# A guide to mineral localities in China.

China is the world's third largest country in land area, so it is not surprising that, with its opening to the West, there has appeared on the world market a flood of specimens from an increasing number of localities. Unfortunately this flood has not been accompanied by an equally copious flow of information about these localities. With this gazetteer we hope to begin to alleviate this problem.**********

A LITTLE GEOGRAPHY

The geography of many large countries can be characterized fairly simply: for example, the United States has its eastern mountains and piedmont, interior plains, and western mountains, valleys and plateaus; Russia is the land of forests and steppes; Australia is characterized by a dry interior surrounded by a broad fringe of well-watered mountains and coastal plains. But China, with its varied concatenation of mountains, plateaus, basins, and plains, is not nearly so easy to sketch geographically.

If you must have but one word to describe China, it is "mountains." Approximately one third of the country can be described as mountainous, and many of the "flat" lands of the Xinjiang and Tarim basins and the Tibet-Qinghai, Mongolian and Yunnan-Quizhou plateaus are the results of mountain-building orogenies.

China's geography is best described in terms of three levels of elevation folded around each other in sinuous bands. The highest level is the Tibet-Qinghai plateau, rising to 4000 meters and more and bounded on the south by the Himalaya (to 8848 meters) and Karakoram ranges, and on the north by the Kunlun Shan (to 7723 meters).

The second tier, wrapping around the first from the north, northeast, and southeast, consists of mountains and plateaus of somewhat lower elevation than the first tier, although the Tian Shan rises to 7437 meters. It also contains significantly depressed basins, especially the Turfan, with China's lowest point at -154 meters. In the west the mountains of the second elevational tier strike east-west; these include the Tian Shan, the Altay, and Qinling. The Mongolian and Loess plateaus dominate the central part of this belt. In the northeast, north-south-trending ranges predominate, such as the Greater Hinggen and the Taihang Shan; the ranges of the Yunnan-Guizhou also strike north-south.

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The lowest elevational tier consists of the northeastern Manchurian plains and of the eastern riverine plains of the Huang He and Chang Jiang. It also contains the Southeastern Uplands, with much lower mountains striking NNE-SSW, and with broad and narrow intermontane valleys. Many beautiful minerals come from this region.

Some useful words:

bei -- north

da -- big

dao -- island

dong -- east

he -- river

hu -- lake

jiang -- river

ling -- ridge

men -- pass

nan -- south

pendi -- basin

shamo -- desert

shan -- mountain(s)

xi -- west

xiao -- little

zhong -- center, middle

A LITTLE GEOLOGY

What created all these mountains and mineral deposits? Continents and subcontinents like North America, Australia, and southern Africa have huge, stable cratons (continental cores), mostly dating from the Precambrian, to which a modest number of exotic terranes may have accreted. But China sits on at least seven modern or paleoplates, and has added a number of exotic terranes. These attachments did not come gently; collisions between plates and terranes created China's mountain systems. And collisions continue today: the thrust of the Indian subcontinent is driving the uplift of the Himalaya, Karakoram, and Yunnan-Guizhou ranges, and of the Tibetan-Qinqhai plateau; the subduction of this plate is also elevating the Kunlun and Tian Shan ranges. The Pacific plate is subducting under eastern China, driving up the Nanling ranges and the mountains of the Southeast uplands; much vulcanism and many ultrabasic intrusions are offspring of this subduction.

Approximately 168 different kinds of mineral deposits are the creations of this vigorous tectonic activity; these deposits contain the vast majority of all known mineral species. China is especially rich in hydrothermal vein and replacement deposits, skarns, pegmatites, and ultrabasic and rare-earth deposits. On the other hand, China does not appear to have an abundance of Mississippi Valley-type deposits.

A LITTLE (MINING) HISTORY

Coal carvings have been radiometrically dated to over 4,000 years B.C. Bronze was in wide use during the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 B.C.). The still-active Daye copper mines have been worked for over 2,800 years, and thousands of other ancient mine sites are known to exist in China.

Mining in China today is much more intense than in the past. At the end of 2003, China had about 10,000 state-operated medium-size to large mines, and 280,000 township and private mines. Collectible minerals come largely from the smaller mines, but these mines also contribute disproportionately to the mining accident and death rate, and to environmental degradation. For these reasons, the central government has closed approximately 10,000 small mines, and such closures will continue.

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

The People's Republic of China is divided into 23 provinces (sheng), five autonomous regions (zizhiqu), abbreviated hereafter as A.R., four municipalities (shi), abbreviated hereafter as M, and two special administrative zones: Hong Kong and Macao. The four municipalities consist of very large urban agglomerations with enough non-urban area that they contain some mineral localities (e.g. topaz from Laojuntang, Beijing).

There are two principal methods for transliterating Chinese ideograms into Roman characters that can be read phonetically: the Wade and the Pinyin systems. For the benefit of those holding labels and atlases using the older conventional (Wade) locality names, we provide the list shown below, equating the conventional spellings of these provinces, etc., with the now-preferred Pinyin spelling. Note that the Beijing government counts Taiwan as the twenty-third province (but no Taiwanese mineral localities are included here). The provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning constitute the region known as Manchuria (in Chinese: Dongbei = Northeast); its Manchu population is closely related to the Han population of the other provinces.

