A history of field parasitology studies originating from the Reelfoot lake region of Tennessee and Kentucky.
A lake is the landscape's most beautiful expressive feature. It is earth's eye; looking into which the beholder measures the depth of his own nature.
Henry David Thoreau, Walden (1854)
Most of the field stations in North America are located near lakes. I am not sure why, but perhaps next to an air-conditioned molecular biology laboratory, a lake is about the coolest place to spend a summer in the northern half of the world.
Gerald W. Esch, Parasites, People, and Places: Essays on Field Parasitology (2004)
According to Esch (2004) organized field parasitology research had its North American beginnings five years after the 1909 establishment of the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) at Douglas Lake, which has approximately 15 [km.sup.2] of surface area near the northern tip of the Lower Peninsula. Research for the first (Cort, 1915) of over 350 parasitology papers to issue from that region began in the summer of 1914.
By 1917 such studies (Pratt, 1923; Van Cleave, 1923) had begun at the Roosevelt Wild Life Forest Experiment Station of the New York State College of Forestry located at Oneida Lake, which has approximately 228 [km.sup.2] of surface area in central New York. Unlike Douglas Lake, Oneida Lake's place in the history of field parasitology does not rest upon a large body of research literature but rather almost entirely on a four-part series published in the Roosevelt Wild Life Annals. These papers (Van Cleave and Mueller, 1932; 1934; Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932; Mueller, 1934) comprise a 334-page treatise on taxonomy, ecology, and host relationships of the parasites of 34 species of Oneida Lake fishes and are collectively perhaps the most cited works in field parasitology. The authors reported distribution records for 68 previously described parasite species, as well as descriptions of 31 new species. Within a decade several species from both lists would be reported by other investigators as Reelfoot Lake distribution records.
Two-hundred-year-old Reelfoot Lake, hereinafter also referred to as "the Lake," covers approximately 57 [km.sup.2] of surface area in extreme northwestern Tennessee. According to Milton (1969), the Reelfoot Lake Biological Station (RLBS) (Fig. 1) was officially declared open to researchers in April 1932. Beginning in 1937, competent investigators from all biological specialties, who could work independently or without direction, were invited to apply for summer research scholarships. Applications were accepted and awards were made by the Tennessee Academy of Science, which owned and operated the facility. These awards covered living expenses, laboratory materials, and use of equipment (Milton, 1969). Researchers who received the Academy's stipend, and completed the summer session, were expected to submit a report on their research for possible publication in the Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, hereinafter also referred to as "the Journal."
Directors of the RLBS, in annual reports published in the Journal from 1933 to 1969, listed names, affiliations, and research interests for each of the past summer's researchers, some of whom were repeat summer residents with renewed scholarships (Milton, 1969). One perennial investigator spent 32 consecutive summers in scholarship residence and published a report every year. Of the 71 investigators during those 37 summers, 25 conducted parasitology research. Many parasitologists, however, worked on or in the vicinity of the Lake as nonresident researchers or worked there after 1968, and their names do not appear on any Lake visitor list. Several specialists never visited the Lake but rather examined and reported on specimens furnished by other investigators who had worked there.
Prior to 1933 all organized parasitology research from the Lake region had been of an applied nature and primarily involved public health workers studying malaria and the mosquitoes that vector its etiological agents. During the Second World War, with many Americans serving in malarious zones, field research on the disease acquired a renewed importance and until the early 1940's mosquito studies occupied a significant number of summer researchers. However, as early as the 1934 summer session some basic field research was undertaken. Later, traditional natural history field studies, mostly involving helminth parasites, became common only to be joined by recent comparative molecular studies.
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A CHRONOLOGICAL ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Moore, P. J. 1898. The leeches of the U. S. National Museum. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 21:543-563.
The author, from the University of Pennsylvania, reported on his study of the small unidentified leech collection in the U.S. National Museum of Natural History. Among the collection was a specimen of a turtle leech identified by Moore as Glossiphonia parasitica Placobdella parasitica). Collection data for the specimen indicated that it was taken by Ed Palmer on May 30, 1882 from Indian Creek, which enters the Lake from the east just northeast of Samburg, Tennessee (Fig. 2). Placobdella parasitica thus became the first parasite reported from the Lake region (Table 1). Furthermore, based upon accession number and collection date, that specimen was the third representative of its species deposited in the Smithsonian.
LePrince, J. A., and H. A. Johnson. 1929. Development of a power dusting device for applying Paris green as an anopheline larvicide. Public Health Reports, 44:1001-1017.
The authors, both from the U.S. Public Health Service in Memphis, visited the Lake during the summer and fall of 1928 in order to test a mosquito control apparatus. Most of the report concerned design, technique, efficacy, and cost of distributing Paris green from a boat over portions of the Lake surface. In terms of basic field parasitology research their work was limited to the observation that larvae of Anopheles quadrimaculatus, which was a known vector for human infecting Plasmodium and a new Lake region distribution record, were abundant in the Lake.
Meleney, H. E., E. L. Bishop, and F. L. Roberts. 1929. Observations on the malaria problem in west Tennessee. Southern Medical Journal, 22:382-394.
The authors were physicians and included Meleney from the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Bishop who was the Tennessee Commissioner of Health, and Roberts who was a practitioner from Trenton, Tennessee. They reported on a survey of malaria within the six counties of the State's Mississippi Alluvial Plain, and noted that during the years 1925 through 1927 state-wide per capita deaths from the disease were greatest in Lake and Obion counties, which border the Lake. Prevalence among children at the Phillipy schools, located in Lake County just northwest of the Lake (Fig. 2), was 16.6% for 60 students, while at the Reelfoot School on Reelfoot Creek, located just east of the Lake in Obion County, prevalence was only 3.8% for 53 students. The greater malaria prevalence at Phillipy was attributed to its proximity to the Mississippi River and its greater potential for standing water overflows. Twenty percent of the malaria cases were of the malignant tertian form, verified by finding Plasmodium falciparum in stained blood films.
Meleney, H. E., E. L. Bishop, and W. S. Leathers. 1932. Investigations of Endamoeba histolytica and other intestinal protozoa in Tennessee. III. A state-wide survey of the intestinal protozoa of man. American Journal of Hygene, 16:523-539.
In this study Meleney and Bishop were joined by Leathers, from the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Their research was funded by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation and involved a survey for six species of intestinal protozoans. Fecal specimens were collected from rural school children, processed, stained, and examined for cyst and trophozoite stages. Unlike the malaria study of the previous entry, data from schools were pooled for each county with each protozoan species assigned to one of five prevalence range levels. For Obion County ranges were as follows: Entamoeba histolytica (0-5%), E. soli (31-40%), Endolimax nana (11-15%), lodamoeba buetschlii (0-2%), Chilomastix mesnili (16-30%), and Giardia duodenalis. (6-10%).
Horsfall, M. W. 1935. Observations on the life history of Macravestibulum oblusicauclum Macklin, 1930 (Trematoda: Pronocephalidae). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 2:78-79.
If basic field parasitology research had its North America beginnings in 1914, another 19 years were required for it to reach the Lake with this study by Horsfall, who was an employee of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Bureau of Animal Industry. During April of 1933 and 1934 she visited the Lake and recovered specimens of a digenetic trematode (digene) from the intestines of three species of turtles (Table 1).
LePrince, J. A. 1935. Investigations on the malarial mosquito at the Reelfoot Lake Biological Station. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 10:25.
During the summers of 1932 through 1935 LePrince was in residence at the RLBS. He noted that specimens of Anopheles crucians (a new Lake region distribution record) were captured in light traps along with A. quadrimaculatus. Anopheles crucians was later determined, by other malariologists, to be a vector for Plasmodium. This short note represented the first parasitological study from the Lake region published in the Journal.
Johnson, H. A. 1936. Notes on the occurrence of A. walkeri. Southern Medical Journal, 29:856-857.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
During the summer of 1935 Johnson used light traps to attract and captured several species of anopheline mosquitoes from the Walnut Log/RLBS vicinity (Fig. 2). New among the species distribution records for the Lake region were Anopheles walkeri and A. puncipennis. Larvae of A. walkeri were collected at the margin of the Lake in what the author described as "a dense smartweed swamp."
Harwood, P. D. 1936. Notes on Tennessee helminths III. Two trematodes from a kingfisher. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 11:251-256.
Harwood, like Horsfall, was an employee of the Bureau of Animal Industry. During August 1934 his visit to the Lake and examination of a belted kingfisher resulted in distribution records for two digene species (Table 1). His report is significant in that it was the first of what are only a few records of parasites of avian hosts from the Lake region.
