A limited vegetation survey of Cocoparra National Park and Cocoparra nature reserve.
The Cocoparra Ranges are part of a series of low ranges and rocky sandstone scarp ridges that lie along the eastern boundary of the south-western alluvial plains of New South Wales (Fig. 1). These outcrops are separated from each other and from the western foothills of the Dividing Range by alluvial valleys. Being less accessible and on poorer skeletal soils, they have retained a covering of natural vegetation in a landscape substantially modified by agricultural use.
Most of the Cocoparra Ranges between Griffith and Rankins Springs was declared as a Nature Reserve (CNR) in 1963, in the northern half, and as a National Park (CNP) in 1969, in the southern half, to conserve a significant part of this landscape.
Prior to the 1990s, there was little information on the vegetation of the outcrops (Norris and Thomas 1991). A list of plant species was available for Cocoparra National Park (NPWS, Griffith Office, no date) and a vegetation map based on structural form, as interpreted from 1965 aerial photos of CNP and CNR, was drawn by John Brickhill in 1976. At the time, verification of the vegetation by field work was limited. A full survey of the two areas was undertaken in 1992-96 to verify the structural vegetation map, to classify the plant communities, and to obtain information relevant to pest species control programs (Whiting 1997).
During the 1992-96 survey, the average rainfall was c. 420 mm per year (Bureau of Meteorology, taken from Yenda for the period 1925 to present and Binya for the period 1876 to 2012. www.bom.gov.au). Subsequently, the climate changed to an El Nino pattern with continued drought years. Vegetation changed noticeably (pers. obs. over several visits) so a decision was made in 2004 to repeat the original survey and document any changes in vegetation. The survey was extended to include cryptogams and surface soil characteristics.
Cryptogams have been termed the 'Forgotten Flora' in Australia. The term is particularly justified in inland areas despite the fundamental role that soil crust organisms play in preventing soil erosion (Rogers and Lange 1972; Eldridge 1996; Eldridge and Tozer 1997; Eldridge et al. 2000). Lists of cryptogams, or even of the major component taxa, are rare, and more rarely published. Easily available distribution data are, therefore, woefully inadequate. Lepp and Curnow collected specimens in 1995 from four sites in the CNP for the Australian National Botanic Gardens Herbarium (now Australian National Herbarium), at Woolshed Flats, Woolshed Bluff, Jacks Creek and Mt. Caley (Curnow pers. comm. 2011). Elix collected a few specimens in the Rankins Springs area at the north end of the Cocoparra Ranges in 1990 (Chapple pers. comm. 2011). Eldridge collected in 1995 and 1996 at two sites in the CNP at Spring Hill and Jacks Creek (Eldridge pers comm. 2011) and McPherson, Cuddy and Porter collected in 2002 from three sites at Mt Bingar in the CNP, on the west side of the CNP and in the adjacent Binya State Forest (Chapple pers. comm. 2011). Hyperphyscia isidiata, a lichen species new to Australia, recently was reported from two sites around Rankins Springs (Rogers 2011). Eldridge also has collected in the nearby Griffith area, the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area and in Bunganbil State Forest in the Narrandera Ranges to the south of the Cocoparra Ranges. A systematic or comprehensive survey of cryptogams has never been undertaken for the Cocoparra National Park and Cocoparra Nature Reserve.
Location and surveying sites
The 1992-96 survey sites were not permanently marked. Positions of 35 sites surveyed in 199-293 were recorded only as estimates on topographic maps. The 70 sites surveyed in 1996 were recorded as GPS readings; however, accuracy was never better than [+ or -] 50 m with the technology then available. Relocation, therefore, relied on matching vegetation structure data within an area of 1 ha or greater. At a few sites, memory of distinctive features helped in the relocation.
Twenty-two of the 26 sites in the 2004-05 survey were within metres of the original sites of the 1992-95 survey, or at least in the general area. Four sites in the latter survey were considered either too disturbed or simply could not be located, so replacement sites were sampled within the same vegetation community as occurred in the earlier survey, although the vegetation was considered structurally different.
In the 2004-05 survey, sites were not permanently marked, but photographs were taken and a sketch map made of each to aid any future visits.
As in the 1992-96 survey, each site constituted a 20 m x 20 m quadrat with the following data collected on both occasions: physical data-altitude; slope; aspect; topography; azimuth of horizon for eight compass points; drainage; rock outcropping; basic lithology; and evidence of fire: vegetation data--structural height with cover abundance (Braun-Blanquet scale) for dominant species; a species list with abundance; and estimate of maturity of canopy.
Within each quadrat, samples of bryophytes and lichens were collected from nine c. 1 [m.sup.2] areas, four from near the corners, four from near the sides and one from near the centre of the quadrat. Collections of saxicolous lichens were restricted to those on pebbles or small stones. Except for a few readily identifiable taxa that were easily identified in the field, all specimens were identified at my work station at home using a stereo dissecting microscope (ISSCO SZM-3TL) and a compound microscope with a magnification up to 400x (ISSCO BM-Lab). Lichen substances were identified using spot tests for K, C, and Pd only (White and James 1985).
Many specimens of crustose lichens were either sterile or had immature ascospores and were not able to be identified. In addition, several of the taxa of this group do not have published keys for Australian species and the taxonomy is in a state of flux.
Identification and Nomenclature
Identification and nomenclature of vascular flora follows the Flora of New South Wales (Harden 1990-93).
Identification keys used for cryptogams were from Flora Australia (vols. 54, 55, 56A, 56B and 57 for lichens and vol. 51 for mosses) where appropriate. Otherwise, taxa were identified from published works (Scott and Stone 1976; Catcheside 1980; and Meagher and Fuhrer 2003 for mosses and liverworts, and Filson and Rogers 1979 for lichens). Nomenclature follows Streimann and Klazenga (2002) for mosses, McCarthy (2003) for liverworts and hornworts, and McCarthy (2003; including online amendments up to 2010) for lichens.
One surface soil sample was taken from each quadrat (except, inadvertently, one quadrat) and assessed for texture (after Northcote 1979), pH (Manutec Soil pH Test Kit), and colour (Munsell 2000).
Fourteen of the 16 vegetation units (Table 1) occurring in the area were sampled in this survey. A Grey Box Low Woodland (unit 1b) and the distinctive Broombush community (unit 5) were not examined, both occurring in more remote regions of the Nature Reserve and at higher altitudes. Only one site was examined in each of seven of the vegetation units, two sites within each of four units (2a, 4d, 6a and 6c), three sites within unit 4e, and four sites within each of units 2b and 6b. Sampling effort did not reflect distribution of vegetation units.