Anhwei -- Anhui

Chungking -- Chongqing M

Chekiang -- Zhejiang

Fukien -- Fujian

Hainan -- Hainan

Heilungkiang -- Heilongjiang

Honan -- Henan

Hopeh -- Hebei

Hunan -- Hunan

Hupei -- Hubei

Inner Mongolia, Neimeng Ku -- Nei Mongol AR

Kansu -- Gansu

Kiangsi -- Jiangxi

Kiangsu -- Jiangsu

Kirin -- Jilin

Kwangsi Chuang -- Guangxi AR

Kwangtung -- Guangdong

Kweichow -- Guizhou

Liaoning -- Liaoning

Ningsia Hui -- Ningxia Huizu AR

Peking -- Beijing M

Shanghai -- Shanghai M

Shansi -- Shanxi

Shantung -- Shandong

Shensi -- Shaanxi

Sinkiang Uighur -- Xinjiang Uygur AR

Szechwan -- Sichuan

Taiwan -- Taiwan

Tibet -- Xizang AR

Tientsin -- Tianjin M

Tsinghai -- Qinghai

Yunnan -- Yunnan

Following conventional usage, we will continue to use both "Tibet" and "Inner Mongolia" in our table, but "Sinkiang Uighur" will be replaced by "Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region."

The highest level of internal government consists of the Provinces, Autonomous Regions and Municipalities; the next level below is frequently translated as "prefectures" (diqu). There are roughly 150 of these, plus approximately 200 cities whose administrations operate at the prefectural level.

The third level of administration is usually translated as "counties" (xian); there are over 2,000 of these, and more than 700 cities that function as counties. The name of the county is taken from the name of the city or town that serves as the county seat.

Below the county level are "districts" (qu) and "areas" (xiang); the qu are largely urban and the xiang are largely rural. The lowest level are "villages" (cun) and "small towns" (zhen).

LANGUAGES AND TRANSLITERATION

The official version of Chinese is the Puitonghua (= "standard") version, based on the Beijing dialect; this dialect more or less equates to what was once called Mandarin, and it is in wide use in northern China. In southern China, however, a wide variety of other languages are in use: Wu-Hu (90 million speakers), Yue, or Cantonese (70 million speakers), Hakka and others; there are over 100 dialects in Fujian Province alone. China also has over 50 minority (non-Han) languages. It is therefore quite possible that a mineral locality has more than one name; this problem is worsened because we report more mineral localities in southern China than in the north. The primary names we provide here are those used by the national government, but if we know of variant names, we include them as well.

The transliteration used throughout our gazetteer is the standard Pinyin as formally adopted by China in 1979. The older conventional (Wade) transliteration is still in use in Taiwan. Readers should know that in Pinyin, "q" is pronounced close to the English "ch" and "x" is pronounced approximately "sh". Pinyin also uses "ch" and "sh" which are pronounced slightly differently than "q" and "x"; the differences are sufficiently narrow that one of the junior authors cannot detect them when the spoken language is transmitted through electronic hearing aids.

In the following table the meanings of the first two column headings are obvious. The third column contains the county seat, whose name is also that of the county in which this locality resides.

The "Lat, Long/dist from mine" column has entries that should be read as from the locality to the county seat; thus for our second entry from Amo to Ximeng. These distances and directions are only approximate.

The Province is always that in which the listed locality and county lie.

An asterisk (*) preceding a mineral name means that this is the type locality for this species. We have attempted to include all minerals of collector interest, as well as associated species that may serve as diagnostic aids. We have also included some localities of high scientific interest (Bayan Obo, Koktokay). No inferred species are included.

Readers must accept that this gazetteer is both incomplete and contains errors that we have not detected.

SOURCES

The senior author provided the basic table of localities; he and the second author provided the mineral species attributed to these localities. The senior author also provided the geological and historical comments. Much use was made of the Columbia Gazetteer of the World (with 3,736 Chinese entries); other invaluable tools were the Handbook of Mineralogy (Anthony, et al.), and Fleischer's Glossary of Mineral Species (Mandarino, 1999).

Special thanks are due to Dr. Marvin Rausch, who provided the essential personal introduction that initiated this project. Clara and Steve Smale and Collector's Edge both provided data that helped to get our project moving. We are grateful to the late Richard Bideaux for his careful reading of our table, which led to the correction of many imperfections.