Table 1.List of parasite species reported as new distribution records for the Reelfort Lake region. Parasite Host Species Location In/On Reference Host Protozoa Chilmastix Human Intestine Meleney et mesnili al., 1932 Entamoeba coli Human Intestine Meleney et al., 1932 E. histolytica Human Intestine Meleney et al., 1932 Endolimax nana Human Intestine Meleney et al., 1932 Giardia Human Intestine Meleney et duodenalis al., 1932 Haemogregarina Chelydra Blood Stream Strohlein sp.. serpentina and & others Christensen, 1984 Hartmanella sp. Various species Viscera Mass Detterline of freshwater & snails Wilhelm, 1991 Iodamoeba Human Intestine Meleney et buetschlii al., 1932 Plasmodium Human/Anopheles Blood Meleney et falciparum quadrimaculatus Stream/Hemocoel al., 1929 Trematoda Actinocleidus Lepomis Gills Mizelle & fergusoni macrochirus Brennan, 1942 A. flagellatus L. gulosus Gills Mizelle & Cronin, 1943 A. fusiformis Micropterus Gills Mizelle & salmoides Cronin, 1943 Allacanthochasmus Merone Intestine Bangham & artus mississippiensis Venard, 1942 A. varius M. Intestine Bangham & mississippiensis Venard, 1942 Allassostoma Pseudemys Intestine Parker, 1941 magnum cocinna A. parvum Helisoma Digestive Gland Byrd. 1940 trivolvis Anallocreadium Aplodinotus Intestine Bangham & armatus grunniens Venard, 1942 A. pearsei Lepomis gulosus Intestine Venard, 1941 Allocorrigia Procambarus Antennal Glands Turner, 2006 filiformis clarkii Alloglossidium Ictalurus Intestine Bangham & corti punctatus Venard, 1942 A. dolandi Procambarus Antennal Glands Turner, 2009 acutus Athesmia Gallinula Liver Bile Duct Denton & heterolecithoides chloropus Byrd, 1951 Baschkirovitrema Lutra canadensis Intestine Kollars et incrassatum al., 1997 Brachycoelium Ambystoma opacum Intestine Parker, 1941 storeriae Brachylaemus Didelphis Intestine Byrd et al., opisthotrias virginana 1942 B. virginana D. virginana Intestine Byrd et al., 1942 Caecincola Micropterus Intestine Venard, 1940 parvulus salmoides Cathaemasia Ceryle alcyon Intestine Harwood, reticulata 1936 Cercaria corti Helisoma Digestive Gland Byrd & trivolvis Reiber, 1940 C. ramonae Physia gyrina Digestive Gland Byrd, 1940 C. rebstocki Helisoma Digestive Gland Byrd & trivolvis Reiber, 1940 Cercorchis Pseudemys Intestine Parker, 1941 robustus cocinna Cleidodiscus Pomoxis Gills Mizelle et capax annularis, al., 1943 P. nigromaculatus C. longus P. annularis Gills Mizelle et al.. 1943 C. mirabilis Ameiurus melas Gills Mizelle & and others Cronin, 1943 C pricei Ictalurus Gills Mizelle & punctatus and Cronin, 1943 others C. robustus Lepomis Gills Mizelle & macrochirus Brennan, 1942 C. uniformis Pomoxis Gills Mizelle et annularis al., 1943 C. vancleavei P. annularis, P. Gills Mizelle et nigromaculatus al., 1943 Clinostomum Micropterus Encysted on Venard, 1940 marginatum salmoides Gills Cotylaspis Anodonta grandis Gills, Heart, Najarian, insignis and others and Kidney 1955 Cotylogaster Aplodinotus Intestine Bangham & occidentals grunniens Venard, 1942 Crassiphiala Ceryle alcyon Intestine Harwood, ambloplitis 1936 Crepidostum Lepomis gulosus Intestine Venard, 1941 cooperi C. cornutum Micropterus Intestine Venard, 1940 salmoides and others C. ictaluri Ictalurus Intestine Bangham & punctatus Venard, 1942 C. isostomum Aphredoderus Intestine Bangham & sayanus Venard, 1942 Dasymetra nicolli Nerodia Mouth Tkach et al., rhombifer 2001 D. villicaeca N. rhombifer Mouth Parker, 1941 Diclybothrium Polyodon Intestine Bangham & hamulatus spathula Venard, 1942 Diplostomum Didelphis Intestine Byrd et al., variabile virginana 1942 Echinochasmus sp. Chelydra Intestine Piatt, 2006 serpentina Parasite Host Species Location Reference In/On Host Echinostomum Physa gyrina Digestive Byrd, 1940 revolution Gland Eurytrema Procyon lotor Pancreatic Cole & Shoop, procyonis Duct 1987 Fibricola cratera Didelphis Intestine Byrd et al., 1942 virginana Gorgodera Rana catesbeiana Urinary Parker, 1941 amplicava Bladder Gyrosoma Procyon lotor Intestine Cole & Shoop. singulare 1987 Hapalorhynchus Chelydra Blood Byrd, 1939 gracilis sepentina Vascular System Hasstilesia Sylvilagus Intestine Byrd & Reiber, texensis aquaticus, S. 1942 floridanus Macravestibulum Graptemys kohnii Intestine Horsfall, 1935 obtusicaudum and others Macroderoides Amia calva Intestine Bangham & Venard, flavus 1942 M. spiniferus Lepisosteus Intestine Bangham & Venard, platostomus 1942 M. trilobatus Amia calva Intestine Tkach et al., 2008 M. typicus Lepisosteus Intestine Tkach et al., 2001 platostomus Mazocraeoides Dorsoma Gills Price, 1961 olentangiensis cepedianum Megalodiscus Rana catesbeiana Rectum Parker, 1941 temperatus and others Microcotyle Aplodinotus Intestine Bangham & Venard. spinicirrus grunniens 1942 Neodiplostomum Didelphis Intestine Byrd et al., 1942 lucidum virginana Neochasmus Etheostoma Intestine Bangham & Venard. umbellus proeliare 1942 Neorenifer Coluber Mouth, Parker, 1941 georgianum constrictor Esophagus N. septicus C. constrictor, Mouth Parker, 1941 Agkistrodon piscivorus N. wardi Nerodia Mouth, Parker, 1941 erythrogaster and Esophagus others Paragonimus Didelphis Lungs Byrd, 1941 kellicotti virginana Paramphistomum Micropterus Intestine Venard, 1940 stunkardi salmoides Pharyngostomoides Procyon lotor Intestine Bafundo, 1978 procyonis Plagorchis sp. Nycticeius Intestine Byrd & Macy, humeralis 1942 P. ameiurensis Nelosoma Digestive Byrd & Reiber, trivolvis Gland 1940 Phyllodistomum Ameriurus Urinary Bangham & Venard, hunteri nebulosus Bladder 1942 P. lacustri Ictalurus Urinary Bangham & Venard, punctatus and Bladder 1942 other P. lohrenzi Micropterus Urinary Venard, 1940 salmoides Bladder P. pearsei Aphredoderus Urinary Bangham & Venard, sayanus Bladder 1942 P. Staffordi Ameiurus melas Urinary Bangham & Venard, Bladder 1942 Pneumatophilus Nerodia rhombifer Mouth Parker, 1941 foliaformis P. leidyi N. cyclopion Trachea, Goodman, 2006 Lungs P. variabilis N. erythrogaster Trachea Parker, 1941 Polylekithum Ameiurus Intestine Bangham & Venard, ictaluri nebulosus 1942 Posthodiplostomum Micropterus Encysted in Venard, 1940 minimum salmoides and Viscera others Renifer Heterodon Mouth Parker, 1941 ellipticus plaiyrhinos Rhopalias Didelphis Intestine Byrd et al., 1942 macracanthus virginana Spirorchis Pseudemys cocinna Blood Byrd, 1939 artericola and others Vascular System S. haematobium Chelydra Heart Byrd, 1939 serpentina S. scripta Graptemys Blood Byrd, 1939 pseudogeographica Vascular System Telorchis Amphiuma Intestine Mcdonald & sirensis tridactylum Brooks, 1989 Triganodistomum Erimyzon sucetta Intestine Bangham & Venard, mutabile 1942 Urocleidus acer Lepomis GUIs Mizelle & macrochirus Brennan, 1942 U. attenuatus L. miniatus Gills Mizelle & Jaskoski, 1942 U. chaenobryttus L. miniatus Gills Mizelle & Jaskoski, 1942 U. dispar Micropterus Gills Mizelle & Cronin, salmoides 1943 U. grandis Lepomis gulosus GUIs Mizelle & Cronin, 1943 U. mucronatus L. macrochirus Gills Mizelle & Brennan, 1942 U. principalis Micropterus Gills Mizelle & Cronin, salmoides 1943 Unicaecum Pseudemys cocinna Blood Byrd, 1939 ruszkowskii and others Vascular System Vasotrema Apalone spinifera Mesenteric Piatt & Snyder, attenuatus Vessels 2007 V. robustum A. spinifera Arterial Byrd, 1939 System Cestoda Atriotaenia Procyon lotor Intestine Bafundo. 1978 procyonis Biacetabulum Erimyzon sucetta Intestine Bangham & Venard, meridianum 1942 Parasite Host Species Location In/On Host Bothriocephalus Micopterus salmoides Intestine claviceps Capingens Carpiodes carpio Intestine singularis Corallobothrium Ictalurus anguilla Intestine fimbriatum C. giganteum I. punctatus Intestine Haplobothrium Amia calva, Ameiurus Intestine globuliforme nebulosus Marsipometra Polyodon spathula Intestine hastata Mesocestoides Procyon lotor Intestine variabilis Monobothrium Ictiobus cyprinellus Intestine ingens Proteocephalus Micropterus salmoides Encysted in ambloplitis Viscera P. macrocephalus Pylodictis olivaris Intestine P. pearsei Centrarchus Intestine macropterus P. perplexus Amia calva Intestine P. singularis Lepisosteus Intestine platostomus Pseuedolytocestus Ictiobus bubalus Intestine differtus Taenia pisiformis Canis latrans Intestine Nematoda Agamospirura Amphiuma tridactylum Stomach. odontocephala and others Intestine Ancylostoma Canis latrans Intestine caninum Arthrocephalus Procyon lotor Intestine lotoris Ascarops sp. Tamiasciurus Intestine hudsonicus ? Baylisascaris Procyon lotor Intestine procyonis Camallanus Lepomis gulosus Intestine oxycephalus C. trispinosus Chelydra serpentina Stomach, and others Intestine Capillaria plica Procyon lotor Urinary Bladder Citellinema Sciurus carolinensis Intestine bifurcatum C. sleggsi S. carolinensis, Intestine Marmota monax Contracaecum Lepomis gulosus Viscera spiculigerum Cosmoseralla Hyla cinerea Colon haberi Crenosoma gobeli Procyon lotor Lungs Cruzia Didelphis virginana Intestine tentaculata Dichelyna Ameiurus melas, Intestine robustus Ictalurus Anguilla Dirofilaria Canis latrans Heart imitis Dracunculus Procyon lotor Skin insignis Foleyella Rana utricularia, Bufo Abdominal Americana woodhousii Mesenteries Haplonema Amia calva Intestine immutatuin Kalicephalus Elaphe obsoleta, Intestine tennesseensis Coluber constrictor Molineus barbatus Procyon lotor Intestine Oswaldocruzia Bufo woodhousii Intestine leidyi O. waltoni Hyla cinerea, H. Intestine avivoca Oxysomatium Rana utricularia Colon georgianum Physaloptera Hyla cinerea Stomach ranae P. rara Procyon lotor Intestine P. turgida Didelphis virginana Stomach Protospirura Sylvilagus aquaticus Intestine muris Rhabdias Nerodia erthrogaster Lungs fascovenosa and others R. joaquinensis Rana clamitans Lungs R. ranae R. utricularia, R. Lungs clamitans Rictularia Peromyscus leucopus Intestine onychomis Spinitectus Ictalurus punciatus Intestine punctatus S. carolini Micropterus salmoides Intestine Spironoura Chelydra serpentina Intestine chelydrea and others S. catesbeiana Rana catesbeiana. Hyla Intestine cinerea Spiroxys contorta Pseudemys cocinna. Stomach Chrysemys picta Strongyloides Sciurus carolinensis Intestine papillosis Trichostrongylus Sylvilagusfloridanus, Intestine calcaratus S. aquaticus Parasite Reference Bothriocephalus Venard, 1940 claviceps Capingens Bangham & Venard, singularis 1942 Corallobothrium Bangham & Venard, fimbriatum 1942 C. giganteum Bangham & Venard, 1942 Haplobothrium Bangham & Venard, globuliforme 1942 Marsipometra Bangham & Venard, hastata 1942 Mesocestoides Bafundo, 1978 variabilis Monobothrium Bangham & Venard, ingens 1942 Proteocephalus Venard, 1940 ambloplitis P. macrocephalus Bangham & Venard, 1942 P. pearsei Bangham & Venard, 1942 P. perplexus Bangham & Venard, 1942 P. singularis Bangham & Venard, 1942 Pseuedolytocestus Bangham & Venard, differtus 1942 Taenia pisiformis Van Den Bussche, 1984 Nematoda Agamospirura Reiber, 1941 odontocephala Ancylostoma Van Den Bussche, caninum 1984 Arthrocephalus Cole& Shoop, lotoris 1987 Ascarops sp. Reiber & Byrd, 1942 Baylisascaris Bafundo, 1978 procyonis Camallanus Venard, 1941 oxycephalus C. trispinosus Reiber, 1941 Capillaria plica Cole and Shoop, 1987 Citellinema Reiber & Byrd, bifurcatum 1942 C. sleggsi Reiber & Byrd, 1942 Contracaecum Venard, 1941 spiculigerum Cosmoseralla Reiber, 1941 haberi Crenosoma gobeli Cole & Shoop, 1987 Cruzia Reiber & Byrd, tentaculata 1942 Dichelyna Bangham & Venard, robustus 1942 Dirofilaria Van Den Bussche, imitis 1984 Dracunculus Cole & Shoop, insignis 1987 Foleyella Reiber, 1941 Americana Haplonema Bangham & Venard, immutatuin 1942 Kalicephalus Rieber, 1941 tennesseensis Molineus barbatus Cole & Shoop, 1987 Oswaldocruzia Reiber, 1941 leidyi O. waltoni Rieber, 1941 Oxysomatium Reiber, 1941 georgianum Physaloptera Reiber, 1941 ranae P. rara Bafundo, 1978 P. turgida Reiber & Byrd, 1942 Protospirura Reiber & Byrd, muris 1942 Rhabdias Reiber, 1941 fascovenosa R. joaquinensis Kuzmin et al., 2003 R. ranae Reiber, 1941 Rictularia Reiber & Byrd, onychomis 1942 Spinitectus Bangham & Venard, punctatus 1942 S. carolini Venard, 1940 Spironoura Reiber, 1941 chelydrea S. catesbeiana Reiber, 1941 Spiroxys contorta Reiber, 1941 Strongyloides Rieber & Byrd, papillosis 1942 Trichostrongylus Reiber & Byrd, calcaratus 1942 Parasite Host Species Location Reference In/On Host Trichuris vulpis Canis latrans Intestine Van Den