Number of vascular plant species recorded
From the 26 sites, 208 species and subspecies were recorded in the 2004-05 survey, including 43 introduced species (Table 2). These figures are comparable to the totals from the same sites in the previous survey (225 species with 37 introduced). This similarity is apparently coincidental, as 41 species recorded in the 2004-05 survey were not recorded in the same 26 sites in 1992-96, and 48 species were not recorded in the 2004-05 survey but were in the former survey. Such vegetation change was more notable when individual vegetation units were considered. For example, vegetation unit 1a had 50 species that were not recorded in the 1992-96 survey but were recorded in the later survey and 28 species that were not recorded in the 2004-05 survey were recorded in the 1992-96 survey. The four sites in vegetation unit 2b had 26, 26, 25, and 40 species respectively that were not recorded in the 1992-96 survey but were present in the later survey, and 8, 29, 28, and 26 species respectively that were not recorded in the 2004-05 survey but were present in the earlier survey. For these four sites, a species recorded in one survey often was absent in the other survey. For each site, the number of species recorded in both surveys was less than the number of species occurring in only one of the surveys.
Species occurring in only one of the surveys mostly were herbaceous or semi-shrub to small-shrub species that are annuals, biennials or ephemeral in growth habit. Some trends were discernible within some families. The species gained were predominantly by members of the Asteraceae. The Poaceae, Juncaceae and Cyperaceae lost a greater number of species over the time period between surveys than they gained (7, 3 and 4 species compared to 5, 1 and 0 species).
Twenty-three species of mosses, 13 species of liverworts and hornworts and 47 species of lichens were recorded and identified at least to genus level from the 26 sites. The number of sites was insufficient to establish any clear patterns of distribution or preferences for particular vegetation units. The additional information gathered from opportunistic observations by the author between 1998 and 2002 also failed to elucidate any patterns. Instead, the impression was that occurrence has a greater dependence on microhabitats than any correlation with vascular flora communities.
Most of the sites were of sandy loam or clayey sand, with other sites varying slightly from these two types (Table 1). Likewise, the pH of the soils mostly was in the range of 4.5 to 5.5 with only two sites as high as 6.0 (in vegetation unit 1a and one gully site in vegetation unit 6b). Soil colour was determined in the dry state. A sample was not collected from the site in vegetation unit 1b.
Changes in the vascular flora
The canopy dominants Eucalyptus populnea, E. dwyeri, Callitris glaucophylla and C. endlicheri are all slow-growing species and well adapted to semi arid conditions. The assumption was made on trying to relocate the sites that there would be little change in mature trees. It is unclear whether the recorded changes in vegetation structure were due to the natural maturing-decaying-regeneration cycle, the adverse affect of the drought that occurred between surveys, or the heterogeneity of the vegetation units. Only regular observations of identifiable trees over a period of time covering drought and non-drought conditions could give the answers.
The taller shrubs Acacia doratoxylon, Acacia homophylla, Acacia deanei and Allocasuarina verticillata are considered to be dis-climax species in the region, with life spans of 30 to 50 years. They are all early dominants after disturbance such as bushfires. Generally, they have shown declines in cover abundance with some becoming absent in the 2004-05 survey. From this, and later observations by the author as the drought progressed, it can be seen that at least the older shrubs are susceptible to drought.
Allocasuarina verticillata may have benefited from reduced competition early in the progress of the drought but soon showed a lack of fruiting, then dieback. Since it is the main source of food for the threatened Glossy Black Cockatoo, there was considerable concern for the survival of the small population of this threatened species in this area.
Acacia deanei is the only wattle in the region with true (i.e. bipinnate) leaves. It was seen to decline overall and was clearly affected where it has had a major role in recolonising the cleared areas around the fringes of the Ranges.
Most of the medium-sized shrubs, such as Acacia paradoxa, Persoonia curvifolia, Grevillea floribunda, Dodonaea species and subspecies, also showed a general decline in cover abundance. It is possible that these shorter life-spanned species suffered as much from an absence of viable recruitment as from death of the existing plants.
Acacia paradoxa was noted as very common around the Mount Binger Trig Point in 1993 and entirely dominant as the middle structural layer at site 23 (approximately 200 m SE of the Trig Point) such that the setting out of the quadrat was extremely difficult. In 2005 the bushes were recorded as dead. At the time, drought was thought to be the cause.
Pomaderris cocoparrana has a short but prolific flowering period. A dense stand is a striking sight in the bush, much like the massed flowering of some wattles. The 1996 survey of site 35, 'Oscars Gully', coincided with the flowering of the Pomaderris there and was a memorable sight. The sparsity of bushes found during the 2005 survey was very noticeable. Pomaderris was also a noticeable component of the shrub layer around the Bingar Trig Point but sadly hard to find in the latter part of the 2000-l0 decade. Again the decline has been attributed to drought although, recently, Pomaderris has been suggested as being a bushfire-stimulated species (David Egan pers. comm. 2011).
Calytrix tetragona and Leptospermum divaricatum appear to be somewhat more resistant, although it was the easier movement through the Leptospermum scrubs that prompted the awareness that drought was causing a major change in the habitat. It is surmised that, initially, new growth and leaves were shed after the shortened growing season at the time the surveys took place, giving a later appearance of dieback.
The situation for the herbs and smaller shrubs is much more complicated. It is not known how populations change from year to year, regardless of changes in climate. Is there a cycle of different species rotating according to nutrient utilisation or can species exist in one site year in year out? As outlined above, a small shift in location of a quadrat can give different results due to the heterogeneity of the vegetation.
Relationship of vegetation units and soil characteristics
The paucity of data for each vegetation unit restricts the validity of the relationships that can be inferred, and the summary of soil characteristics for each vegetation unit as given in Table 1 is tentative and requires further investigation.
Due to drought conditions and the early desiccation of the herbaceous flora, the combined survey was limited to 26 sites. This was insufficient to establish any clear patterns of distribution of the cryptogam flora. The additional information gathered from casual observations also failed to elucidate distribution patterns. Rather, the impression was that occurrence has a greater dependence on microhabitats rather than any correlation with vascular flora communities.
Table 3 lists the species recorded by Lepp and Curnow, Eldridge and Elix that are not recorded in this survey. The species recorded by Lepp and Curnow and also by Eldridge are listed as only by Lepp and Curnow because the list supplied by Eldridge included both sets without annotation.
Suggestions for further work
Although the survey was not able to show the effects of drought conclusively, it did highlight the need for further work to study the vegetation over a long period of time. Such work will require better site recognition via photographs or sketch maps of the sites where sites are not permanently marked. Survey intervals need to be shorter--ideally every 3 to 5 years. As droughts cannot be predicted reliably, a project may have to run for decades. Under current funding schemes, long-term projects have difficulties in being accepted. It would be useful if projected surveys could be done as part of a teaching course in ecology. Although participants would change from year to year, steps could be taken to maintain recording consistency. The outcomes of extended studies would be a greater understanding of the life cycles and ecology of species, particularly herbs and shrubs in semi-arid environments. This will be invaluable for restoration or rehabilitation work in the future.