CHINA MINERAL GAZETTEER County, Lat/Long, Location Location type town or city dist. from mine 884 (Leiping Mine Guiyuan 25[degrees]43' N Mining area) 112[degrees]43' E 27 km SW Altay Mining district Altay City 47[degrees]50' N 88[degrees]12' E 10 km S Amo Mine Ximeng 22[degrees]44' N 99[degrees]26' E 36 km SE Anpeng Mine Tongbai 32[degrees]21' N 113[degrees]24' E 32 km SE Anyuan Mine Linwu 25[degrees]16' N 112[degrees]32' E 56 km N Aoshan Iron mine Ma'anshan City 31[degrees]43' N 118[degrees]28' E 30 km NW Babu Area Hezhou City 24[degrees]25' N (Hexian) 111[degrees]32' E 10 km NW Baisha Quarry Changning 26[degrees]24' N 112[degrees]23' N 40 km NW Baiyinchang Mine Baiyin City 36[degrees]33' N 104[degrees]12' E 10 km S Bantanhe Mine Taishan City 22[degrees]15' N 112[degrees]48' E 20 km SW Bayan Obo Mine Baotou City 40[degrees]39' N (Baiyunerbo) 109[degrees]49' E 29 km S Beiwagou Jade mine Xiuyan 40[degrees]17' N 123[degrees]17' E 56 km W Beiyan Mountain, village Changle 36[degrees]42' N 118[degrees]50' E 14 km N Bianning Jade mine Xiuyan 40[degrees]17' N 123[degrees]17' E 24 km SE Bofang Copper mine Changning 26[degrees]24' N 112[degrees]23' E 20 km S Caiwa Antimony mine Danfeng 33[degrees]42' N 110[degrees]21' E 16 km S Chalaka Area Geji 32[degrees]25' N 81[degrees]08' E 75 km W Changbai Mountain range Tonghua 41[degrees]43' N 125[degrees]56' E 25 km N Chashan Lead and Linwu 25[degrees]16' N zinc mine (Chenzhou) 112[degrees]32' E 17 km S Chao'an Area Chao'an 23[degrees]27' N Chaozhou City 116[degrees]40' E 6 km S Chaobuleng Area Xilinhot 43[degrees]57' N City 116[degrees]03' E 40 km N Chatian Town, mine Fenghuang 27[degrees]56' N (incl. #1, 109[degrees]36' E #2, #3 shafts 28 km NE and ten small mines nearby) Chengmenshan Copper mine Shahe County, 29[degrees]43' N (incl. Weijia Jiujiang City 115[degrees]58' E mine) 8 km N Chimashan Mine Yangxin 29[degrees]49' N 115[degrees]13' E 34 km SE Daba Tin mine Leiyang 26[degrees]24' N 112[degrees]51' E 30 km NE Dachang Mine Qinglong 25[degrees]50' N (Liancheng) 105[degrees]13' E 14 km NE Dafangshen Jade mine Xiuyan 40[degrees]177' N 123[degrees]17' E 24 km S Dahegou Mine Lushi 34[degrees]03' N 111[degrees]02' E 45 km N Damiao Town Chengde City 40[degrees]46' N 118[degrees]09' E 25 km SE Daoping Lead-zinc mine Gongcheng 24[degrees]51' N 110[degrees]4' E 30 km SE Daye (incl. Copper & iron Daye 30[degrees]06' N some small mines 114[degrees]58' E mines) 2 km E De'an Mine De'an 29[degrees]19' N 115[degrees]45' E 26 km NE Dingjiagang Area Changde 29[degrees]02' N 111[degrees]51' E 17 km NE Donghai Area Donghai, 34[degrees]32' N Niushan 118[degrees]45' E 12 km E Dongshan Tungsten mine Linwu 25[degrees]16' N 112[degrees]32' E 10 km S Ebian Area Ebian 29[degrees]14' N 103[degrees]16' E 26 km NE Ertixi (#3 River Fuyan 47[degrees]02' N pegmatite) 89[degrees]29' E 20 km Fengjiashan Wollastonite mine Daye 30[degrees]06' N 114[degrees]58' E 7 km E Fenglin Mine Dongxiang 28[degrees]13' N 116[degrees]37' E 8 km S Fengsandong Mine Yangxin 29[degrees]49' N 115[degrees]13' E 49 km W Fushan Iron mine Xintai City 37[degrees]04' N 114[degrees]30' E 56 km E Fushun Mine Fushun City 41[degrees]51' N 123[degrees]54' E 5 km S Fuyun Area Fuyun 47[degrees]02' N 89[degrees]29' E 20 km Gaiyang Area Mingxi 26[degrees]21' N (Xuefeng) 117[degrees]12' E 18 km SE Ganzhou Dayu Area, mountains Dayu 25[degrees]23' N 114[degrees]22' E 47 km SE Gaofeng Area Qianshan 30[degrees]37' N 116[degrees]34' E 71 km S Gaoligongshan Mountain Fugong 26[degrees]54' N 98[degrees]54' E 12 km E Gaoshitai Village Chengde City 40[degrees]46' N 118[degrees]09' E 15 km S Gaowang Mine Conghua 23[degrees]33' N (Jiekou) 113[degrees]33' E 15 km SE Gejiu Mine Gejiu City 23[degrees]21' N 103[degrees]09' E 29 km N Gongchangling Iron mine Liaoyang 41[degrees]13' N 123[degrees]03' E 31 km NW Gongga Village, mountain Ningnan 27[degrees]05' N 102[degrees]46' E 20 km Gongxian Mines Gongxian 34[degrees]46' N 112[degrees]58' E 45 km SW Guangshanzai