Bussche, 1984 Viannaia bursobscura Didelphis Intestine Reiber & virginana Byrd. 1942 Acanthocephala Acanthocephalus Aplodinotus Intestine Bangham & dirus grunniens Venard, 1942 Leptorhynchoides Micropterus Intestine Venard, thecatus salmoides 1940 Macroacanthorhynchus Procyon lotor Intestine Cole & ingens Shoop, 1987 Neoehinorhynchus Trachemys scripta Intestine Barger, chrysemydis 2004 N. cylindratus Micropterus Intestine Venard, salmoides 1940 N. emyditoides Graptemys Intestine Barger, pseudogeographica 2004 N. pseudemydis Trachemys scripta Intestine Barger, 2004 Pomphorhynchus Lepomis gulosus Intestine Bangham & bulbocolli Venard, 1942 Tanaorhamphus Dorsoma Intestine Bangham & longirostris cepedianum Venard, 1942 Hirudinea Illinobdella alba Lepomis Mouth Bangham & microlophus Venard, 1942 I. moorei Micropterus Mouth Bangham & salmoides Venard, 1942 I. richardsoni Pomoxis annularis Mouth Bangham & Venard, 1942 Placobdella Trachemys scripta Skin Moore, parasitica and others 1898 Copepoda Achteres micropteri Micropterus Gills Venard, salmoides 1940 A. primelodi Ameriurus melas Gills Bangham & Venard, 1942 Argulus americanus Lepomis Skin Bangham & macrochirus Venard, 1942 A. lepisostei Lepisosteus Skin Bangham & platostomus Venard, 1942 Ergasilus caeruleus Micropterus Gills Venard, salmoides 1940 E. eentrarchidarum Lepomis Gills Bangham & macrochirus Venard, 1942 E. elegans Ameiurus natalis Skin Bangham & Venard, 1942 E. versicolor A. melas Skin Bangham & Venard, 1942 Hydracarina Unionicola fossulata Quadrula pustulosa Mantle Hoff, and others Cavity 1944 U. intermedia Anodonta grandis Mantle Najarian, and others Cavity 1955 U. ypsilophora Ligumia Mantle Najarian, subrostrata and Cavity 1955 others Diptra Aedes aegypti Mammals Skin Quimby, 1941 A. Dupree Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 A. infirmatus Mammals Skin Quimby, 1941 A. sticticus Mammals Skin Quimby, 1941 A. tormentor Mammals Skin Quimby, 1941 A. triseriatus Mammals Skin Brown & Pearson, 1938 A. thibaulti Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 A. vexans Mammals Skin Brown & Pearson, 1938 Anopheles barberi Mammals Skin Brown & Pearson, 1938 A. crucians Mammals Skin LePrince, 1935 A. puncipennis Mammals Skin Johnson, 1936 A. quadrimaculatus Mammals Skin LePrince & Johnson, 1929 A. walkeri Human, Horse, Cow, Skin Johnson, Pig 1936 Chrysops brunnea Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 C. flavida Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 Culex apicalis Frogs, Turtles, Skin Brown & Snakes Pearson, 1938 C. erraticus Birds, Mammals Skin Brown & Pearson, 1938 C. pipiens Birds, Mammals Skin Quimby, 1941 C. quinquefasciatus Birds, Mammals Skin Brown & Pearson, 1938 C. restuans Birds, Mammals Skin Quimby, 1941 C. salinarius Birds, Mammals Skin Brown & Pearson, 1938 Culicoides Birds, Mammals Skin Snow & crepuscularis Picard, 1954 C. debilipalpis Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 Parasite Host Location Reference Species In/On Host C. guttipennis Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 C. haematopotus Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 C. multipunctatus Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 C. spinosus Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 C. travisi Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 C. venustus Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 Mansonia Bird, Skin Brown & Pearson, perturbans Mammals 1938 Orthopodomyia Birds Skin Brown & Pearson, signifera 1938 Phlebotomus Mammals Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 shannoni Psorophora Birds, Skin Brown & Pearson, ciliata Mammals 1938 P. columbiae Birds, Skin Quimby, 1941 Mammals P. confinnis Birds, Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 Mammals P. cyanescens Birds, Skin Brown & Pearson, Mammals 1938 P. ferox Birds, Skin Brown & Pearson, Mammals 1938 P. horrida Birds, Skin Quimby, 1941 Mammals P. howardi Birds, Skin Brown & Pearson, Mammals 1938 P. varipes Birds. Skin Brown & Pearson, Mammals 1938 Theobaldia Mammals Skin Quimby, 1941 inornata Uranotaenia Amphibians Skin Snow & Picard, 1954 sapphirina
Johnson, H. A. 1937. Attractivity of light for Anopheles mosquitoes. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 12:104-106.
Johnson reported much of the same data collected in the summer of 1935 and published previously in the Southern Medical Journal. This article, however, included a report on the relative attraction of different intensities and colors emitted by light traps to night flying A. quadrimaculatus. The most interesting inclusion in this paper was a photograph of the RLBS with light traps in both right and left foreground (Fig. 3).
Brown. F. R., and J. W. Pearson. 1938. Some Culicidae of the Reelfoot Lake region. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 13:50-56.
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
During the summers of 1936 and 1937 the authors, who were medical students employed for summer work with the U.S. Public Health Service in Memphis, collected, identified, and noted habitats and breeding places for 18 mosquito species, 14 of which represented new Lake region distribution records (Table 1).
Byrd, E. E. 1938. Studies on blood flukes of the family Spirorchidae. 1. Preliminary report. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 13:57-60.
In 1937 Byrd, from the University of Georgia, began four summers in residence as a scholarship researcher. He necropsied 98 turtles representing seven of the 11 aquatic turtle species reported from the Lake. From these hosts Byrd recovered pathogenic blood flukes or spirorchiids, which are found only in turtles and primarily in their blood vascular systems. Prevalence of spirorchiid infections among the host species ranged from 79.2% to 100%. Although he provided no specific identifications or descriptions of these worms, Byrd noted the presence of a diverse assemblage consisting of what he believed to be 16 species. As suggested by the title, this report represented work-in-progress and was written to fulfill the author's obligation to submit, for possible publication in the Journal, a report of each summer's supported research.
Byrd, E. E. 1939. Studies on the blood flukes of the family Spirorchidae. Part II. Revision of the family and description of' new species. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 14:116-161.
This long article followed the preliminary report of the previous year and is among the most important papers ever published by the Academy. For 50 years it remained the most complete taxonomic revision of the trematode family Spirorchiidae and has been cited countless times. In this revision, Byrd reduced the number of spirorchiid genera from 17 to eight and the number of previously described species from 35 to 27. He recorded 15 species of spirorchiids from the Lake, six of which represented new distribution records (Table 1). Nine spirorchiids were described as new species (Table 2). Among the new species was Hapalorhynchus reelfooti (Fig. 4A), which became the first parasite to carry the Lake's name. Byrd's work established Reelfoot Lake as a major center of diversity for blood flukes of freshwater turtles.
Bang, F. B., G. E. Quinby, and T. W. Simpson. 1940. Anopheles walkeri (Theobald): A wild-caught specimen harboring malarial plasmodia. Public Health Reports, 55:119-120.
The authors were medical students employed for the summer by the U.S. Public Health Service in Memphis. During mid to late July 1939 they dissected over 200 of the subject mosquitoes collected near Bondurant, Kentucky just north of the Lake. A single specimen harbored, in its salivary glands, sporozoites identified as those of Plasmodium. Significance of this report resided in the fact that while A. walkeri had been demonstrated, by other workers, as capable of hosting experimental infections with Plasmodium, no record existed of it hosting natural infections.
Venard, C. E. 1940. Studies on parasites of Reelfoot Lake fish. I. Parasites of the large-mouthed bass, Hiro salmoides (Lacepede). Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 15:43-63.
In 1939 Venard, from The Ohio State University, began two summers of supported research by examined 29 largemouth bass for both external and internal parasites. He recorded 13 parasite species, all of which represented new Lake distribution records (Table 1). Additionally, he collected, from the host's gills, several unidentified monogenetic trematodes (monogenes). These specimens were sent to J. D. Mizelle, at the University of Notre Dame, who would report their identities, as discussed later in this paper.
Byrd, E. E., C. E. Venard, and R. J. Reiber. 1940. The excretory system in Trematoda. I. Studies on the excretory system in the trematode subfamily Gorgoderinae Looss, 1899. Journal of Parasitology, 26:407-420.
The authors, including Reiber, who was one of Byrd's graduate students from the University of Georgia, collaborated on detailed descriptions of the excretory systems of three digene species collected from the Lake during the summer of 1937. Specimens of Phyllodistomum lohrenzi and Catoptroides lacustri were obtained from the urinary bladders of a largemouth bass and a channel catfish, respectively, while Gorgodera amplicava was obtained from the urinary bladder of a bullfrog. Based upon comparative anatomy of the worms' excretory systems, the authors concluded that the genus Catoptroides, which was considered closely related to the genus Phyllodistomum, shared a greater affinity with the genus Gorgodera. However, Dawes (1946) later determined that Catoptroides was a junior synonym for Phyllodistomum, effectively transferring all species of the genus Catoptroides to the genus Phyllodistomum. A two-page abstract reporting this Academy supported research was later published (Byrd et al., 1941) in the Journal.
Byrd, E. E. 1940. Larval flukes from Tennessee. I. A new mother sporocyst of a Leucochloridium. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 15:117-123.
Byrd described a new species (Table 2) of digene from larval metacercariae developing in a mother sporocyst found in a tentacle of the terrestrial snail Succinea retusa. The snail was taken during the summer of 1938 from the trunk of a cypress tree in a heronry located on the west central side of the Lake and known to local residents as "Cranetown" (Fig. 2).
Byrd. E. E. 1940. Larval flukes from Tennessee. II. Studies on cercariae from Physa gyrina Say, with descriptions of two new species. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 15:124-131.
During the summer of 1938, Byrd examined over 100 specimens of the aquatic snail Physa gyrina, and noted that 28 individuals were releasing one or more of five different species of trematode cercariae. Three were larvae of known adult species or larvae that had previously been described (Table 1), while the remaining two represented new larval species (Table 2).
Byrd, E. E., and R. J. Reiber. 1940. Larval flukes from Tennessee. III. Studies on cercariae from Helisoma trivolvis Say, with descriptions of new species. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 15:132-156.
During the summers of 1938 and 1939 over 12% of approximately 300 specimens of the aquatic snail Helisoma trivolvis examined by the authors were found to be infected with one of 14 species of larval digenes. Five were larvae of known adult species or larvae that had previously been described (Table 1), however, nine were considered new to science (Table 2). One of these new species, Cercaria reelfooti (Fig. 4B), became the second parasite to carry the Lake's name.
Venard, C. E. 1941. Studies on parasites of Reelfoot Lake fish. II. Parasites of the warmouth bass, Chaenobryttus gulosus (Cuvier and Valenciennes). Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 16:14-16.
This short paper reported the results of an examination of 39 warmouth made in the summer of 1940. Both external and internal parasites were reported in a list of 16 species, four of which represented new Lake distribution records (Table 1). Additionally, most fish specimens had gills infested with unidentified monogenes, which were later identified and reported on by J. D. Mizelle, as noted elsewhere in this paper.