Cryptogams are poorly reported from inland New South Wales, resulting in very incomplete distribution data. In the Cocoparra Ranges there is still need for further work, especially on crustose and other saxicolous lichens.
Collections taken for identification and reported here were done under Scientific Licence No. S 10358. Sincere thanks are given to the staff of the Griffith Office of the National Parks and Wildlife Service for access to the areas and for encouragement to do the work. Thanks also are given to the cryptogam staff of the Australian National Botanic Gardens in Canberra, in particular to Heino Lepp and Judith Curnow, to Greg Chapple and the staff of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney for supplying Herbarium records, and to David Eldridge for permission to quote from his Cocoparra observations. Finally I wish to acknowledge Dr Maria Gibson and her colleagues for the advice given to me as an isolated amateur on the presentation of this paper.
Bureau of Meteorology website www.bom.gov. au, accessed November 2013.
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Received 21 June 2012: accepted 22 January 2014
6 Cypress Street, Leeton NSW 2705
Table 1. Summary of description of Vegetation Units. Unit Definitive characteristics Soil description 1a Low open Box woodlands of flat Sandy clay loam with pH 6.01 ridgetops, mostly Eucalyptus and a red-brown colour. populnea and Callitris glaucophylla woodlands with an understorey of Acacia deanei and Calytrix tetragona located in the western parts of the Nature Reserve north from Woolshed Flats. 1b Low open Box woodlands of the No information. level ridgetops, mostly Eucalyptus microcarpa and Callitris endlicheri with a sparse understorey including Acacia decora. 2a Open woodlands of level Clayey loam-sandy to sandy ridgetops with gravel surface, loam with pH 5.0 and a light mostly Eucalyptus populnea and brown to strong brown Acacia homalophylla with sparse colour. Surface understorey. characteristically covered with buckshot gravel. 2b Box woodlands of the alluvial Clayey loam-sandy to clayey aprons and river terraces, sand or sandy loam with pH mostly Eucalyptus populnea and 5.0 to 5.5 and a brown to Callitris glaucophylla with an red-brown colour. understorey of mostly Chrysocephalum semipapposum. 2c Box woodlands of alluvial Clayey sand with pH 5.5 and aprons, mostly Eucalyptus a brown colour. populnea and Callitris glaucophylla with Eremophila or Myoporum in understorey located around Spring Hill Picnic Ground and eastwards. 3 Remnant Box woodlands largely Clayey sand with pH 5.5 and cleared. Occasional remaining a dark red-brown colour. Eucalyptus populnea with regenerating Acacia deanei. Introduced grasses, Echium plantagineum and Marrubium vulgare frequent. 4a Low grassy woodlands of the Clayey loam-sandy with pH western slopes, mostly 5.5 and a light yellow- Eucalyptus dwyeri, Callitris brown colour. glaucophylla and Acacia doratoxylon, understorey mainly Thyridolepis mitchellii. Located between Homestead and Store Creeks. 4b Low grassy woodlands, mostly Sandy loam with pH 5.0 and a Eucalyptus dwyeri, Callitris dark brown colour. glaucophylla and Acacia doratoxylon; understorey of Calytrix tetragona in patches with Leptospermum divaricatum and Lomandra patens located on the western slopes north from Homestead Creek. 4c Woodlands to low woodlands of Sandy loam with pH 4.5 and a upper sheltered slopes, with brown colour. Eucalyptus dwyeri, Callitris endlicheri and Acacia doratoxylon; understorey sparse to moderately dense. Amphipogon caricinnatus common in northern parts. 4d Low woodlands or low open Clayey sand with pH 4.5 to woodlands mostly on steeper 5.0 and brown to dark brown slopes in south and around in colour. Woolshed Creek, mostly Eucalyptus dwyeri, Callitris endlicheri or C. glaucophylla, and Acacia doratoxylon. Understorey moderately dense with only Leptospermum divaricatum in northern valleys. 4e Woodlands, low woodlands or low Sandy clay-loam, a sandy open woodlands of the slopes to loam or a clayey sand with open ridgetops, mainly with pH 4.5 and brown to dark Eucalyptus dwyeri or E. brown in colour. sideroxylon, together with Callitris endlicheri, Acacia doratoxylon, E. microcarpa and E. macrorhyncha. Understorey dense with Leptospermum divaricatum and/or Calytrix tetragona. Acacia paradoxa often prominent. 5 Shrubland of Melaleuca uncinata No information. with occasional Allocasuarina verticillata or Allocasuarina havilandioranum or dense with Calytrix tetragona and Acacia paradoxa on ridgetops or upper gullies. 6a Woodlands of the upper sheltered Clayey sand with pH 4.5 and slopes mainly of Eucalyptus very dark brown in colour. dwyeri, Callitris glaucophylla and Acacia doratoxylon. Acacia deanei often as mid-storey. Understorey sparse (Leptospermum divaricatum and Calytrix tetragona absent). Located from Mt Elliot to Pleasant Valley. 6b Woodlands of sheltered gullies, Clayey sand to sandy loam or mainly Eucalyptus dwyeri or E. loamy sand with pH 4.5 to populnea with Callitris 5.5 and either a brown to endlicheri or C. glaucophylla, dark brown colour or yellow- Acacia deanei or Acacia red. doratoxylon, Eucalyptus blakelyi or E. melliodora. Understorey sparse. 6c Woodlands to open forests of Sandy loam with pH 4.5 to steep slopes, south facing or 5.0 and brown to dark brown under cliff faces, mainly in colour. Eucalyptus dwyeri with Callitris endlicheri and Allocasuarina verticillata. Understorey of mainly Leptospermum divaricatum scattered around rock outcrops. 