Mine Yunxi 32[degrees]59' N 110[degrees]25' E 59 km NE Guichi Copper mine Guichi City 30[degrees]39' N 117[degrees]28' E 10 km NW Guilin Area Guiliun 25[degrees]17' N 110[degrees]17' E Harhada Area (orebody) Erenhot Erlian 43[degrees]38' N City 111[degrees]58' E 28 km E Hazhen Jade mine Xiuyan 40[degrees]17' N 123[degrees]17' E 52 km SW Heshan Iron mine Chengde City 40[degrees]46' N 118[degrees]09' E 46 km S Honggou Copper mine Qilian 38[degrees]10' N 100[degrees]12' E 36 km SW Hongqizhen Quarry Meigu 27[degrees]28' N 101[degrees]22' E 25 km SE Hongshan Mine Guangning 23[degrees]38' N (Nanjie) 112[degrees]25' E 48 km NE Hongshuidong see Yungchangping Houshan Mountain Mianning 28[degrees]36' N 102[degrees]10' E 20 km S Huahe Mine Hong'an 31[degrees]17' N 114[degrees]37' E 20 km SE Huangcheng Mine Zhushan 32[degrees]13' N 110[degrees]12' E 37 km S Huangjindong Mine Pingjiang 28[degrees]42' N 113[degrees]33' E 36 km W Huangpolong see Leiping Huangpuzhen Quarry Qianshan 30[degrees]37' N 116[degrees]34' E 11 km S Huangshaping Mine Guiyang 25[degrees]43' N 112[degrees]43' E 8 km NE Huaniushan Mine Anxi 40[degrees]31' N (Yuanquan) 95[degrees]48' E 75 km SE Huoshosi Mine Yunxian 32[degrees]49' N 110[degrees]49' E 45 km NW Jialu Mine Luonan 34[degrees]06' N 110[degrees]09' E 28 km N Jiangcheng Copper mine Jiangcheng 24[degrees]25' N 102[degrees]48' E 20 km N Jiguanshan Jade mine Fengcheng 40[degrees]28' N 124[degrees]02' E 14 km SE Jinchuan Mine, area Jinchang City 38[degrees]28' N 102[degrees]10' E 6 km S Jinduicheng Mine, town Huaxian 34[degrees]30' N 109[degrees]46' E 24 km NW Jingtieshan Mine Jiayugaun City 39[degrees]48' N 98[degrees]14' E 30 km SE Jining Area Jining City 41[degrees]02' N 113[degrees]06' E 26 km S Jinkouhe Town Ebian 29[degrees]14' N 103[degrees]16' E 25 km SE Jinliantong Mine Zhushan 32[degrees]13' N 110[degrees]12' E 45 km NW Jinlong Village Longchuan 24[degrees]05' N (incl. Rushan (Laolong) 115[degrees]15' E Xiacun), 55 km SW closed to Shangping Zhen (town) Kangjiawan Lead-zinc mine Changning 26[degrees]24' N (Shuikoushan) 112[degrees]23' N 25 km SW Koktokay Mines Fuyun 46[degrees]31' N 90[degrees]25' E 30 km SW Labashan Mine Zhushan 32[degrees]13' N 110[degrees]12' E 57 km SE Laiyuan Iron mines Laiyuan 39[degrees]19' N 114[degrees]4' E 20 km W Lamo Mine Nandan City 24[degrees]54' N 107[degrees]32' E 25 km NW Laojuntang Area Changping 40[degrees]13' N 116[degrees]14' E 12 km SW Laotiangou Mine Wafangdian 39[degrees]37' N City 122[degrees]00' E 46 km NE Leiping Mining area Guiyang 25[degrees]43' N (incl. 112[degrees]43' E Huangpolong, 26 km SW New May First and ten small mines) Lianshan Mountain Liuhe 31[degrees]31' N 121[degrees]15' E 37 km W Lianyuan Coal mine Lianyuan 27[degrees]41' N 111[degrees]41' E 15 km NE Lieshiting Phosphate mine Qianshan 30[degrees]37' N 116[degrees]34' E 14 km SW Lin Xian Areas Linxian 37[degrees]57' N 110[degrees]58' E 16 km S Libo Mine Libo 24[degrees]55' N 107[degrees]30' E Limu Mine Gongcheng 24[degrees]51' N 110[degrees]4' E 30 km SE Liufengshan Copper mine Guichi City 30[degrees]39' N 117[degrees]28' E 10 km NW Liuhuang- Mine Subei 39[degrees]30' N Kuang (Dangchengwan) 94[degrees]52' E 5 km N Luanhe Area, river Chengde City 40[degrees]46' N 118[degrees]09' E 14 km E Lucun Village Jianshui 23[degrees]38' N 102[degrees]49' E 27 km NW Lufeng Area Lufeng 25[degrees]09' N 102[degrees]05' E 20 km SE Lugucun Village Huili 26[degrees]41' N 102[degrees]13' E 10 km NE Majiagou Mine Yunxi 32[degrees]59' N 110[degrees]25' E 26 km SE Malipo Town Malipo 23[degrees]07' N 104[degrees]41' E 15 km SE Molongshan Mountain Honghe 23[degrees]21' N 102[degrees]24' E 2 km N Nanjiangqiao Area Pingjiang 28[degrees]42'N 113[degrees]33' E 35 km SW Nanshan Iron & copper Ma'anshan City 31[degrees]43' N mine 118[degrees]28' E 27 km NW Nanshankeng Mine Yiwu 29[degrees]18' N 120[degrees]04' E 49 km N Nanshu Mine Laixi City 36[degrees]52' N 120[degrees]31' E 24 km SE Ningdu Area Ningdu 26[degrees]28' N 