Quinby, G. E. 1941. Additions to the mosquitoes (Culicidae) of the Reelfoot Lake region. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 16:17-21.
Based upon collections Quinby and others made during the late 1930's, while working for the National Youth Administration in Fulton County, Kentucky, nine new mosquito species distribution records (Table 1) were added to those for the Lake region. Also reported were data on those mosquitoes' habitats and breeding places.
Parker, M. V. 1941. The trematode parasites from a collection of amphibians and reptiles. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 16:27-45.
In 1938 Parker, another of Byrd's graduate students at the University of Georgia, began his third of seven summers of scholarship supported research. In this entry he reported on a survey of digenes parasitizing some amphibians and reptiles from Florida, Georgia, and Tennessee. Among the Tennessee records were 12 new Lake region distribution records (Table 1) involving 11 host species. Additionally, he described two new species of digenes (Table 2). One of these, Cercorchis reelfooti (Fig. 4C), became the third parasite to carry the Lake's name. The current taxonomic status of C. reelfboti will be noted later.
TABLE 2. List of parasites described as new species from the Reelfoot Lake region. Parasite Host Species Location Current Taxonomic In/On Host Status Trematoda Actinocleidus bakeri Lepomis Gills Valid Mizelle & Cronin, microlophus 1943 A. bifidus Mizelle L. Gills Valid & Cronin, 1943 microlophus A. brevicirrus L. miniatus Gills Valid Mizelle & Jaskoski, 1942 A. crescentis Mizelle L. Gills Valid & Cronin, 1943 microlophus A. harquebus Mizelle L. Gills Valid & Cronin, 1943 microlophus A. subtriangularis L. miniatus Gills Valid Mizelle & Jaskoski, 1942 A. unguis Mizelle Micropterus Gills Valid & Cronin, 1943 salmoides Amblosoma reelfooti Viviparus Mantle Valid Goodman, 1990 intertextus Cavity Athesmia reelfooti Gallinula Liver Bile Sy. A. Denton, 1941 chloropus Duct heterolecithoides Brachylecithum Cyanocitta Liver Bile Valid americanum Denton, cristata Duct 1945 Cercaria brachystyla Helisoma Digestive Valid Byrd & Reiber, trivolvis Gland 1940 C brevicauda Byrd H. trivolvis Digestive Valid & Reiber, 1940 Gland C. byrdi Goodman, Physa gyrina Digestive Valid 1951 Gland C. compactisoma Byrd Helisoma Digestive Valid & Reiber, 1940 trivolvis Gland C. dorsata Byrd & H. trivolvis Digestive Valid Reiber, 1940 Gland C. fimbriata Goodman, Physa gyrina Digestive Valid 1951 Gland C instigata Byrd Helisoma Digestive Valid & Reiber, 1940 trivolvis Gland C isomi Goodman, Physia Digestive Valid 1951 gyrina Gland C. leiosoma Byrd, P. gyrina Digestive Valid 1940 Gland C. macrostyla Byrd, P. gyrina Digestive Valid 1940 Gland C macrotrema Byrd Helisoma Digestive Valid & Reiber, 1940 trivolvis Gland C. obioni Goodman, Physia Digestive Valid 1951 gyrina Gland C. oedematocauda Byrd Helisoma Digestive Valid & Reiber, 1940 trivolvis Gland C. palegae Goodman, Viviparus Digestive Valid 1951 intertextus Gland C. paralinearis Physa gyrina Digestive Valid Goodman, 1951 Gland C. paramulticellulata P. gyrina Digestive Valid Goodman, 1951 Gland C. pteractinota Byrd Helisoma Digestive Valid & Reiber, 1940 trivolvis Gland C. reelfooti Byrd H. trivolvis Digestive Valid & Reiber, 1940 Gland C. samburgi Goodman, Physa gyrina Digestive Valid 1951 Gland C. simulate Byrd Helisoma Digestive Valid & Reiber, 1940 trivolvis Gland C. yankapinensis Viviparous Digestive Valid Goodman, 1951 intertextus Gland Cercorchis reelfooti Amphiuma Intestine Sy. Telorchis Parker, 1941 tridactylum sirensis Cleidodiscus chelatus Lepomis Gills Valid Mizelle & miniatus Jaskoski, 1942 C. venardi Mizelle L. miniatus Gills Valid & Jaskoski, 1942 Cotylaspis Anodonta Gill, Sy. C. insignis reetfootensis grandis Heart, Najarian. 1961 Kidney Conspicuum Quiscalus Liver Gall Valid icteridorum Denton quiscula Bladder & Byrd, 1951 Hapalorhynchus Apalone Mesenteric Sy. Vasotrema evaginatus Byrd, spinifera Vessels attenuatus 1939 H. reelfooti Byrd, Sternotherus Pulmonary Valid 1939 odoratus Vessels H. stunkardi Byrd, Kinosternon Pulmonary Valid 1939 subrubrum Vessels Leucochlorodium Succinea Tentacle Valid migranum Byrd, 1940 retusa Mazocraeoides Dorsoma Gills Valid tennesseensis Price, cepedianum 1961 Paramacroideroides Lepisteus Intestine Valid echinus Venard, 1941 platostomus Prosthodendrium Lasiurus Intestine Valid transversum Byrd borealis & Macy, 1942 Pseudanthocotyloides Dorsoma Gills Valid banghami Price, 1961 cepedianum Pseudomazocraeoides D. Gills Valid megalocotyle Price, cepedianum 1961 Spirorchis Pseudemys Mesenteric Sy. S. scripta blandingoides Byrd, cocinna Vessels 1939 S. magnitestis Byrd, Chelydra Wall of species 1939 serpentina Heart inquirenda S. minutus Byrd, C. Mesenteric Valid 1939 serpentina Vessels S. pseudemyae Byrd, Pseudemys Mesenteric Sy. S. artericola 1939 cocinna Vessels Stomatrema faranciae Farancia Esophagus Valid Parker, 1941 abacura Unicaecum dissimilis Pseudemys Cardiac Valid Byrd, 1938 cocinna Vessels Urocleidus miniatus Lepomis Gills Valid Mizelle & miniatus Jaskoski, 1942 U. parvicirrus Lepomis Gills Valid Mizelle & miniatus Jaskoski, 1942 U. torquatus Mizelle L. Gills Valid & Cronin, 1943 microlophus U. variabilis Mizelle L. Gills Valid & Cronin, 1943 microlophus Vasotrema longitestis Apalone Arterial Valid Byrd, 1939 spinifera Vessels Zonorchis chandleri Icteria Liver Bile Valid Denton, 1972 virens Duct Cestoda Biacetabulum carpiodi Carpiodes Intestine Valid Mackiewicz, 1969 carpio Calentinella etnieri Erimyzon Intestine Valid Mackiewicz, 1974 oblongus Penarchigetes E. sucetta Intestine Valid macrorchis Christensen & Calentine, 1983 Proteocephalus Amphiuma Intestine Valid Alternans Riser, 1942 tridactylum Acanthocephala Neoechinorhynchus Ictiobus Intestine Valid strigosus Van, bubalus Cleave 1949
Reiber, R. J. 1941. Nematodes of Amphibia and Reptilia. I. Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 16:92-99.
In 1939 Reiber began two summers as a scholarship researcher. His report included 14 new distribution records (Table 1) for nematode species parasitizing 11 host species examined during the summers of 1939 and 1940. Additionally, he reported what he believed to be the first record of an acanthocephalan (Leptorhynchoides thecatus) from the three-toed amphiuma.
Venard, C. E. 1941. Studies on parasites of Reelfoot Lake fish. III. A new genus and new species of trematode (Plagiorchioidea: Macroderoididae) from Lepisosteus platostomus. Journal of the Tennessee Academy qf Science, 16:379-383.
Venard described the digene Paramacroderoides echinus from eight of ten shortnose gar examined during the summers of 1939 and 1940.
Byrd, E. E. 1941. The opossum, Didelphis virginana Kerr, a new host for Paragonimus in Tennessee. Science, 93:542.
Byrd reported, in a short research note, presence of a lung fluke recovered from one of six opossums trapped in the vicinity of the Lake during the summer of 1940. He tentatively identified the worm as Paragonimus westermani (a new Lake region distribution record) and stated that to his knowledge no previous record existed of an opossum hosting a species of Paragonimus. The fact that Byrd chose to publish this note outside the Journal, may have reflected his desire to preserve priority in this discovery, i.e., avoid being "scooped," since the journal Science had a shorter submission to publication time as well as a wider distribution than the Journal.
Denton, J. F. 1941. Studies on the morphology, taxonomy, and life histories of trematodes of the subfamily Dicrocoeliinae Looss, 1899. PhD dissert., Rice Univ., Houston, Texas.
During the summer of 1938 Denton, a recent M.S. graduate from the University of Georgia and one of Byrd's former students, visited the Lake as a scholarship researcher. In preparation for his upcoming doctoral program at Rice University, he examined several species of non-game birds from the Lake vicinity. From the livers or gall bladders of four avian species, he recovered four different digenes that he believed were new to science. Their descriptions later formed portions of his doctoral thesis. One of these new species, Athesmia reelfooti (Fig. 4D), from the liver of a common moorhen, was the fourth parasite to carry the Lake's name. According to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, in order for a new species name to be valid its first use in a publication must meet certain criteria. Appearance in an unpublished graduate thesis did not meet that standard.
Petri, L. H. 1942. Two new dicrocoeliid trematodes from birds. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 61:57-61.
Although Petri had no direct connection to the Lake, this paper provided a "footnote" in the history of parasitological research from the Lake region. The author, from the University of Nebraska, described as a new species, Athesmia butensis, from a hawk in the Galapagos Islands. Petri apparently believed Denton's description of A. reelfooti was "in press," and used the name in his paper without providing a description. This first publication of a scientific name without a valid description constituted a nomen nudum (naked name) and rendered the name invalid. Athesmia reelfooti remained a nomen nudum and was later determined to be a synonym of a previously described species, as discussed later in this paper.
Bangham, R. V., and C. E. Venard. 1942. Studies on parasites of Reelfoot Lake fish. IV. Distribution studies and checklist of parasites. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 17:22-38.
Bangham, from Wooster College in Ohio, joined Venard as a summer scholarship researcher for this final part of a four part series that became the Lake's equivalent of Van Cleave and Mueller's classic work on parasites of Oneida Lake fishes. Citations for this paper, while not as many as for the Oneida Lake study, are numerous and place it among the more important works published in the Journal. The authors examined 558 fish specimens representing 44 of the 56 species reported from the Lake. They reported 67 parasite species, 45 of which represented new Lake distributon records (Table 1). No attempt was made to identify the monogenes, which were sent to J.D. Mizelle and formed the basis of two reports by that author.
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
Reiber, R. J., and E. E. Byrd. 1942. Some nematodes from mammals of Reelfoot Lake in Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 17:78-89.
During the summer of 1940 the authors necropsicd 36 specimens representing six mammalian species. One of the specimens was reported to be a red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), since this species has not been reported from the Lake vicinity perhaps the authors misidentified an eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger). Ten parasite species recovered from the six host species represented new Lake region distribution records (Table 1).
Byrd, E. E., R. J. Reiber, and M. V. Parker. 1942. The anatomy of a lung fluke from the opossum (Didelphis virginiana Kerr). Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 17:116-129.
The authors reported the recovery of 26 specimens of Paragonimus westermani from the lungs of a single opossum trapped in the vicinity of the Lake. They stated that "no specimen of any species of Paragonimus has been reported heretofore from the opossum." They did not cite Byrd's research note, published the previous year, reporting P. westermani from an opossum. This lapse, however, was negated by a detailed anatomical study of the lung fluke. Later Sogandares-Bernal and Seed (1973), determined that P. westermani was restricted to Asia, Africa, the Pacific Islands, and parts of South America, while P. kellicotti was indigenous to parts of North America.