6d Woodlands of deep gullies or Sandy loam with pH 5.5 and a gorges mainly Eucalyptus brown colour. macrorhyncha and Callitris endlicheri with E. dwyeri and Acacia deanei. Understorey moderately dense and mixed. Table 2. List of species recorded from the 2004-05 survey. * indicates introduced species. Vegetation unit la 2a 2b 2c 3 Number of quadrats surveyed 1 2 4 l 1 (n=26) Vascular plants Pteridophyta Aspleniaceae Pleurosorus rutifolius Ophioglossaceae Ophioglossum lusitanicum x x Sinopteridaceae Cheilanthes sieberi x x x Gymnospermae Cupressaceae Callitris endlicheri x x Callitris glaucophylla x x x x x Monocotyledonae Anthericaceae Arthropodium minus x x x x Dichopogon fimbriatus x x Thysanotus patersonii x Tricoryne elatior x Asphodelaceae Bulbine bulbosa x Bulbine semibarbata x x x x x Colchicaceae Wurmbea dioica x x Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis glabella x x Juncaceae Juncus filicaulis Lomandraceae Lomandra filiformis x x Lomandra multiflora Lomandra patens x Orchidaceae Caladenia caerula x Caladenia fuscata x x Caladenia stellata Caladenia tentaculata x x Calochilus robertsonii Diuris pardina Microtis unifolia x x Pterostylis mutica x x Pterostylis nana x x Pterostylis sp. aff. biseta Thelymitra pauciflora x Poaceae * Aira cupaniana * Aira elegantissima x Amphipogon caricinus x * Avena fatua x * Bromus rubens x Danthonia eriantha x x x Elymus scaber * Hordeum leporinum x * Lolium perenne x Monachather paradoxa Poa sieberana x Polypogon monspeliensis x Stipa bigeniculata x Stipa densiflora x Stipa scabra x x x x Thyridolepis mitchelliana x * Vulpia myuros x Phormiaceae Dianella longifolia x Dianella revoluta Stypandra glauca Dicotyledonae Amaranthaceae Ptilotus spathulatus x x x Apiaceae Daucus glochidiatus x x x x Hydrocotyle callicarpa x Hydrocotyle laxiflora x Platysace lanceolata Trachymene cyanopetala x x Trachymene ornata Asteraceae Actinobole uliginosa x x x * Arctotheca calendula x x x x x * Aster subulatus x Brachycome gracilis x Brachycome lineariloba x x Brachycome perpusilla Bracteantha bracteata x x Bracteantha viscosa Calotis cuneifolia x Calotis hispidula x x x * Carthamus lanatus x Cassinia laevis Chrysocephalum apiculatum x x x Chrysocephalum semipapposum x x x * Cirsium vulgare x x Cotula australis x x * Cotula bipinnata Cymbonotus preissianus x x Gnaphalium sphaericum x * Hedypnois rhagadioloides x x Hyalosperma semisterile * Hypochaeris glabra x x x x * Hypochaeris radicata Isoetopsis graminifolia x x x * Lactuca serriola x x * Leontodon taraxacoides Microseris lanceolata Millotia myosotidifolia x x Minuria leptophylla x Myriocephalus rhizocephalus x Podolepis arachnoidea x x x Rhodanthe corymbiflora x Rhodanthe diffusa x Rhodanthe laevis x x Rhodanthe pygmaea x x Senecio glossanthus Senecio hispidulus Senecio quadridentatus * Silybum marianum x * Sonchus asper * Sonchus oleraceus x x x x Stuartina muelleri x x x x Triptilodiscus pygmaeus x x x Vittadinia cuneata Vittadinia dissecta x Vittadinia gracilis x Bignoniaceae Pandorea pandorana Boraginaceae * Echium plantagineum x x x x Brassicaceae * Capsella bursapastoris x Harmsiodoxa blennodioides x x x * Sisymbrium erysimoides x x x * Sisymbrium irio x x Stenopetalum lineare x Campanulaceae Wahlenbergia communis x x x Wahlenbergia gracilenta x x Wahlenbergia gracilis x Wahlenbergia stricta x x Caryop hyllaceae * Cerastium glomeratum x * Silene nocturna * Stellaria media x x Casuarinaceae Allocasuarina verticillata Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium desertorum x x subsp. anidiophyllum Chenopodium desertorum x x subsp. microphyllum Einadia hastata x Einadia nutans x x x x Enchylaena tomentosa x Maireana enchylaenoides Salsola kali x Sclerolaena diacantha Clusiaceae Hypericum gramineum x Convolvulaceae Convolvulus erubescens x Crassulaceae Crassula colorata x Crassula decumbens Crassula sieberiana x x x x Dilleniaceae Hibbertia sericea Droseraceae Drosera peltata Epacridaceae Astroloma humifusum x x Melichrus urceolatus x x Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus fuernrohrii Phyllanthus occidentale Poranthera microphyllum Fabaceae Glycine canescens x Glycine clandestine Glycine tabacina x Indigofera australis * Medicago minima x x * Medicago polymorpha x x * Medicago truncatula x * Trifolium arvense x x * Trifolium campestre x * Trifolium glomeratum x * Trifolium subterraneum x x Fumariaceae * Fumaria capreolata x * Fumaria muralis x x Geraniaceae Erodium crinitum x x x x x Geranium retrorsum Goodeniaceae Dampiera lanceolata Goodenia cycloptera x Goodenia fascicularis x Goodenia glabra Goodenia pinnatifida Goodenia pusilliflora x x x Scaevola spinescens x Velleia paradoxa Haloragaceae Gonocarpus elatus x x Lamiaceae * Marrubium vulgare x x Prostanthera nivea Loganiaceae Mitrasacme paradoxa x Malvaceae Malva parviflora x Sida corrugata x x Sida cunninghamii x Mimosaceae Acacia deanei x x Acacia decora Acacia doratoxylon Acacia homalophylla x Acacia paradoxa x Myoporaceae Eremophila glabra x Myrtaceae Calytrix tetragona Eucalyptus blakelyi x Eucalyptus dwyeri x x Eucalyptus macrorhyncha Eucalyptus melliodora x x Eucalyptus populnea x x x x Eucalyptus sideroxylon x Leptospermum divaricatum Melaleuca erubescens Oxalidaceae Oxalis perennans x x x x Oxalis radicosa x Pittosporaceae Bursaria spinosa Pittosporum phylliraeoides x Polygonaceae Rumex brownii x x Portulacaceae Calandrinia eremaea x x x x x Primulaceae * Anagallis arvensis x x Proteaceae Grevillea floribunda Hakea tephrosperma x x Persoonia curvifolia Ranunculaceae Ranunculus pachycarpus x Ranunculus sessiliflorus x x Rhamnaceae Pomaderris cocoparrana Rosaceae * Aphanes australiana x Rubiaceae Asperula conferta x * Galium aparine x x Galium gaudichaudii x Rutaceae Eriostemon brevifolius x Geijera parviflora x Phebalium obcordatum