116[degrees]00' E 21 km SE Nuanshui Lead-zinc mine Rucheng 25[degrees]45' N (Chenzhou) 113[degrees]01' E 10 km Pangjiabao Iron mine Xuanhua 40[degrees]37' N 115[degrees]02' E 33 km W Pangushan Wolfram mine Yudu 25[degrees]57' N 115[degrees]23' E 32 km N Panshan Mountain Jixian 40[degrees]02' N 117[degrees]24' E 10 km SE Penglai Mine Wenchang 19[degrees]36' N 110[degrees]45' E 30 km NE Pingdu Mine Pingdu City 36[degrees]47' N 119[degrees]58' E 24 km S Pingtouling Mine Liannan 24[degrees]42' N (Sanjiang) 112[degrees]18' E 20 km N Qingjiang Mine Wuning 29[degrees]15' N 115[degrees]05' E 30 km NE Qingshuigou Area Qilian 38[degrees]10' N 100[degrees]12' E 28 km SE Qinghe Mountain Qinghe 47[degrees]00' N 90[degrees]20' E 20 km S Qinjiafang Mine Pingjiang 28[degrees]42' N (Hupei) 113[degrees]33' E 20 km SW Ruyan Area Lechang 25[degrees]09' N 113[degrees]21' E 40 km NE Sha'ertuohai Mine Tuoli 45[degrees]56' N 83[degrees]37' E 47 km SE Shangbao Pyrite mine Leiyang 26[degrees]24' N 112[degrees]51' E 32 km NW Shangyangpo Mine Yunxian 32[degrees]49' N 110[degrees]49' E 26 km NW Shilu Copper mine Yangchun 22[degrees]10' N (Chuncheng) 111[degrees]48' E 15 km SE Shilu Mine Changjiang 19[degrees]16' N (Shilu) 109[degrees]03' E 10 km N Shimen Mine Shimen 27[degrees]46' N (Jiepiayu) 110[degrees]01' E 33 km SE Shitouzui Copper-iron mine Daye 30[degrees]06' N 114[degrees]58' E 18 km SW Shizhuyuan Mine Chenzhou City 25[degrees]46' N 113[degrees]02' E 14 km W Shuijingping Village Yunxiao 23[degrees]58' N 117[degrees]21' E 20 km S Shuikoushan see Kangjiawan Siding Mine Rong'an 25[degrees]13' N 109[degrees]22' E 25 km NW Suzhou Area Suzhou City 31[degrees]19' N 120[degrees]37' E Taolin Mine Linxiang 29[degrees]29' N 113[degrees]27' E 14 km N Tongbei Area Yunxiao 23[degrees]58' N 117[degrees]21' E 30 km Tong- Copper mine Tongling & 30[degrees]35' N guangshan Tongling City 117[degrees]48' E 2.5 km NW Tonglushan Copper mine Daye City 30[degrees]06' N 114[degrees]58' E 10 km E Tongshan Copper & iron Guichi City 30[degrees]39' N mine 117[degrees]28 30 km NE Tongshankou Copper-iron mine Daye 30[degrees]06' N 114[degrees]58' E 34 km NE Wagou Jade mine Xiuyan 40[degrees]17' N 123[degrees]17' E 22 km SE Weija see Chengmenshan Wenchuan Area Wenchua 31[degrees]57' N 106[degrees]18' E 68 km W Wenshan Area Jiashan 32[degrees]47' N 117[degrees]58' E 27 km NE Wenyu Mine Lingbao 34[degrees]31' N 110[degrees]52' E 58 km NW Wuning Mine Wuning 29[degrees]12' N (Wuling), 115[degrees]03' E Qingjiang 40 km NE Wushan Copper mines Ruichang 29[degrees]40' N 115[degrees]38' E 10 km S Wutaishan Mountain Pangjiapu 39[degrees]00' N 113[degrees]30' E 17 km S Wuyu-Shuilou Area Hechi City 24[degrees]42' N 107[degrees]51' E 25 km NE Xianghualing Tin mine Linwu 25[degrees]16' N (incl. many (Chenzhou) 112[degrees]32' E small mines) 20 km S Xianghuapu Mine Linwu 25[degrees]16' N (incl. Maiwan (Chenzhou) 112[degrees]32' E & other small 13 km S mines) Xiangtan Mine Xiangtan City 27[degrees]52' N 112[degrees]53' E 7 km N Xiaojie Mine Panzhihua 26[degrees]44' N 101[degrees]41' E Xiaosongshan Mountain Alashan Zuoqi 38[degrees]50' N 105[degrees]41' E 69 km SE Xikuangshan Antimony mine Lenshuijiang 27[degrees]42' N City 111[degrees]26' E 9 km SW Xinzai Village Wenshan city 23[degrees]22' N 104[degrees]13' E 97 km W Xiongxiong' Iron mine Hezhang 27[degrees]07' N ga 104[degrees]42' E 38 km NE Xixia Area Xixia 33[degrees]18' N 111[degrees]29' E 13 km SE Xiyugou Jade mine Xiuyan 40[degrees]17' N 123[degrees]17' E 45 km NE Xuebaoding Mountain Pingwu 32[degrees]26' N (Hujia) 104[degrees]31' E 40 km SE Yangliuping Mine Danba 30[degrees]52' N 101[degrees]52' E 30 km N Yangshuo Area, mine Yangshuo 25[degrees]17' N 110[degrees]17' E 40 km SW Yanmeitong Mine Laiyuan 37[degrees]11' N 112[degrees]31' E 14 km SW Yanwuping Mine Wanshan 27[degrees]31' N (incl. 109[degrees]12' E Zhangjiawan 12 km SW & other small mines) Yanzigou Mine Daixian 39[degrees]04' N 112[degrees]57' E 47 km SE