Byrd, E. E., R. J. Reiber, and M. V. Parker. 1942. Mammalian trematodes. I. Trematodes from the opossum, Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 17:130-142.
The authors reported the recovery of seven digene species from an unstated number of hosts. Six species represented new Lake region distribution records (Table 1).
Byrd. E. E., and R. J. Reiber. 1942. Mammalian trematodes. II. Three flukes from small mammals. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 17:143-148.
Two of the three digenes reported were from the New Orleans, Louisiana area. Only one species, Hasstilesia texensis, represented a new Lake region distribution record, having been recovered from both swamp and eastern cottontail rabbits.
Byrd, E. E., and R. W. Macy. 1942. Mammalian trematodes. III. Certain species from bats. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 17:149-156.
Byrd was jointed by Macy, from the College of St. Thomas in Minnesota, for a report on some digenes parasitizing bats from the states of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Louisiana. The Tennessee records were for the Lake region and included an unidentified species of Plagiorchis from the intestine of an evening bat and a new species, Prosthodendrium transversum, from the intestine of a red bat.
Bang, F., and T. Simpson. 1942. Feeding habits of Anopheles walkeri Theobald at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 22:513-516.
The authors performed precipitin tests on blood from the guts of wild-caught subject mosquitoes, and demonstrated that they fed extensively on cows, horses, and other domestic mammals. Human blood was found in 9% of tested samples.
Riser, N. W. 1942. A new proteocephalid from Amphiuma tridactylum Cuvier. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 61:391-397.
During June of 1941 Riser, from the Illinois Institute of Technology and working independent of RLBS scholarship support, recovered and later described Ophiotaenia alternans a new species of proteocephalid tapeworm from the small intestine of a three-toed amphiuma. In a review of proteocephalid tapeworms from North American reptiles and amphibians, Brooks (1978) accepted the validity of O. alternans but transferred the species to the genus Proteocephalus.
Mizelle, J. D., and W. J. Brennan. 1942. Studies on monogenetic trematodes VII. Species infesting the bluegill sunfish. The American Midland Naturalist, 27:135-144.
Based upon material collected by Venard during his residency at the Lake, the authors, from the University of Notre Dame, reported new Lake distribution records (Table 1) for four species of monogenes infesting bluegill sunfish.
Mizelle, J. D., and B. J. Jaskoski. 1942. Studies on monogenetic trematodes VIII. Tetraonchinae infesting Lepomis miniatus Jordan. The American Midland Naturalist, 27:145-153.
Based upon material furnished by Venard, the authors reported two new distribution records (Table 1), and described six new species of monogenes (Table 2) from the Lake. This paper was later abstracted (Mizelle and Jaskoski, 1945) for publication in the Journal.
Mizelle, J. D., D. R. LaGrave, and R. P. O'Shaughnessy. 1943. Studies on monogenetic trematodes IX. Host specificity of Pomoxis Tetraonchinae. The American Midland Naturalist, 29:730-731.
The authors used material furnished by Venard and Bangham to report new Lake distribution records for four species of monogenes of the genus Cleidodiscus infesting the gills of crappie (Table 1). They also reported an apparent case of host specificity exhibited by C. longus and C. uniformis, both of which were recovered from white crappie but not from black crappie caught at the same time and from the same site at the Lake.
Mizelle, J. D., and J. P. Cronin. 1943. Studies on monogenetic trematodes X. Gill parasites from Reelfoot Lake fishes. The American Midland Naturalist, 30:196-222.
Most of this paper's one-page introduction recounted the legend of the Chickasaw Indian chief Kalopin and his role in a mythical story of the Lake's formation. Also included was a summary of a dramatic first-person account, by Eliza Bryan, of the December 16, 1811, earthquake that formed the Lake. Mizelle and Cronin were obviously granted license for a brief digression from parasitology. They did, however, report on additional monogenes collected by Venard and Bangham from seven species of fishes, and included seven new distribution records for the Lake (Table 1), as well as seven new species descriptions (Table 2). Among the new species was Actinocleidus bakeri described from the gills of a redeared sunfish and named in honor of C.L. Baker, who for 33 summers served as the RLBS Director. This paper, like the earlier one by Mizelle and Jaskoski, was published as an abstract in the Journal (Mizelle and Cronin, 1945).
Eyles, D. E., and L. K. Bishop. 1943. The microclimate and diurnal resting places of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say in the vicinity of Reelfoot Lake. Public Health Reports, 58:217-230.
During the summer of 1941 the authors, both from the U.S. Public Health Service in Memphis, measured light intensity, temperature, and humidity existing in barns and other outbuildings at the Walnut Log area of the Lake. Such structures had been identified as daytime resting places for the subject mosquitoes with one building sheltering an estimated 10,000 individuals. According to Eyles and Bishop, decreasing evening light intensity triggered a departure of mosquitoes from shelters during the 20 minutes after sunset. Experiments involving placement of artificial light in shelters resulted in a large number of mosquitoes remaining sheltered through the evening. The authors suggested that lower daytime temperatures and higher humidities in shelters, compared to ambient conditions, drove mosquitoes to seek such resting places.
Eyles, D. E. 1943. A method for catching, marking, and reexamining large numbers of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Journal of the National Malaria Society, 2:85-91.
Eyles reported on a new apparatus and technique for processing large numbers of the subject mosquitoes captured from a barn serving as their resting place. The device consisted of a modified vacuum cleaner attached to a capture chamber. Mosquitoes' wings were marked with a fine aluminum bronzing dust, applied by an atomizer, while they were still in the capture chamber. Marked specimens were released and recaptured up to 26 days later. Recaptures were identified by examination under an ordinary lighted dissecting microscope. The author noted no site location for this study, however, he stated that it occurred over the 1942 mosquito season. According to Baker (1943), Eyles was in residence at the RLBS during the summer of 1942. A photograph included in the paper shows an exterior view of the barn used in the study. This structure is identifiable as one located at Walnut Log. Another photograph shows the author examining mosquitoes for marked specimens and is identifiable as an interior view of the RLBS.
Eyles, D. E., and W. E. Cox. 1943. The measurement of a population of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. Journal of the National Malaria Society, 2:71-83.
The authors applied the quantitative ecology technique known as the "Lincoln Index" to estimate population densities of the subject mosquitoes at Walnut Log. In a large scale process, detailed in the previous entry, specimens were captured during the day from barns and other outbuildings, then marked, released, and recaptured from the same buildings. Eyles and Cox explained the mathematics involved in their estimate that population densities of female A. quadrimaculatus were up to 11,000 per acre during the summer of 1942.
Eyles, D. E., and L. K. Bishop. 1943. An experiment on the range of dispersion of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. American Journal of Hygene, 37:239-245.
During the summer of 1942 over 16 thousand specimens of the subject mosquito were captured from their daytime resting places at Walnut Log. Specimens were marked and transported various distances from their original points of capture and then released. Of the 31 females recaptured, most were recovered a week later at their original daytime resting places. Range of dispersal was determined to be from 3.2 to 4.0 km.
Eyles, D. E. 1943. Accidental transportation of mosquitoes by automobile. Journal of Economic Entomology, 36:345.
The author reported the survival of several specimens of an unidentified mosquito species accidentally transported in the trunk of his automobile from the Lake to Memphis during August 1942. He suggested that this mode of transport might account for isolated malaria cases in otherwise nonmalarious regions. This short note, written during the early months of the Second World War, demonstrated the readiness of some journals of the day to publish most anything that might support the war effort by combating malaria.
Bang, F. B., G. E. Quinby, and T. W. Simpson. 1943. Studies on Anopheles walkeri Theobald conducted at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee 1935-1941. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 23:247-273.
The authors reported that the subject mosquito population composed about 38.5% of the Lake region's entire anopheline community. Flight distances of individuals from their nearest breeding sites to points of capture were reported to be 2.4 to 3.2 km. Their daytime resting places were discovered to be the high humidity, shaded bases of mature cut-grass. Prevalence of Plasmodium infection among 2,003 specimens of A. walkeri was determined to be a low 0.0005%, whereas dissections of 1,170 specimens of A. quadrimaculatus indicated a higher prevalence of 0.0026%. The laying of over-wintering eggs by A. walkeri was reported to have extended over a period of up to two weeks in September of 1937 and 1939. Capture data indicated that few A. walkeri were active and in flight at temperatures below 23.9[degrees]C. This lengthy article reflected the need of major medical journals of the day to disseminate information on potential vectors for human infecting Plasmodium.
Ellis, J. M. 1944. Notes on the collection and oviposition of Anopheles walkeri. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 19:29-30.
Ellis, from the Malaria Research Laboratory of the National Institute of Health in Columbia, South Carolina, was in residence at the RLBS for six weeks during the summer of 1942. This note consisted mostly of the materials and methods the author used to capture female mosquitoes, feed them a blood meal, induce them to lay eggs on small squares of wet filter paper, and package those pieces of paper for shipment to his home laboratory in South Carolina. Except for noting the percent of blood-fed specimens that oviposited (58%) and the range in number of eggs they laid (100 to 200), this "contribution to the war effort" would rank among the least important papers ever published in the Journal.
Hoff, C. C. 1944. A preliminary study of the Hydracarina of Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 19:45 69.
Hoff, from Quincy College in Illinois, spent the summer of 1942 in scholarship residence. He reported on his collection of water mites from 141 locations around the Lake. While all hydracarina are parasitic as larvae, as are those of the freshwater mussel family Unionidae, some member of the water mite genus Unionicola arc coincidentally parasitic as adults in the mantle cavities of adult unionid mussels. One such parasitic mite was reported from two species of mussels taken from the Lake (Table 1).
Denton, J. F. 1945. Studies on the life history of Brachylecithum americanum n. sp., a liver fluke of passerine birds. Journal of Parasitology, 31:131-141.
Denton, a member of the faculty at the Medical College of Georgia, described a new digene species from specimens initially recovered from the liver of a blue jay examined from the Lake vicinity during the summer of 1938 (Table 2).
Meyer, M. C. 1946. Further notes on the leeches (Piscicolidae) living on fresh-water fishes of North America. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 65: 237-249.
Meyer, from Rutgers University, reported on an examination of several freshwater fish leech collections including Venard's, which contained specimens from Lake fishes. According to Meyer the Piscicola punctata reported by Venard, from both largemouth bass and warmouth, had been misidentified and were in fact Illinobdella moorei. In a review of reports on densities and pathogenicities of leech infestations of freshwater fish, Meyer stated that, "In Reelfoot Lake Illinobdella richardsoni infesting mucosal lining of the mouth of the black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) has recently been observed to do serious damage. Apparently in an attempt to escape from leeches the infested fish will repeatedly leap out of the water." Since Meyer cited no authority for this observation, presumably it was a personal observation or perhaps it was personally communicated by Venard or Bangham.
Eyles, D. E. 1948. Anopheles mosquito production of the plant communities of Reelfoot Lake. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 23:139-147.
Eyles study, which was conducted in the summer of 1941, was unusual in that it considered some of the ecological factors involved in the association of the free-living stage of a parasite with its community. Four distinct aquatic plant communities were studied along with the four species of larval anophelines developing in the Lake. The Salix community, dominated by arboreal willow trees located at the shoreline, included relatively small populations of Anopheles crucians and A. puncipennis, but supported larger populations of A. walkeri and A. quadrimaculatus. The Zizaniopsis community, dominated by emergent cut-grass, included only large populations of A. walkeri and A. quadrimaculatus and was considered to have optimal biotic and abiotic factors for production of those two mosquito species. No mosquito larvae composed the deeper water Nuphar-Nelumbo (cow-lily/American lotus) community, nor the deepest water Ceratophyllum (coontail moss) community.