Santalaceae Exocarpos cupressiformis x Sapindaceae Dodonaea viscosa subsp. cuneata Scrophulariaceae Parentucellia latifolia x Solanaceae Nicotiana suaveolens Solanum ferocissimum Stackhousiaceae Stackhousia monogyna x x x Sterculiaceae Brachychiton populneus x Thymelaeaceae Pimelea linifolia x Urticariaceae Parietaria debilis x x Urtica urens x x Violaceae Hybanthus monopetalus Cryptogams Mosses Acaulon integrifolium x x Barbula calycina x x x x Bryum argentium x Campylopus clavatus x x Campylopus introflexus x x Ceratodon purpurescens x x x x Didymodon torquatus x x x Eccremidium arcuatum x x x x Eccremidium pulchellum x x x Entosthodon apophysatus x x x Entosthodon subnudus subsp. gracilis Ephemerum cristatum x Fissidens taylori x x x Fissidens tenellus x Gemmabryum pachytheca x x x x Gigaspermum repens x x x Grimmia laevigata x x Pleuridium nervosum x x x Polytrichadelphus magellanicus Rosulabryum billarderi Rosulabryum campylothecium x x x x Triquetrella papillata x x x Weissia controversa x x Liverworts and Hornworts Asterella drummondii x x x x Cephaloziella hirta x x x Fossombronia sp. x x x x Gongylanthus scariosus x x x Lethocolea pansa x x x Phaeoceros laevis x Riccia bifurca x x Riccia crinita x x x Riccia crystallina Riccia lamellosa x Riccia nigrella x x x Riccia sorocarpa x x x x Targionia hypophylla Lichens Fruticose Cladia aggregata x x x Cladia corallazion x Cladonia cervicornis Neophyllis mucrolemma Siphula coriacea Teloschistes sieberiana x Thysanothecium scutellum Usnea scabrida subsp. elegans Squamulose Collema sp. x Endocarpon sp. x x x x Placidium pilosellum x Toninia sp. x x x x Crustose Acarospora sp. x Aspicilia contorta Caloplaca sp. x x Carbonea sp. x Diploschistes ocellatus x x Diploschistes scruposus x Diploschistes sp. x x Lecanora sp. Micarea sp. x Rhizocarpon geographicum x Trapelia coarctata x Foliose Heterodea beaugleholei x x x Heterodea muelleri x x Punctelia borreri x Punctelia subrudecta Xanthoparmelia amphixantha x Xanthoparmelia barbatica x x Xanthoparmelia bungendorensis Xanthoparmelia elixii x Xanthoparmelia exillima x Xanthoparmelia x flavescentireagens Xanthoparmelia flindersiana x Xanthoparmelia glabrans x x Xanthoparmelia incerta Xanthoparmelia metastrigosa Xanthoparmelia neorimalis x Xanthoparmelia x x pseudoamphixantha Xanthoparmelia pseudohypoleia Xanthoparmelia remanens Xanthoparmelia subcrustacea x Xanthoparmelia substrigosa Xanthoparmelia taractica Xanthoparmelia tasmanica Xanthoparmelia versicolor Xanthoparmelia sp. x Vegetation unit 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e Number of quadrats surveyed 1 1 1 2 3 (n=26) Vascular plants Pteridophyta Aspleniaceae Pleurosorus rutifolius Ophioglossaceae Ophioglossum lusitanicum Sinopteridaceae Cheilanthes sieberi x x x x x Gymnospermae Cupressaceae Callitris endlicheri x x x Callitris glaucophylla x x Monocotyledonae Anthericaceae Arthropodium minus x x Dichopogon fimbriatus x Thysanotus patersonii x x x x Tricoryne elatior x Asphodelaceae Bulbine bulbosa x x Bulbine semibarbata x x Colchicaceae Wurmbea dioica Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis glabella Juncaceae Juncus filicaulis Lomandraceae Lomandra filiformis x Lomandra multiflora Lomandra patens x x Orchidaceae Caladenia caerula x x Caladenia fuscata x x x x Caladenia stellata x Caladenia tentaculata x x Calochilus robertsonii Diuris pardina x x x x Microtis unifolia x x Pterostylis mutica x x x x Pterostylis nana x x Pterostylis sp. aff. biseta x Thelymitra pauciflora x Poaceae * Aira cupaniana * Aira elegantissima Amphipogon caricinus x * Avena fatua * Bromus rubens Danthonia eriantha x Elymus scaber * Hordeum leporinum * Lolium perenne Monachather paradoxa x Poa sieberana x x Polypogon monspeliensis Stipa bigeniculata Stipa densiflora x x Stipa scabra x x x Thyridolepis mitchelliana x x x * Vulpia myuros x Phormiaceae Dianella longifolia Dianella revoluta x Stypandra glauca Dicotyledonae Amaranthaceae Ptilotus spathulatus Apiaceae Daucus glochidiatus x x x x Hydrocotyle callicarpa x Hydrocotyle laxiflora Platysace lanceolata x Trachymene cyanopetala x x x Trachymene ornata x x x Asteraceae Actinobole uliginosa x x * Arctotheca calendula * Aster subulatus Brachycome gracilis Brachycome lineariloba x Brachycome perpusilla Bracteantha bracteata x x Bracteantha viscosa x x Calotis cuneifolia x x Calotis hispidula x x x * Carthamus lanatus Cassinia laevis Chrysocephalum apiculatum x x x Chrysocephalum semipapposum x x * Cirsium vulgare x Cotula australis * Cotula bipinnata Cymbonotus preissianus Gnaphalium sphaericum * Hedypnois rhagadioloides Hyalosperma semisterile x x * Hypochaeris glabra x x * Hypochaeris radicata Isoetopsis graminifolia x x x * Lactuca serriola * Leontodon taraxacoides Microseris lanceolata x Millotia myosotidifolia x x x Minuria leptophylla Myriocephalus rhizocephalus x Podolepis arachnoidea x x x x Rhodanthe corymbiflora Rhodanthe diffusa Rhodanthe laevis x x x x Rhodanthe pygmaea x Senecio glossanthus Senecio hispidulus Senecio quadridentatus x * Silybum marianum * Sonchus asper * Sonchus oleraceus x x Stuartina muelleri x x x x Triptilodiscus pygmaeus x x Vittadinia cuneata Vittadinia dissecta Vittadinia gracilis Bignoniaceae Pandorea pandorana x Boraginaceae * Echium plantagineum Brassicaceae * Capsella bursapastoris Harmsiodoxa blennodioides * Sisymbrium erysimoides * Sisymbrium irio Stenopetalum lineare Campanulaceae Wahlenbergia communis Wahlenbergia gracilenta x Wahlenbergia gracilis Wahlenbergia stricta x x Caryop hyllaceae * Cerastium glomeratum * Silene nocturna * Stellaria media Casuarinaceae Allocasuarina verticillata x x Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium desertorum subsp. anidiophyllum Chenopodium desertorum subsp. microphyllum Einadia hastata Einadia nutans Enchylaena tomentosa Maireana enchylaenoides Salsola kali Sclerolaena diacantha Clusiaceae Hypericum gramineum Convolvulaceae Convolvulus erubescens Crassulaceae Crassula colorata Crassula decumbens Crassula sieberiana x x x x Dilleniaceae Hibbertia sericea x Droseraceae Drosera peltata Epacridaceae Astroloma humifusum x Melichrus urceolatus x x x Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus fuernrohrii x Phyllanthus occidentale x Poranthera microphyllum x Fabaceae Glycine canescens Glycine clandestine Glycine tabacina Indigofera australis x * Medicago minima * Medicago polymorpha * Medicago truncatula * Trifolium arvense * Trifolium campestre * Trifolium glomeratum * Trifolium subterraneum Fumariaceae * Fumaria capreolata * Fumaria muralis Geraniaceae Erodium crinitum x x x Geranium retrorsum Goodeniaceae Dampiera lanceolata x x Goodenia cycloptera Goodenia fascicularis x Goodenia glabra x x x Goodenia pinnatifida Goodenia pusilliflora x Scaevola spinescens Velleia paradoxa x Haloragaceae Gonocarpus elatus x x x x x Lamiaceae * Marrubium vulgare Prostanthera nivea x Loganiaceae Mitrasacme paradoxa x x x Malvaceae Malva parviflora Sida corrugata Sida cunninghamii Mimosaceae Acacia deanei Acacia decora Acacia doratoxylon x x x x x Acacia homalophylla Acacia paradoxa Myoporaceae Eremophila glabra Myrtaceae Calytrix tetragona x Eucalyptus blakelyi Eucalyptus dwyeri x x x x x Eucalyptus macrorhyncha x Eucalyptus melliodora Eucalyptus populnea Eucalyptus sideroxylon x Leptospermum divaricatum x x x Melaleuca erubescens x Oxalidaceae Oxalis perennans x x x x x Oxalis radicosa x x x Pittosporaceae Bursaria spinosa Pittosporum phylliraeoides Polygonaceae Rumex brownii Portulacaceae Calandrinia eremaea x x x Primulaceae * Anagallis arvensis Proteaceae Grevillea floribunda x Hakea tephrosperma Persoonia curvifolia x Ranunculaceae Ranunculus pachycarpus Ranunculus sessiliflorus Rhamnaceae Pomaderris cocoparrana Rosaceae * Aphanes australiana Rubiaceae Asperula conferta x x * Galium aparine Galium gaudichaudii x Rutaceae Eriostemon brevifolius x x Geijera parviflora Phebalium obcordatum x x Santalaceae Exocarpos cupressiformis x Sapindaceae Dodonaea viscosa subsp. cuneata Scrophulariaceae Parentucellia latifolia Solanaceae Nicotiana suaveolens Solanum ferocissimum x Stackhousiaceae Stackhousia monogyna x Sterculiaceae Brachychiton populneus Thymelaeaceae Pimelea linifolia x Urticariaceae Parietaria debilis Urtica urens Violaceae Hybanthus monopetalus x x x Cryptogams Mosses Acaulon integrifolium x x Barbula calycina x x x x x Bryum argentium x Campylopus clavatus x x x x Campylopus introflexus x x x Ceratodon purpurescens x Didymodon torquatus Eccremidium arcuatum x x Eccremidium pulchellum x x x Entosthodon apophysatus x x x Entosthodon subnudus x subsp. gracilis Ephemerum cristatum Fissidens taylori x Fissidens tenellus Gemmabryum pachytheca x x x x Gigaspermum repens x Grimmia laevigata x x Pleuridium nervosum x Polytrichadelphus magellanicus Rosulabryum billarderi Rosulabryum campylothecium x x x x Triquetrella papillata Weissia controversa Liverworts and Hornworts Asterella drummondii x x x x Cephaloziella hirta x Fossombronia sp. x x x x Gongylanthus scariosus x x Lethocolea pansa x x Phaeoceros laevis Riccia bifurca Riccia crinita x Riccia crystallina x Riccia lamellosa Riccia nigrella Riccia sorocarpa x Targionia hypophylla Lichens Fruticose Cladia aggregata x x x x Cladia corallazion x x x Cladonia cervicornis Neophyllis mucrolemma x Siphula coriacea x Teloschistes sieberiana Thysanothecium scutellum Usnea scabrida subsp. elegans Squamulose Collema sp. Endocarpon sp. Placidium pilosellum Toninia sp. Crustose Acarospora sp. Aspicilia contorta Caloplaca sp. x x x Carbonea sp. Diploschistes ocellatus Diploschistes scruposus Diploschistes sp. x Lecanora sp. x Micarea sp. x Rhizocarpon geographicum x x Trapelia coarctata Foliose Heterodea beaugleholei x x x x Heterodea muelleri x x x Punctelia borreri Punctelia subrudecta Xanthoparmelia amphixantha Xanthoparmelia barbatica Xanthoparmelia bungendorensis Xanthoparmelia elixii x x x Xanthoparmelia exillima x Xanthoparmelia flavescentireagens Xanthoparmelia flindersiana Xanthoparmelia glabrans x x x Xanthoparmelia incerta x Xanthoparmelia metastrigosa Xanthoparmelia neorimalis x Xanthoparmelia x x pseudoamphixantha Xanthoparmelia pseudohypoleia Xanthoparmelia remanens x Xanthoparmelia subcrustacea x x Xanthoparmelia substrigosa x Xanthoparmelia taractica x x x Xanthoparmelia tasmanica x Xanthoparmelia versicolor Xanthoparmelia sp. Vegetation unit 6a 6b 6c 6d Number of veg. units Number of quadrats surveyed 2 4 2 1 14 (n=26) Vascular plants Pteridophyta Aspleniaceae Pleurosorus rutifolius x 1 Ophioglossaceae Ophioglossum lusitanicum 2 Sinopteridaceae Cheilanthes sieberi x x x x 12 Gymnospermae Cupressaceae Callitris endlicheri x x x x 9 Callitris glaucophylla x 8 Monocotyledonae Anthericaceae Arthropodium minus x x x 9 Dichopogon fimbriatus x 4 Thysanotus patersonii x x 7 Tricoryne elatior 2 Asphodelaceae Bulbine bulbosa x x 5 Bulbine semibarbata x x x 10 Colchicaceae Wurmbea dioica x x 4 Hypoxidaceae Hypoxis glabella x x 4 Juncaceae Juncus filicaulis x 1 Lomandraceae Lomandra filiformis x x 5 Lomandra multiflora x 1 Lomandra patens x 4 Orchidaceae Caladenia caerula x x 5 Caladenia fuscata x x x 9 Caladenia stellata 1 Caladenia tentaculata x x x x 8 Calochilus robertsonii x 1 Diuris pardina x x x 7 Microtis unifolia x x 6 Pterostylis mutica x x x 9 Pterostylis nana x x x 7 Pterostylis sp. aff. biseta 1 Thelymitra pauciflora x x 4 