Yaogangxian Wolfram mine Yizhang 25[degrees]46' N 113[degrees]02' E 45 km SW Yianpo Mine Yunxi 32[degrees]59' N 110[degrees]25' E 47 km SW Yingcheng Mine Yingcheng City 30[degrees]57' N 113[degrees]33' E 57 km N Yujangyan Mine Zhushan 32[degrees]13' N 110[degrees]12' E 49 km S Yunchangping Mining area Tongren City 27[degrees]43' N (incl. Hong- 109[degrees]12' E shuidong, 13 km SW Dadongla, and other mines) Yungaisi Mine Yunxian 32[degrees]49' N 110[degrees]49' E 56 km W Yunling Area Zhangpu 24[degrees]06' N (Siu'an) 117[degrees]37' E 30 km SE Yunzhongshan Mountain Linqiu 39[degrees]26' N 114[degrees]13' E 36 km S Yushipo Area Shangzhou 33[degrees]52' N 109[degrees]57' E 47 km S Zhang'ergou Mine Lushi 34[degrees]03' N 111[degrees]02' E 48 km N Zhongjia Mine Longyan City 25[degrees]06' N 117[degrees]01' E 15 km NW Zhongxingtang Mine Dongyang 29[degrees]14' N 120[degrees]14' E 30 km N Zhoukoudian Area Fangshan 39[degrees]42' N 115[degrees]58' E 6 km W Location Province Minerals 884 (Leiping Hunan v-twinned calcite, galena, pyrite, Mining area) arsenopyrite, fluorite Altay Xinjiang, albite, amazonite, apatite, aquamarine, Uygur A.R. epidote, fluorite, garnet, gold, polylithionite, molybdenite, muscovite, pollucite, pyrite, sphalerite, spodumene, topaz, tourmaline, zircon Amo Yunnan cassiterite Anpeng Henan gypsum Anyuan Hunan arsenopyrite Aoshan Anhui apatite, calcite, hematite, pyrite Babu Guangxi, aurichalcite, calcite, rhodochrosite Zhuang A.R. Baisha Hunan calcite Baiyinchang Gansu arsenopyrite, bornite, chalcopyrite, galena, jarosite, pyrite, sphalerite, stannite Bantanhe Guangdong zircon, samarskite Bayan Obo Inner Mongolia *aeschynite-(Nd), *baotite, *bafertisite, (Baiyunerbo) bastnasite-(Ce), calcite, carbocernaite, *cebaite-(Ce), *cebaite-(Nd), cordylite- (Ce), *daqingshanite-(Ce), *fergusonite- beta-(Ce), *fergusonite-beta-(Nd), *fergusonite-beta-(Y) *fergusonite-(Ce), *fergusonite-(Nd), fergusonite-(Y), hematite, *huanghoite, *magbasite, magnetite, monazite-(Ce), nioboaeschynite-(Ce), *parisite-(Nd), strontianite, witherite Beiwagou Liaoning antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile, lizardite, talc, tremolite Beiyan Shandong sapphire Bianning Liaoning antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile, lizardite, talc, tremolite Bofang Hunan adamite, "limonite" Caiwa Shaanxi kermesite, paakkonenite, senarmontite Chalaka Tibet A.R. borax Changbai Jilin *changbaiite Chashan Hunan galena, pyrite, quartz, dolomite, fluorites and calcite Chao'an Guangdong helvite Chaozhou Chaobuleng Inner Mongolia xilingolite Chatian Hunan cinnabar, barite, pyrite, quartz, (incl. #1, sphalerite #2, #3 shafts and ten small mines nearby) Chengmenshan Jiangxi azurite, chalcopyrite, copper, cuprite (incl. Weijia (chalcotrichite), pyrite, quartz mine) Chimashan Hubei chalcocite Daba Hunan calcite Dachang Guizhou arsenopyrite, barite, calcite, Zhuang A.R. cassiterite, fluorite, jamesonite, marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite, stibnite Dafangshen Liaoning antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile, lizardite, talc, tremolite Dahegou Henan calcite, barite, stibiconite, stibnite Damiao Hebei *damiaoite Daoping Guangxi cerussite, galena, pyromorphite, Zhuang A.R. sphalerite Daye (incl. Hubei calcite, azurite, malachite, hematite some small mines) De'an Jiangxi fluorite Dingjiagang Hunan diamond Donghai Jiangsu carbonate-apatite, quartz Dongshan Hunan fluorite, scheelite, calcite Ebian Sichuan barite, quartz Ertixi (#3 Xinjiang, *ertixiite pegmatite) Uygar A.R. Fengjiashan Hubei amethyst, apophyllite, braunite, calcite, chalcopyrite, datolite, hubeite, ilvaite, inesite, japanese twins, pyrite, stilbite/stellarite, wollastonite Fenglin Jiangxi chalcocite Fengsandong Hubei amethyst, bornite, apophyllite, chalcopyrite, datolite, inesite, molybdenite, pyrite, parsettensite, stilbite Fushan Hebei vesuvianite, hematite Fushun Liaoning amber Fuyun Xinjiang, aquamarine, fluorite, garnet, hiddennite, Uygur