eldridge
Caloplaca ferruginea              Lepp and Curnow
Candellariella vitellina          EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Lecidea ochroleuca                Eldridge
Lecidea sp.                       EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
Ochrolechia sp.                   Lepp and Curnow
Peltula zahlbruckneri             Eldridge
Pyrenopsis sp.                    EW incidental observation between
                                    2000 and 2003
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Title Annotation:Contributions
Author:Whiting, Eric
Publication:The Victorian Naturalist
Date:Oct 1, 2014
Words:7829
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