Poaceae * Aira cupaniana x 1 * Aira elegantissima x 2 Amphipogon caricinus 2 * Avena fatua 1 * Bromus rubens 1 Danthonia eriantha x 5 Elymus scaber x 1 * Hordeum leporinum x 2 * Lolium perenne x 2 Monachather paradoxa 1 Poa sieberana x x 5 Polypogon monspeliensis 1 Stipa bigeniculata 1 Stipa densiflora x x x 6 Stipa scabra x x x 10 Thyridolepis mitchelliana x x 6 * Vulpia myuros x x x x 6 Phormiaceae Dianella longifolia x x 3 Dianella revoluta x x 3 Stypandra glauca x 1 Dicotyledonae Amaranthaceae Ptilotus spathulatus x x 5 Apiaceae Daucus glochidiatus x x x x 12 Hydrocotyle callicarpa x x 4 Hydrocotyle laxiflora x 2 Platysace lanceolata x 2 Trachymene cyanopetala x x x 8 Trachymene ornata x x x 6 Asteraceae Actinobole uliginosa 5 * Arctotheca calendula x x x 8 * Aster subulatus 1 Brachycome gracilis 1 Brachycome lineariloba 3 Brachycome perpusilla n 1 Bracteantha bracteata x x 6 Bracteantha viscosa x 3 Calotis cuneifolia x x 5 Calotis hispidula x x 8 * Carthamus lanatus 1 Cassinia laevis x 1 Chrysocephalum apiculatum x 7 Chrysocephalum semipapposum x x 7 * Cirsium vulgare x 4 Cotula australis 2 * Cotula bipinnata x 1 Cymbonotus preissianus x 3 Gnaphalium sphaericum x 2 * Hedypnois rhagadioloides 2 Hyalosperma semisterile x 2 * Hypochaeris glabra x x x x 10 * Hypochaeris radicata x 1 Isoetopsis graminifolia x 7 * Lactuca serriola 2 * Leontodon taraxacoides x 1 Microseris lanceolata 1 Millotia myosotidifolia x x x 8 Minuria leptophylla 1 Myriocephalus rhizocephalus 2 Podolepis arachnoidea x x x 10 Rhodanthe corymbiflora 1 Rhodanthe diffusa x 2 Rhodanthe laevis x x x 9 Rhodanthe pygmaea 3 Senecio glossanthus x 1 Senecio hispidulus x 1 Senecio quadridentatus x 2 * Silybum marianum 1 * Sonchus asper x 1 * Sonchus oleraceus x x x x 10 Stuartina muelleri x x x x 12 Triptilodiscus pygmaeus x x x 8 Vittadinia cuneata x x 2 Vittadinia dissecta x 2 Vittadinia gracilis 1 Bignoniaceae Pandorea pandorana x 2 Boraginaceae * Echium plantagineum x 5 Brassicaceae * Capsella bursapastoris 1 Harmsiodoxa blennodioides x 4 * Sisymbrium erysimoides x 4 * Sisymbrium irio x 3 Stenopetalum lineare 1 Campanulaceae Wahlenbergia communis 3 Wahlenbergia gracilenta 3 Wahlenbergia gracilis x 2 Wahlenbergia stricta x x x x 8 Caryop hyllaceae * Cerastium glomeratum 1 * Silene nocturna x x 2 * Stellaria media 2 Casuarinaceae Allocasuarina verticillata x x 4 Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium desertorum x 3 subsp. anidiophyllum Chenopodium desertorum x 3 subsp. microphyllum Einadia hastata x 2 Einadia nutans x 5 Enchylaena tomentosa x 2 Maireana enchylaenoides x 1 Salsola kali 1 Sclerolaena diacantha x 1 Clusiaceae Hypericum gramineum 1 Convolvulaceae Convolvulus erubescens 1 Crassulaceae Crassula colorata x 2 Crassula decumbens x 1 Crassula sieberiana x x 10 Dilleniaceae Hibbertia sericea 1 Droseraceae Drosera peltata x x 2 Epacridaceae Astroloma humifusum x 4 Melichrus urceolatus x x x x 9 Euphorbiaceae Phyllanthus fuernrohrii 1 Phyllanthus occidentale 1 Poranthera microphyllum 1 Fabaceae Glycine canescens 1 Glycine clandestine x x 2 Glycine tabacina 1 Indigofera australis x x 3 * Medicago minima 2 * Medicago polymorpha 2 * Medicago truncatula 1 * Trifolium arvense x 3 * Trifolium campestre 1 * Trifolium glomeratum 1 * Trifolium subterraneum 2 Fumariaceae * Fumaria capreolata 1 * Fumaria muralis x 3 Geraniaceae Erodium crinitum x x 10 Geranium retrorsum x 1 Goodeniaceae Dampiera lanceolata 2 Goodenia cycloptera x 2 Goodenia fascicularis x 3 Goodenia glabra 3 Goodenia pinnatifida x 1 Goodenia pusilliflora 4 Scaevola spinescens 1 Velleia paradoxa x 2 Haloragaceae Gonocarpus elatus x x x x 11 Lamiaceae * Marrubium vulgare x 3 Prostanthera nivea 1 Loganiaceae Mitrasacme paradoxa x x x 7 Malvaceae Malva parviflora 1 Sida corrugata x 3 Sida cunninghamii x x 3 Mimosaceae Acacia deanei x 3 Acacia decora x 1 Acacia doratoxylon x x 7 Acacia homalophylla 1 Acacia paradoxa x 2 Myoporaceae Eremophila glabra 1 Myrtaceae Calytrix tetragona x 2 Eucalyptus blakelyi 1 Eucalyptus dwyeri x x x 10 Eucalyptus macrorhyncha x 2 Eucalyptus melliodora 2 Eucalyptus populnea x 5 Eucalyptus sideroxylon x 3 Leptospermum divaricatum x x x 6 Melaleuca erubescens 1 Oxalidaceae Oxalis perennans x x x 12 Oxalis radicosa x x x 7 Pittosporaceae Bursaria spinosa x 1 Pittosporum phylliraeoides 1 Polygonaceae Rumex brownii x 3 Portulacaceae Calandrinia eremaea x x x 11 Primulaceae * Anagallis arvensis x 3 Proteaceae Grevillea floribunda x 2 Hakea tephrosperma 2 Persoonia curvifolia x 2 Ranunculaceae Ranunculus pachycarpus x 2 Ranunculus sessiliflorus x x 4 Rhamnaceae Pomaderris cocoparrana x 1 Rosaceae * Aphanes australiana x 2 Rubiaceae Asperula conferta x x 5 * Galium aparine x 3 Galium gaudichaudii x x x x 6 Rutaceae Eriostemon brevifolius 3 Geijera parviflora 1 Phebalium obcordatum x 3 Santalaceae Exocarpos cupressiformis 2 Sapindaceae Dodonaea viscosa subsp. cuneata x 1 Scrophulariaceae Parentucellia latifolia 1 Solanaceae Nicotiana suaveolens x 1 Solanum ferocissimum 1 Stackhousiaceae Stackhousia monogyna x 5 Sterculiaceae Brachychiton populneus 1 Thymelaeaceae Pimelea linifolia x x 4 Urticariaceae Parietaria debilis x x x 5 Urtica urens 2 Violaceae Hybanthus monopetalus x x 5 Cryptogams Mosses Acaulon integrifolium x 5 Barbula calycina x x 11 Bryum argentium 2 Campylopus clavatus x x x 9 Campylopus introflexus x x 7 Ceratodon purpurescens x x x 8 Didymodon torquatus 3 Eccremidium arcuatum x x x 9 Eccremidium pulchellum x 7 Entosthodon apophysatus x x x x 10 Entosthodon subnudus x 2 subsp. gracilis Ephemerum cristatum x 2 Fissidens taylori x x x x 8 Fissidens tenellus 1 Gemmabryum pachytheca x 9 Gigaspermum repens x 5 Grimmia laevigata x