A.R. pollucite, tourmaline Gaiyang Fujian sapphire, pyrope Ganzhou Dayu Jiangxi barite, bismuth, cassiterite, fluorite, scheelite, sphalerite, wolframite Gaofeng Anhui epidote, garnet Gaoligongshan Yunnan topaz, tourmaline Gaoshitai Hebei *gaotaiite Gaowang Guangdong fergusonite, samarskite Gejiu Yunnan barite, bornite, cassiterite, hemimorphite Gongchangling Liaoning magnetite Gongga Sichuan barite Gongxian Henan bauxite (diaspore, boehmite) Guangshanzai Hubei turquoise Guichi Anhui azurite, malachite Guilin Guangxi Zhuang calcite A.R. Harhada Inner Mongolia *erlianite A.R. Hazhen Liaoning antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile, lizardite, talc, tremolite Heshan Hebei coulsonite, (Ti-rich) magnetite Honggou Qinghai chalcopyrite Hongqizhen Sichuan epidote, quartz Hongshan Guangdong ferrocolumbite, tantalite Hongshuidong see Yungchangping Houshan Sichuan hematite, quartz Huahe Hubei fluorite Huangcheng Hubei turquoise Huangjindong Hunan gold Huangpolong see Leiping Huangpuzhen Anhui rutilated quartz, calcite Huangshaping Hunan calcite, fluorite, galena, sphalerite, wolframite Huaniushan Gansu chalcocite, sphalerite Huoshosi Hubei turquoise Jialu Shaanxi chalcopyrite, *chrombismite, pyrite Jiangcheng Yunnan tennantite Jiguanshan Liaoning antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile, lizardite, talc, tremolite Jinchuan Gansu pentlandite, pyrite, pyrrhotite Jinduicheng Shaanxi molybdenite Jingtieshan Gansu calcite, barite, hematite, pyrite Jining Inner Mongolia amazonite, apatite, muscovite, A.R. phlogopite, quartz Jinkouhe Sichuan barite, quartz Jinliantong Hubei turquoise Jinlong Guangdong helvite, hematite, quartz, (incl. Rushan Xiacun), closed to Shangping Zhen (town) Kangjiawan Hunan calcite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite (Shuikoushan) Koktokay Xinjiang, allanite-(Ce), albite, amazonite, Uygur A.R. apatite, aquamarine, ashanite, bimushite, bismutomicrolite, chrysoberyl, *cygrayite, epidote, ertixiite, fluorite, garnet, hiddenite, holmquistite, ilmenite, ishikawaite, manganotantalite, manganocolumbite, molybdenite, muscovite, phenakite, pollucite, polylithionite, pyrite, *qingheite, samarskite, scheelite, sphalerite, spodumene, staurolite, topaz, tourmaline, trilithionite, uraninite, zircon Labashan Hubei turquoise Laiyuan Hebei hematite, ludwigite Lamo Guangxi, apatite, galena, pyrite, quartz, Zhuang A.R. rhodochrosite, sphalerite Laojuntang Beijing M. topaz Laotiangou Liaoning diamond Leiping Hunan calcite (twins), fluorite, pyrite (incl. Huangpolong, New May First and ten small mines) Lianshan Jiangsu sapphire Lianyuan Hunan selenite Lieshiting Anhui apatite, calcite, pyrite Lin Xian Shanxi orthoclase Libo Guizhou Mg-calcite, stibnite Limu Guangxi cassiterite, lepidolite, niobite, Zhuang A.R. tantalite, topaz Liufengshan Anhui azurite, malachite Liuhuang- Gansu pyrite, sulfur Kuang Luanhe Hebei *changchengite, *chendeite Lucun Yunnan calcite (orange), *jianshuiite Lufeng Yunnan Cu-bearing aragonite Lugucun Sichuan *jinshajiangite Majiagou Hubei turquoise Malipo Yunnan emerald, hemimorphite, hydrozincite, scheelite Molongshan Yunnan aquamarine, quartz Nanjiangqiao Hunan aquamarine, garnet, tantalite Nanshan Anhui turquoise, hematite Nanshankeng Zhejiang fluorite Nanshu Shandong graphite Ningdu Jiangxi hemimorphite Nuanshui Hunan sphalerite, galena, quartz Pangjiabao Hebei hematite, siderite, cordierite Pangushan Jiangxi wolframite Panshan Tienjin *jixianite Penglai Hainan bauxite (gibbsite) Pingdu Shandong rutile Pingtouling Guangdong mimetite Qingjiang Jiangxi barite, calcite, stibnite Qingshuigou Qinghai glaucophane Qinghe Xinjiang, aquamarine, garnet, tourmaline Uygur A.R. Qinjiafang Hunan aquamarine, garnet, tantalite (Hupei) Ruyan Guangdong fluorite Sha'ertuohai Xinjiang, chromite Uygur A.R. Shangbao Hunan calcite, bismuthinite, dolomite, fluorite, pyrite, quartz Shangyangpo Hubei turquoise Shilu Guangdong azurite, malachite