Goodman, J. D. 1949. Observation on the anatomy, classification, and life history of the trematode genus Stomatrema Guberlet (1928). Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 24:52-59.
The author, from Mercer University in Georgia, spend the summers of 1947 and 1948 in scholarship residence. He investigated the unsettled familial assignment of the digene genus Stomatrema, all described species of which reportedly parasitized the esophagus of mud snakes. Goodman conducted anatomical and life cycle studies on S. faranciae from the Lake vicinity. Based upon these studies he concluded that the genus Stomatrema was assignable to the subfamily Reniferinae of the family Plagiorchiidae. Goodman's research would later form a portion of his doctoral thesis at the University of Michigan.
Van Cleave, H. J. 1949. The acanthocephalan genus Neoechinorhynchus in the catostomid fishes of North America, with descriptions of two new species. Journal of Parasitology, 35:500-512.
Van Cleave, from the University of Illinois, was an aforementioned coauthor of the study on parasites of Oneida Lake fishes. Although no record exists of him visiting Reelfoot Lake, Van Cleave described a new species of acanthocephalan (Table 2) from the intestine of a Lake dwelling smallmouth buffalo. Worms were recovered and given to Van Cleave by William Robertson, who was a University of Illinois graduate student conducting ornithology studies at the Lake. Van Cleave, incidentally, was the only parasitologist to have published research originating from Douglas Lake (Van Cleave, 1919), Oneida Lake (Van Cleave, 1923), and Reelfoot Lake.
Denton, J. F., and E. E. Byrd. 1951. The helminth parasites of birds, III: Dicrocoeliid trematodes from North American birds. Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 101:157-202.
The authors collaborated on a report that included accounts of two more of the four species of digenes Denton recovered from birds during the summer of 1938. Although still a nomen nudum, Athesmia reelfooti was determined by the authors to be a junior synonym for A. heterolecithoides, a species that had been described in 1899 from a purple moorhen (Porphyrio porphyrio) in Europe. This new Lake region distribution record for A. heterolecithoides also represented the first Western Hemisphere record for a widely distributed parasite from a near cosmopolitan group of avian hosts. Additionally, the authors described as a new species Conspicuum icteridorum initially recovered from the gall bladder of a common grackle from the Lake vicinity.
Goodman, J. D. 1951. Studies on trematode cercariae at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, I. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 26:22-25.
The author, relocated to the University of Michigan where he was a graduate student, returned to the Lake for the summer of 1949, and examined almost 1,500 snails representing eight species. Snails were taken from two areas of the Lake, including "Cranetown," and from Lake Isom just south of Reelfoot Lake. Goodman reported the presence of 24 different cercarial species from four species of snails. He neither identified nor described any of the larval trematodes beyond general morphological type.
Goodman, J. D. 1951. Studies on trematode cercariae at Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, II. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 26:55-72.
This long paper was a follow-up to the previous entry but appeared in the same issue of the Journal. Goodman described nine new species of larval trematodes from two species of aquatic snails (Table 2). While the specific name reelfooti was unavailable for any of the new species, Goodman formed the specific names of samburgi, obioni, isomi, and yankapinensis from Lake region locality names. A footnote to the title acknowledged the paper to be a joint contribution from the RLBS and the University of Michigan.
Goodman, J. D. 1952. Taxonomic studies of the family Ochetosomatidae Leao, 1944, and the life history of Stomatrema guberleti Byrd, 1937, Trematoda. PhD dissert., Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Based upon collections made and life cycles studies conducted at the RLBS during the summers of 1947 and 1948 and later at the UMBS, Goodman elucidated the life cycle of the digene Stomatrema guberleti. He also reported on the taxonomy of the digene genus Pneumatophilus, which like Stomatrema parasitizes water snakes. The historical significance of Goodman's dissertation resides in the fact that the research originated from both the Reelfoot and Douglas Lake regions.
Venard, C. E., and J. H. Warfel. 1953. Some effects of two species of Acanthocephala on the alimentary canal of the largemouth bass. Journal of Parasitology, 39:187-190.
Venard was joined by Warfel, from the University of Buffalo School of Medicine, for a report describing the pathogenesis of two acanthocephalan species parasitizing largemouth bass. Both worms had previously been reported by Venard who had preserved, as biopsy specimens, segments of fish intestine containing worms in situ. After histological preparation, stained sections of the host organ containing worms were studied and photographed to illustrate the greater tissue damage caused by one species compared to that of the other.
Snow, W. E., and E. Pickard. 1954. Observations on the seasonal activity of some night-biting Diptera. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 29:17-22.
The authors were medical entomologists with the Malaria Control Branch of the Tennessee Valley Authority. During the spring, summer, and fall of 1952 they made regular collections of nocturnal blood feeding Diptera at two capture stations near the RLBS. One station was on the edge of a cypress forest and the other was 45.7 m inside the forest. Biting flies, including many non-mosquito species, were captured by light traps or by suction aspirator as they attempted to feed on the exposed skin of the collector. While most of this paper dealt with seasonal feeding activity, the authors listed 14 new Lake region distribution records for blood feeding Diptera (Table 1). These records included three additional mosquito species, two deerfly species, eight species of small biting gnats commonly called punkies or "no-see-ums," and one sand fly species.
Snow, W. E. 1955. Feeding activities of some blood-sucking Diptera with reference to vertical distribution in bottom-land forest. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 48:512-521.
Snow used the same data reported in the previous entry but organized differently. Biting fly catches were compared between the forest edge and forest proper and between ground level and heights of 9.1 m or 22.9 m in the forest canopy. Among the more interesting observations was the apparent high canopy preference exhibited by the sand fly Phlebotomus shannoni (= Lutzomya shannoni), a species indigenous to Central and South America that had extended its range northward.
Najarian, H. H. 1955. Notes on aspidogastrid trematodes and hydracarina from some Tennessee mussels. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science, 30:11-14.
Najarian, from Northeastern University in Boston, was awarded a research scholarship for six weeks during the summer of 1954. He examined 28 specimens representing three species of unionid mussels from Bayou du Chien (Fig. 2). All mussels examined harbored infections with an aspidogastrid trematode tentatively identified by the author as Cotylaspis insignis (a new Lake distribution record). In addition, two species of water mites, representing new Lake distribution records (Table 1), reportedly parasitized 75% of the mussel specimens.
Price, E. W. 1959. Some new monogenetic trematodes from the gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum (La Sueur). Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science, 30:9-10.
Price, from Jacksonville State University in Alabama, used this short note to report three new species of monogenes, collected by Bangham and Venard, from the gills of gizzard shad inhabiting the Lake. Price erected a new genus to receive one of the new species. The other two species were assignable to an existing genus. The author, however, failed to provide descriptions for any of these new taxa, thus creating multiple nomina nuda.
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
Price, E. W. 1961. North American monogenetic trematodes IX. The families Mazocraeidae and Plectanocotylidae. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington,74:127-155.
Price used the taxonomic revision of two monogene families to correct the nomina nuda of the previous entry. He furnished a diagnosis of the new genus and provided full descriptions of the three new species (Table 2). Additionally, he also reported a new Lake distribution record (Table 1) for a previously described monogene.
Najarian, H. H. 1961. New aspidogastrid trematode, Cotylaspis reelfootensis, from some Tennessee mussels. Journal of Parasitology, 47:515-520.
The author, relocated to the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, reconsidered his 1955 identification of the aspidogastrid trematode parasitizing mussels from Bayou du Chien. He decided these specimens were significantly different from Cotylaspis insignis and represented a new species. Accordingly, he described C. reelfootensis (Fig. 4E), which then became the fifth parasite to carry the Lake's name. Unfortunately for the Lake, Cotylaspis reelfootensis would soon be declared an invalid name.
Hendrix, S. S., and R. B. Short. 1965. Aspidogastrids from northeastern Gulf of Mexico river drainages. Journal of Parasitology, 51:561-569.
The authors, from Florida State University, briefly visited the Lake during the summer of 1964 and collected specimens of Cotylaspis reelfootensis from mussels in Bayou du Chien. Examination of these worms led to a revised diagnosis of the genus Cotylaspis, a redescription of C. insignis, and a reduction of C. reelfootensis to the status of junior synonym for C. insignis.
Mackiewicz, J. S. 1969. Penarchigetes oklensis gen. et sp. n. and Biacetabulum carpiodi sp. n. (Cestoidea: Caryphyllaeidae) from catostomid fish in North America. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 36:119-126.
During the summer of 1966 the author, from the State University of New York at Albany, had the distinction of being the last parasitologist to be a resident researcher at the RLBS. While there, Mackiewicz necropsied a river carpsucker taken from Running Reelfoot Bayou, near the Spillway (Fig. 2). From the intestine of the fish he recovered specimens of a caryophyllidean tapeworm representing a new species (Table 2).
Denton, J. F. 1972. Zonorchis chandleri sp. n. (Digenea: Dicrocoeliidae) from the yellow-breasted chat, Icteria virens. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 39:14-15.
This publication completed Denton's reports of digenes parasitizing the livers or gall bladders of birds examined 34 years earlier from the Lake vicinity. Zonorchis chandleri was described from specimens recovered from the avian host's liver and was named in honor of Asa Chandler, who was Denton's thesis advisor at Rice University.
Mackiewicz, J. S. 1974. Calentinella etnieri gen. et sp. n. (Cestoidea: Caryophyllaeidae) from Erimyzon oblongus (Mitchill) (Cypriniformes: Catostomidae) in North America. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 41:42-45.
From August 1967 to August 1968 the author, while on academic leave from his post in New York, worked in the parasitology laboratory of Arthur Jones at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville. In March and July of 1968 Mackiewicz examined some creek chubsuckers, taken from Indian Creek near its entrance into the Lake, and recovered specimens of a new genus and new species of caryophyllidean tapeworm. He erected the genus Calentinella to receive the new species, C. etnieri, named in honor of David Etnier of the University of Tennessee at Knoxville, who had assisted in collecting the host fish. Incidentally, Mackiewicz (pers. comm.) did not use RLBS facililties, but like a true field parasitologist necropsied the chubsuckers in the field while using a tripod metal folding chair as a table (Fig. 5).
Bafundo, K. W. 1978. Geographic variation in helminth parasites from the digestive tract of Tennessee raccoons, Procyon lotor. MS thesis, Univ. of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee.
The author reported on an examination of 253 raccoons in a state-wide survey for gastrointestinal helminth parasites. Various numbers of hosts were taken from each of Tennessee's physiographic regions. A total of six raccoons were examined from the Mississippi Alluvial Plain region, which includes the Lake vicinity. The author did not state the number of raccoons comprising the sample from Lake County, but listed five helminth species including one digene, two tapeworms, and two nematodes, all of which represented new Lake region distribution records (Table 1). This thesis was later published (Bafundo et al., 1980); however, because of the need to condense information for journal publication, data from the Lake region lost its identity when pooled with that from other sites in the alluvial plain.
Christensen, B. M., and R. L. Calentine. 1983. Penarchigetes macrorchis sp. n. (Cestodea: Caryophyllaeidae) from the lake chubsucker, Erimyzon sucetta (Lacepede), in western Kentucky. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 50:112-116.
The authors, from Murray State University in Kentucky and the University of Wisconsin at River Falls, described a new species of caryophyllidean tapeworm from the intestines of two fish taken during July 1981 from Murphy's Pond in Hickman County, Kentucky. While this locality may seem outside the Lake region, this pond is a shallow, relict cypress swamp formed during the seismic events that created Reelfoot Lake and was part of a drainage basin that included the Lake.