x 6 Pleuridium nervosum x x x 7 Polytrichadelphus magellanicus x x x 3 Rosulabryum billarderi x x x 3 Rosulabryum campylothecium x x x x 12 Triquetrella papillata x x x 6 Weissia controversa x x x x 6 Liverworts and Hornworts Asterella drummondii x x x x 12 Cephaloziella hirta x x x x 8 Fossombronia sp. x x x x 12 Gongylanthus scariosus x 6 Lethocolea pansa x x x 8 Phaeoceros laevis 1 Riccia bifurca x 3 Riccia crinita 4 Riccia crystallina 1 Riccia lamellosa x 2 Riccia nigrella x 4 Riccia sorocarpa 5 Targionia hypophylla x 1 Lichens Fruticose Cladia aggregata x x x x 11 Cladia corallazion x x 6 Cladonia cervicornis x 1 Neophyllis mucrolemma x 2 Siphula coriacea 1 Teloschistes sieberiana x 2 Thysanothecium scutellum x 1 Usnea scabrida subsp. elegans x 1 Squamulose Collema sp. 1 Endocarpon sp. x 5 Placidium pilosellum 1 Toninia sp. x 5 Crustose Acarospora sp. 1 Aspicilia contorta x 1 Caloplaca sp. x x x 8 Carbonea sp. 1 Diploschistes ocellatus 2 Diploschistes scruposus x 2 Diploschistes sp. x 4 Lecanora sp. 1 Micarea sp. x 3 Rhizocarpon geographicum 3 Trapelia coarctata 1 Foliose Heterodea beaugleholei x x x 10 Heterodea muelleri x x x 8 Punctelia borreri x 2 Punctelia subrudecta x 1 Xanthoparmelia amphixantha 1 Xanthoparmelia barbatica x 3 Xanthoparmelia bungendorensis x 1 Xanthoparmelia elixii 4 Xanthoparmelia exillima x 3 Xanthoparmelia x x 3 flavescentireagens Xanthoparmelia flindersiana 1 Xanthoparmelia glabrans x x x 8 Xanthoparmelia incerta 1 Xanthoparmelia metastrigosa x 1 Xanthoparmelia neorimalis x 3 Xanthoparmelia 4 pseudoamphixantha Xanthoparmelia pseudohypoleia x 1 Xanthoparmelia remanens 1 Xanthoparmelia subcrustacea 3 Xanthoparmelia substrigosa x 2 Xanthoparmelia taractica x 4 Xanthoparmelia tasmanica x 2 Xanthoparmelia versicolor x 1 Xanthoparmelia sp. 1 Table 3. Other cryptogams recorded in the Cocoparra Ranges. Species Source Mosses Bartramia hampei Lepp and Curnow Bryum dichotomum Eldridge Campylopus bicolor EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Daltonia splachnoides EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Dawsonia longiseta EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Ditrichum difficile EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Entosthodon productus Eldridge Fabronia australis EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Fissidens curvatus EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Fissidens leptocladus Eldridge Fissidens linearis Lepp and Curnow Funaria hygrometrica Eldridge Goniomitrium acuminatum subsp. Eldridge enerve Grimmia pulvinata EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Hedwigia ciliata Eldridge Leptobryum pyriforme Eldridge Philonotis sp. Lepp and Curnow Polytrichum commune EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Ptychomitrium australe Lepp and Curnow Rosulabryum torquescens EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Stonea oleaginosa Eldridge Thuidium furfurosa EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Tortula atrovirens Eldridge Tortula pagorum Eldridge Tortula antarctica EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Tortula papillosa Eldridge Weissia brachycarpa Eldridge Weissia rutilans Eldridge Liverworts Anthoceros sp. EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Chiloscyphus semiteres EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Fossombronia wondraczekii Lepp and Curnow Frullania probosciphora EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Lophochloa squamatus EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Lunularia cruciata Lepp and Curnow Phaeoceros carolinianus Eldridge Plagiochasma rupestre Eldridge Riccardia bipinnatifida Eldridge Riccia albida Eldridge Riccia crozalsii EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Riccia spongiosula EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Riccia vesiculosa EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Lichens Fruticose Cladonia sp. aff. fimbriata Eldridge Cladonia macilenta Eldridge Foliose Austroparmelina conlabrosa Elix Flavoparmelia rutidota Eldridge Hyperphyscia isidiata Elix Hypogymnia sp. Lepp and Curnow Parmelia erumpens Eldridge Punctelia subalbicans Eldridge Punctelia subflava EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Xanthoparmelia alternata EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Xanthoparmelia bellatula Eldridge Xanthoparmelia digitiformis Eldridge Xanthoparmelia eilifii Eldridge Xanthoparmelia filarszkyana EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Xanthoparmelia luteonata Eldridge EW incidental observation Xanthoparmelia metaclystoides between 2000 and 2003 Xanthoparmelia multipartita Eldridge Xanthoparmelia pulla EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Xanthoparmelia reptans EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Xanthoparmelia subspodochroa EW incidental observation between Squamulose 2000 and 2003 Collema coccophorum Eldridge Endocarpon pusillum EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Endocarpon simplicatum EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Crustose Buellia subcoronata Eldridge Caloplaca ferruginea Lepp and Curnow Candellariella vitellina EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Lecidea ochroleuca Eldridge Lecidea sp. EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003 Ochrolechia sp. Lepp and Curnow Peltula zahlbruckneri Eldridge Pyrenopsis sp. EW incidental observation between 2000 and 2003
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|Publication:||The Victorian Naturalist|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2014|
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