Shilu Hainan hematite Shimen Hunan calcite, orpiment, picropharmacolite, (Jiepiayu) realgar Shitouzui Hubei azurite Shizhuyuan Hunan bismuthinite, calcite, cassiterite, fluorite, galena, muscovite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, scheelite, sphalerite, Ta/Nb oxides, wolframite Shuijingping Fujian feldspar, fluorite, helvite, pyrite, smoky quartz, spessartite Shuikoushan see Kangjiawan Siding Guangxi, hydrozincite Zhuang A.R. Suzhou Jiangsu annite (F-rich) Taolin Hunan barite, fluorite, galena, quartz, sphalerite Tongbei Fujian beryl, feldspar, fluorite, helvite, hematite, mica, milarite, pyrite, schorl, smoky quartz, spessartite, topaz Tong- Anhui azurite, chalcopyrite, garnet, limonite, guangshan malachite, pyrrhotite, wollastonite Tonglushan Hubei azurite, chalcopyrite, cuprite, malachite Tongshan Anhui azurite, chrysocolla, malachite Tongshankou Hubei azurite, chalcopyrite, cuprite, malachite Wagou Liaoning antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile, lizardite, talc, tremolite Weija see Chengmenshan Wenchuan Sichuan tourmaline Wenshan Anhui anorthoclase Wenyu Henan gold Wuning Jiangxi stibnite (Wuling), Qingjiang Wushan Jiangxi azurite Wutaishan Shanxi tourmaline Wuyu-Shuilou Guangxi calcite, galena, realgar, sphalerite, Zhuang A.R. stibnite Xianghualing Hunan calcite, cassiterite, fluorite, (incl. many *hsianghualite, scheelite, topaz small mines) Xianghuapu Hunan barite, calcite, fluorite, zinnwaldite (incl. Maiwan & other small mines) Xiangtan Hunan manganite Xiaojie Sichuan amazonite, quartz Xiaosongshan Ningxia diopside Xikuangshan Hunan barite, calcite, cervantite, fluorite, gypsum, pyrite, quartz, senarmontite, stibiconite, stibnite, sulfur, valentinite Xinzai Yunnan cassiterite Xiongxiong' Guizhou hematite, "limonite," siderite ga Xixia Henan andalusite Xiyugou Liaoning antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile, lizardite, talc, tremolite Xuebaoding Sichuan apatite, aquamarine, cassiterite, (Hujia) dolomite, feldspar, fluorite, goshenite, morganite, muscovite, quartz, scheelite Yangliuping Sichuan bornite, chromium, *danbaite, gold, linnaeite, sperrylite, testiobiopallasite, violarite Yangshuo Guangxi, calcite, cerussite, pyromorphite Zhuang A.R. Yanmeitong Hebei asbestos, serpentine Yanwuping Guizhou barite, calcite, cinnabar, dolomite, (incl. pyrite, quartz, sphalerite Zhangjiawan & other small mines) Yanzigou Shanxi rutile Yaogangxian Hunan apatite, arsenopyrite, bismuthinite, bornite, boulangerite, bournonite, calcite, cassiterite, chalcopyrite, dolomite, fluorite, jamesonite, mica, pyrite, quartz, rhodochrosite, scheelite, sphalerite, stannite, topaz, wolframite Yianpo Hubei turquoise Yingcheng Hubei gypsum Yujangyan Hubei turquoise Yunchangping Guizhou cinnabar, calcite, dolomite, quartz, (incl. Hong- pyrite, sphalerite, barite shuidong, Dadongla, and other mines) Yungaisi Hubei turquoise Yunling Fujian feldspar, fluorite, helvite, mica, pyrite, smoky quartz, spessartine, topaz Yunzhongshan Shanxi tourmaline Yushipo Shaanxi fluorite Zhang'ergou Henan barite, calcite, stibnite Zhongjia Fujian scheelite, topaz, wolframite Zhongxingtang Zhejiang fluorite Zhoukoudian Beijing andalusite * denotes that this is the type locality for this species

Bill Smith and Carol Smith

1731 Daphne

Broomfield, Colorado 80020

smith72@attglobal.net

Guanghua Liu

Franzosische Allee 24

D-72072 Tubingen, Germany

GhLiu@t-online.de

Berthold Ottens

Klingenbrunn Bahnhof 24

D-94518 Spiegelau, Germany

ottens-mineralien@t-online.de

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Author: | Smith, Bill; Smith, Carol; Liu, Guanghua; Ottens, Berthold |
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Publication: | The Mineralogical Record |

Geographic Code: | 9CHIN |

Date: | Jan 1, 2005 |

Words: | 5496 |

Previous Article: | Chinese cinnabar. |

Next Article: | Died, Jesse L. Lininger, Jr., 64. |

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