Strohlein, D. A., and B. M. Christensen. 1984. Haemogregarina sp. (Apicomplexa: Sporozoea) in aquatic turtles from Murphy's Pond, Kentucky. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 103:98-101.
During June through August 1981 the authors, from Murray State University, took blood samples from 85 turtles representing four aquatic species inhabiting Murphy's Pond. Intraerythrocytic gametocytes of an undetermined species of the protozoan genus Haemogregarina were found in the blood of all four turtle species (Table 1). Prevalence of infection among the turtle species ranged from 36% to 96%. According to the authors, the turtle leech Placobdella parasitica (the first parasite to be reported from the Lake region) had been demonstrated, by other investigators, to be a vector in the life cycles of some Haemogregarina species.
Van Den Bussche, R. A. 1984. Temporal and spatial variation of helminth parasites in coyotes, Canis latrans, from Tennessee. MS thesis, Univ. of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee.
The author reported on a four-year project involving examination of 267 coyotes from 30 localities, mostly in western Tennessee. Trappers furnished the author with six coyote carcasses from the Obion County side of the Lake. From those six hosts Van Den Bussche recovered four parasite species (Table 1), all of which represented new Lake region distribution records. This thesis was later published (Van Den Bussche et al., 1987) and, as was the case with Bafundo et al. (1980), the need to condense information for journal publication resulted in pooling of data and loss of its identity as originating from the Lake region.
Cole, R. A., and W. L. Shoop. 1987. Helminths of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) in western Kentucky. Journal of Parasitology, 73:762-768.
The authors, from Murray State University, reported on a five-month survey in which they examined 70 raccoons for helminth parasites. Unlike the study of Bafundo et al. (1980), which involved only gastrointestinal helminths, Cole and Shoop examined many additional organs including the diaphragm, lungs, pancreas, skin, and urinary bladder. The authors reported the presence of 23 helminth species hosted by raccoons in western Kentucky. Six raccoons taken from the Lake vicinity in Fulton County, Kentucky collectively harbored 14 species of helminths. Eight of these species represented new Lake region distribution records (Table 1).
Platt, T. R. 1988. Phylogenetic analysis of the North American species of the genus Hapalorhynchu Stunkard, 1922 (Trematoda: Spirorchiidae), blood-flukes of freshwater turtles. Journal of Parasitology, 74:870-874.
The author, from Saint Mary's College in Indiana, examined specimens of Hapalorhynchus reelfooti, H. stunkardi, and H. evaginatus, which Byrd had deposited in the U.S. National Museum 50 years earlier as holotypes for three species of blood flukes he described from Lake turtles. While Platt expressed no opinion on the status of H. evaginatus, since the slide mounted specimen lacked a definitive quality, he accepted the validity of H. reelfooti and H. stunkardi and noted their phylogeny in two cladograms. This paper represented the first taxonomic review of any of the spirorchiid species described by Byrd in 1939.
Macdonald, C. A., and Brooks, D. R. 1989. Revision and phylogenetic analysis of the North American species of Telorchis Luhe, 1899 (Cercomeria: Trematoda: Digenea: Telorchiidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 67:2301-2320.
The authors, from the University of British Columbia and the University of Toronto, respectively, examined holotype and paratype specimens of Cercorchis reelfooti deposited in the U.S. National Museum by Parker in 1941. Based upon this examination they reduced C. reelfooti to the status of junior synonym for Telorchis sirensis, which had been described by Zeliff (1937) from the greater siren. Zeliff, however, reported no type locality other than the southeastern United States. Therefore, Parker's work was significant in that it established the Lake as the first definite distribution record for T. sirens and the three-toed amphiuma as a new host record for the digene.
Goodman, J. D. 1990. Amblosoma reelfooti n. sp. (Trematoda: Brachylaimata Thapariellidae) from Viviparus intertextus in Tennessee and Thapariella prudhoei n. sp. from Lanistes sp. in Zaire. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 100:319-324.
Goodman, from the San Bernadino County Museum in California, described a new digene species from unencysted metacercariae found in the mantle cavities of freshwater snails taken from Bayou du Chien during his summers as a scholarship researcher in the late 1940's and again as recently as 1981. Amblosoma reelfooti (Fig. 4F) thus became the sixth and most recent parasite to carry the Lake's name. Goodman noted that the definitive host for A. reelfooti was presumably a species of waterfowl.
Platt, T. R., and A. K. Prestwood. 1990. Deposition of type and voucher material from the helminthological collection of Elon E. Byrd. Systematic Parasitology, 16:27-34.
Platt was joined by Prestwood, from the College of Veterinary Medicine at the University of Georgia, for a report that would eventually serve to renew interest in field parasitology studies at the Lake. The authors catalogued the late Elon Byrd's personal collection of helminths. Among the collection were designated paratype and/or voucher specimens of seven of the nine spirorchiid species that Byrd described from Lake turtles 52 years earlier. Fifteen slide mounted specimens were deposited in either the U.S. National Museum Helminthological Collection or the collection of the Harold W. Manter Laboratory at the University of Nebraska. Accession numbers were provided thus making those specimens available for study.
Detterline, J. L., and W. E. Wilhelm. 1991. Survey of pathogenic Naegleria fowleri and thermotolerant amebas in federal recreational waters. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, 110:244-261.
The authors, from the University of Memphis, examined water samples from 59 aquatic sites in national parks, national battlefield parks, and national wildlife refuges located across the United States. The main focus of the survey was the facultative human parasite Naegleria fowleri, which is the etiological agent of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. The Upper Blue Basin (Fig. 2) of the Lake was one of 53 sampled sites from which the authors reported no N. fowleri populations. However, they reported the presence of an unidentified species of Hartmanella, a genus which had been demonstrated to cause facultative infections in freshwater snails. In contrast, Owl Creek in the Shiloh National Battlefield Park, also in western Tennessee, was one of only six localities reportedly supporting populations of N. fowleri.
Platt, T. R. 1993. Taxonomic revision of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1919 (Digenea: Spirorchidae). Journal of Parasitology, 79:337-346.
Platt used specimens from the Byrd collection to prepare the first taxonomic revision of the genus Spirorchis since Byrd's major work of 1939. He accepted, as a valid species S. minutus, which Byrd had described from a common snapping turtle. Spirorchis blandingoides, described by Byrd from both the red-eared slider and the river cooter, was declared an invalid name and was reduced to a junior synonym of S. scripta. Pratt reduced S. pseudomyae, which had been described by Byrd from a red-eared slider, to the status of junior synonym for S. artericola. Spirorchis magnitestis, described by Byrd from a common snapping turtle, was considered a species inquirenda, i.e., a species of doubtful identity needing further investigation.
Kollars, T. M., R. E. Lizotte, and W. E. Wilhelm. 1997. Gastrointestinal helminths of the river otter (Lutra canadensis) in Tennessee. Journal of Parasitology, 83:158-160.
The authors, from the University of Memphis, reported on a nine-year survey involving examination of 91 river otters taken by fur trappers and Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency personnel from 12 counties in western Tennessee. Only three helminth species were recovered from otters in the sample. A digene (Baschkirovitrema incrassatum) parasitized 33% of the hosts, an unidentified species of the acanthocephalan genus Acanthocephalus had a prevalence of 5.5%, and a nematode (Strongyloides lutrae) had a prevalence of 1.1%. Localities for the acanthocephalan and the nematode were not given, however, of the ten otters examined from the Lake vicinity, seven harbored infections with B. incrassatum, which represented a new Lake region distribution record.
Tkach, V. V., S. D. Snyder, and Z. Swinderski. 2001. On the phylogenetic relationships of some members of Macroderoididae and Ochetosomatidae (Digenea, Plagiorchioidea). Acta Parasitologica, 46:267-275.
The authors were from the Institute of Zoology in Kiev, Ukraine, the University of Nebraska at Omaha, and the Medical University of Warsaw in Poland, respectively. During May 2001 Snyder visited the Lake and collected a specimen of the macroderoidid digene, Macroderiodes typicus (a Lake distribution record) from the intestine of a shortnose gar. He also collected several specimens of the ochetosomatid digene, Dasymetra nicolli (a Lake region distribution record) from the mouth of a diamondback water snake. Preserved specimens of both worm species were forwarded to Tkach for extraction of genomic DNA, which was used to generate base sequences for comparisons of partial 28S rDNA among representative species of the two digene families. Based upon these studies the authors concluded that the families Macroderoididae and Ochetosomatidae formed cladistic branches independent of the family Plagiorchiidae.
Kuzmin, Y., V. V. Tkach, and S. D. Snyder. 2003. The nematode genus Rhabdias (Nematoda: Rhabdiasidae) from amphibians and reptiles of the Neartic. Comparative Parasitology, 70:101-114.
Two of the authors of the previous entry were joined by Kuzmin from the Institute of Zoology in Kiev, for this report on lung parasitizing nematodes of the genus Rhabdias endemic to North America. During his 2001 visit to the Lake, Snyder collected specimens of R. fascovenosa from the lungs of a yellow-bellied water snake and specimens of R. joaquinensis (a Lake region distribution record) from the lungs of a green frog. The authors subjected these specimens to detailed anatomical studies resulting in species redescriptions, which were used for comparisons with a new species described from a salamander taken from a Wisconsin lake.
Snyder, S. D. 2004. Phylogeny and paraphyly among tetrapod blood flukes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae and Spirorchiidae). International Journal for Parasitology, 34:1385-1392.
During the spring of 2002 the author, with support from the National Institutes of Health, visited the Lake for the second time and collected specimens of three species of turtle blood flukes. Genomic DNA was later extracted from Hapalorhynchus gracilis, Spirorchis scripta, and Unicaecum sp. Small and large subunit ribosomal DNA mucleotide sequences were generated for these three spirorchiids as well as for two other species of freshwater turtle blood flukes from other localities. This data was compared with base sequences from three species of spirorchiids from Pacific Ocean marine turtles as well as a variety of schistosomatid blood flukes from birds and mammals. Results of the phylogenetic study indicated that spirorchiids from freshwater turtles were ancestral to those from marine turtles and that the family Spirorchiidae was paraphyletic and basal to the family Schistomatidae.
Barger, M. A. 2004. The Neoechinorhynchus of turtles: Specimen base, distribution and host use. Comparative Parasitology, 71:118-129.
The author, from Peru State College in Nebraska, visited the Lake during the summers of 2002 and 2003 and collected three species of acanthocephalans parasitizing the intestines of Lake turtles. Neoechinorhynchus chrysemydis was recovered from a red-eared slider, N. emyditoides was recovered from a red-eared slider and a false map turtle, and N. pseudemydis was recovered from a red-eared slider. All three acanthocephalan species represented new Lake region distribution records.
Snyder, S. D., and R. E. Clopton. 2005. New methods for collection and preservation of spirorchiid trematodes and polystomatid monogeneans from turtles. Comparative Parastitology, 72:102-107.
Snyder was joined by Clopton, from Peru State College, for a description of some of the methods and techniques developed and applied by Snyder while visiting the Lake during the spring of 2002.
Goodman, J. D., and S. Monks. 2006. Taxonomic revision of Pneumatophilus Odhner, 1910, and description of Pneumatophilus tracheophilus n. sp. (Ochetosomatoidea: Ochetosomatidae) from the mud snake Farancia abacura abacura (Serpentes: Colubridae: Xenodontinae). Comparative Parasitology, 73:14-19.
Goodman was joined by Monks, from the Autonomous University of the State of Hidalgo in Mexico, for a report on the revision of the digene genus Pneumatophilus. The authors noted Goodman's recovery of specimens of P. leidyi (a Lake region distribution record) from the tracheae and lungs of green water snakes necropsied during his residency in the late 1940's. In the acknowledgments section of the paper Goodman noted that he hoped that it was not premature to thank the Academy for a grant and the RLBS for facilities made available to him 57 years earlier.
Platt, T. R. 2006. First report of Echinochasmus sp. from the snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina L.) from Reelfoot Lake, Tennessee, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology, 73:161-164.
Among specimens from the Byrd collection catalogued by Platt and Prestwood, but not deposited in any museum collection, were 12 slide mounted specimens of a member of the digene genus Echinochasmus. Labels written by Byrd indicated the specimens were from the intestine of a common snapping turtle taken from the Lake in the summer of 1937. Although Platt was unable to identify the species, he described the worm and illustrated a representative specimen. Significance of the report resided not only in the fact that this represented a new Lake region locality record but was also the first report of Echinochasmus from a turtle host.
Turner, H. M. 2006. Distribution and prevalence of Allocorrigia filiformis (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae), a parasite of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii, within the state of Louisiana and the Lower Mississippi River Valley, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology, 73:274-278.
The author, from the University of Tennessee at Martin, reported on the distribution and prevalence of an adult digene from the antennal glands (excretory organs) of the red swamp crayfish. Nine of 15 crayfish taken during May 2005 from the wetland on the west side of the Lake, harbored infections with Allocorrigia jiliformis. Additionally, eight of 13 crayfish taken from Running Slough, a feeder stream entering the northeast side of the Lake from Kentucky, harbored infections with this digene. Both collections represented a new Lake region distribution record.
Curran, S. S., V. V. Thach, and R. M. Overstreet. 2006. A review of Polylekithum Arnold, 1934 and its familial affinities using morphological and molecular data, with description of Polylekithum catahoulensis sp. nov. Acta Parasitologica, 51:238-248.
Tkach, relocated to the University of North Dakota, was joined on this paper by Curran and Overstreet, both from the University of Southern Mississippi. During his 2002 visit to the Lake Snyder recovered and later provided the authors with specimens of Polylekithum ictaluri from a brown bullhead. Some specimens were used for extraction of genomic DNA while others were stained for whole mount microscopic study. Comparative anatomical and molecular studies confirmed the new species status of P. catahoulensis, from a blue catfish taken from Catahoula Lake in Louisiana. The authors concluded that the genus Polylekithum should be transferred from the family Allocreadiidae to the family Encyclometridae.
Platt, T. R., and S. D. Snyder. 2007. Redescription of Hapalorhynchus reelfooti Byrd, 1939 (Digenea: Spirorchiidae) from Sternotherus odoratus (Latreille, 1801). Comparative Parasitology, 74:31-34.
The authors collaborated on a paper that would establish the species validity of one of the nine spirorchiids Byrd describe from Lake turtles, but would declare another to be invalid. Based upon specimens collected from stink pot turtles in Virginia and Indiana, the authors redescribed Hapalorhynchus reelfooti. However, after examination of specimens of H. evaginatus from Byrd's collection, the authors concluded that it was a junior synonym of Vasotrema attenuatum (a Lake region distribution record). With this publication, five of the nine spirorchiid species described by Byrd were recognized as valid, thus reconfirming the Lake as a major center of spirorchiid diversity.
Tkach, V. V., E. J. Strand, and L. Froese. 2008. Macroderoides texanus n. sp. (Digenea: Macroderoididae) from alligator gar, Atractosteus spathula in Texas. Parasitology Research, 104:27-33.
The authors, all from the University of North Dakota, obtained genomic DNA extracted from two specimens of Macroderoides trilobatus (a Lake distribution record) recovered from a bowfin taken from the Lake by Snyder in 2001. The DNA was used to generate a base sequence for comparison with that from a worm they believed to be a new species from an alligator gar taken from the Nueces River in Texas. Differences in sequence confirmed their designation of M. texanus as a new species.
Turner, H. M. 2009. Additional distribution and prevalence records for Alloglossidium dolandi (Digenea: Macroderoididae) and a comparison with the distribution of Alloglossidium caridicolum, parasites of procambarid crayfish, within the Coastal Plains of the Southeastern United States. Comparative Parasitology, 76:283-286.
The author reported on the distribution and prevalence of a species of adult digene from the antennal glands of white river crayfish. Two of 13 crayfish taken during May 2007 from the wetlands west of the Lake harbored infections with Alloglossidium dolandi. Additionally, four of 14 crayfish taken from Running Slough also harbored infections with this digene. Both collections represented a new Lake region distribution record.
Freyre, D. 2009. Population genetics and host specificity of Spirorchis scripta in emydid turtles. MS thesis, Univ. of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, Nebraska.
Freyre, who was a graduate student of Scott Snyder, visited the Lake during part of the summer of 2008. She necropsied several species of emydid turtles and recovered specimens of the blood fluke Spirorchis scripta, which were prepared for later molecular studies.
An objective review of the preceding annotated bibliography indicates that no individual influenced the Lake region's history of field parasitology more that Elon E. Byrd of the University of Georgia. Byrd's introduction of three of his graduate students to a field station research experience created a synergy, not uncommon in such relationships, that resulted in the four investigators collectively authoring or coauthoring 18 of the 90 papers.
Most biological field stations maintain an online bibliography of works originating from that station or its vicinity. A numerical comparison of parasitological reports from ten of North American's best known and well established freshwater field stations, indicated that only the University of Michigan Biological Station (LIMBS) and the Algonquin Park Wildlife Research Station (WRS) in Ontario, Canada exceeded the number of such reports originating from the Lake region. Unfortunately, the RLBS's place in the history of field parasitology ended in January 1977 when, in an apparent act of arson, it was destroyed by fire and never rebuilt.
Of the non-human hosts for parasites from the Lake region, turtles are among the most visible of year-round residents. In terms of species diversity and population numbers turtles are an important group and have been well studied at the Lake for their own biology and natural history. It was probably not coincidental that the first parasite to be reported from the Lake was a turtle leech, the first digene distribution record involved turtle hosts, and the first new species description was for a turtle blood fluke. Furthermore, species richness among the Lake turtle community was reflected in the most frequently cited study originating from the Lake, namely Byrd's report on species diversity of spirorchiid blood flukes.
Other cold-blooded vertebrates from the Lake region have been well investigated for their parasitofaunas as have some of the mammals. Two groups that have not been well studied for their roles as hosts are the aquatic macroinvertebrates, especially the freshwater limpets or ancylid snails, and the highly visible aquatic birds, many of which are not year-round residents. These two groups are perhaps the most important for any consideration of the overall parasitofauna of the region.
According to Esch (2004), principles of ecological parasitology hold that in large deep lakes with limited littoral zones the parasitofauna of fish predominate. Parasite life cycles are completed within the confines of the lake and such parasites are termed autogenic species. On the other hand, in large shallow lakes with extensive littoral zones, like Reelfoot Lake, the parasitofauna of aquatic birds predominate. Life cycles of parasites of migratory waterfowl are completed outside the lake and these parasites are termed allogenic species (Esch, 2004).
Shallow lakes support species-rich communities of aquatic macroinvertebrates that frequent the littoral zones where aquatic birds feed and defecate, thus passing their parasites' eggs into shallow water. Through infections acquired from these eggs, aquatic macroinvertebrates become intermediate hosts for larvae of avian helminths, which eventually cycle back to the birds via food webs. In the case of Reelfoot Lake, which lies along the Mississippi Flyway, allogenic parasite species should be all the more predominant.
Parasitologists will continue to visit the Lake and collect specimens needed to complement or complete distribution, classical taxonomic, or comparative molecular studies, however, the real work involves parasite life cycles and ecology. Unfortunately, such studies require time and facilities, which are commodities that are often in short supply.
I am grateful to W. Smith for his suggestion ten years ago that I prepare this historical account. I am indebted to R. Saunders, Curator of Special Collections/University Archivist, for his help in using the Wintfred Smith Reelfoot Lake Collection in the Paul Meek Library of the University of Tennessee at Martin. I also thank D. Etnier, J. Mackiewicz, and H. Najarian for sharing their records and memories of field parasitology at the Lake.
BAFUNDO, K. W., W. E. WILHELM, AND M. L. KENNEDY. 1980. Geographic variation in helminth parasites from the digestive tract of Tennessee raccoons, Procyon lotor. J. Parasitol., 66:134-139.
BAKER, C. L. 1943. Report of the director of the Reelfoot Lake Biological Station. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci., 18:1-3.
BROOKS, D. R. 1978. Systematic status of proteocephalid cestodes from reptiles and amphibians in North America with descriptions of three new species. Proc. Helm. Soc. Wash., 45:1-28.
BYRD, E. E., C. E. VENARD, AND R. J. REIBER. 1941. The excretory system in Trematoda. I. Studies on the excretory system in the trematode subfamily Gorgoderinae Looss, 1899. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci., 16:174-176.
CORT, W. W. 1915. Gordius larval parasites in a trematode. J. Parasitol., 198-199.
DAWES, B. 1946. The Trematoda. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
ESCH, G. W. 2004. Parasites, people, and places: essays on field parasitology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
MILTON, J. D. 1969. A history of the Reelfoot Lake Biological Station. MS thesis, The Univ. of Tennessee at Martin, Martin, Tennessee.
MIZELLE, J. D., AND J. P. CRONIN. 1945. Studies on monogenetic trematodes. X. Gill parasites from Reelfoot Lake fishes. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci., 20:206-207.
MIZELLE, J. D., AND B. J. JASKOSKI. 1945. Studies on monogenetic trematodes. VIII. Tetraonchinae infesting Lepomis miniatus Jordan. J. Tennessee Acad. Sci., 20:97.
MUELLER, J. F. 1934. Part IV. Additional notes on parasites of Oneida Lake fishes, including descriptions of new species. Roosevelt Wild Life Ann., 3:335-373.
MUELLER, J. F., AND H. J. VAN CLEAVE. 1932. Parasites of Oneida Lake fishes Part II. Descriptions of new species and some general taxonomic considerations, especially concerning the trematode family Heterophyidae. Roosevelt Wild Life Ann., 3:79-137.
PRATT, H. S. 1923. Preliminary report on the parasitic worms of Oneida Lake, New York. Roosevelt Wild Life Bull., 2:55-71.
SOGANDARES-BERNAL, F., AND J. R. SEED. 1973. American paragonimasis. Curr. Top. Comp. Pathobiol., 2:1-56.
VAN CLEAVE, H. J. 1919. Acanthocephala from fishes of Douglas Lake, Michigan. Occas. Papers Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich., 72:1-12.
------. 1923. Acanthocephala from the fishes of Oneida Lake, New York. Roosevelt Wild Life Bull., 2:73-86.
------, AND J. F. MUELLER. 1932. Parasites of the Oneida Lake fishes Part I. Descriptions of new genera and new species. Roosevelt Wild Life Ann., 3:5-71.
------, AND ------. 1934. Parasites of Oneida Lake fishes Part III. A biological and ecological survey of the worm parasites. Roosevelt Wild Life Ann., 3:161-334.
VAN DEN BUSSCHE, R. A., M. L. KENNEDY, AND W. E. WILHELM. 1987. Helminth parasites of the coyote (Canis latrans) in Tennessee. J. Parasitol., 73:327-332.
ZELIFF, C. C. 1937. A new species of trematode from the mud-eel (Siren lacertina). Proc. US Nat. Mus., 84: 223-226.
HUGH M. TURNER
Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Tennessee, Martin, TN 38238
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|Author:||Turner, Hugh M.|
|Publication:||Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2011|
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