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A guide to mineral localities in China.

China is the world's third largest country in land area, so it is not surprising that, with its opening to the West, there has appeared on the world market a flood of specimens from an increasing number of localities. Unfortunately this flood has not been accompanied by an equally copious flow of information about these localities. With this gazetteer we hope to begin to alleviate this problem.

**********

A LITTLE GEOGRAPHY

The geography of many large countries can be characterized fairly simply: for example, the United States has its eastern mountains and piedmont, interior plains, and western mountains, valleys and plateaus; Russia is the land of forests and steppes; Australia is characterized by a dry interior surrounded by a broad fringe of well-watered mountains and coastal plains. But China, with its varied concatenation of mountains, plateaus, basins, and plains, is not nearly so easy to sketch geographically.

If you must have but one word to describe China, it is "mountains." Approximately one third of the country can be described as mountainous, and many of the "flat" lands of the Xinjiang and Tarim basins and the Tibet-Qinghai, Mongolian and Yunnan-Quizhou plateaus are the results of mountain-building orogenies.

China's geography is best described in terms of three levels of elevation folded around each other in sinuous bands. The highest level is the Tibet-Qinghai plateau, rising to 4000 meters and more and bounded on the south by the Himalaya (to 8848 meters) and Karakoram ranges, and on the north by the Kunlun Shan (to 7723 meters).

The second tier, wrapping around the first from the north, northeast, and southeast, consists of mountains and plateaus of somewhat lower elevation than the first tier, although the Tian Shan rises to 7437 meters. It also contains significantly depressed basins, especially the Turfan, with China's lowest point at -154 meters. In the west the mountains of the second elevational tier strike east-west; these include the Tian Shan, the Altay, and Qinling. The Mongolian and Loess plateaus dominate the central part of this belt. In the northeast, north-south-trending ranges predominate, such as the Greater Hinggen and the Taihang Shan; the ranges of the Yunnan-Guizhou also strike north-south.

[GRAPHIC OMITTED]

The lowest elevational tier consists of the northeastern Manchurian plains and of the eastern riverine plains of the Huang He and Chang Jiang. It also contains the Southeastern Uplands, with much lower mountains striking NNE-SSW, and with broad and narrow intermontane valleys. Many beautiful minerals come from this region.

Some useful words:

bei -- north

da -- big

dao -- island

dong -- east

he -- river

hu -- lake

jiang -- river

ling -- ridge

men -- pass

nan -- south

pendi -- basin

shamo -- desert

shan -- mountain(s)

xi -- west

xiao -- little

zhong -- center, middle

A LITTLE GEOLOGY

What created all these mountains and mineral deposits? Continents and subcontinents like North America, Australia, and southern Africa have huge, stable cratons (continental cores), mostly dating from the Precambrian, to which a modest number of exotic terranes may have accreted. But China sits on at least seven modern or paleoplates, and has added a number of exotic terranes. These attachments did not come gently; collisions between plates and terranes created China's mountain systems. And collisions continue today: the thrust of the Indian subcontinent is driving the uplift of the Himalaya, Karakoram, and Yunnan-Guizhou ranges, and of the Tibetan-Qinqhai plateau; the subduction of this plate is also elevating the Kunlun and Tian Shan ranges. The Pacific plate is subducting under eastern China, driving up the Nanling ranges and the mountains of the Southeast uplands; much vulcanism and many ultrabasic intrusions are offspring of this subduction.

Approximately 168 different kinds of mineral deposits are the creations of this vigorous tectonic activity; these deposits contain the vast majority of all known mineral species. China is especially rich in hydrothermal vein and replacement deposits, skarns, pegmatites, and ultrabasic and rare-earth deposits. On the other hand, China does not appear to have an abundance of Mississippi Valley-type deposits.

A LITTLE (MINING) HISTORY

Coal carvings have been radiometrically dated to over 4,000 years B.C. Bronze was in wide use during the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 B.C.). The still-active Daye copper mines have been worked for over 2,800 years, and thousands of other ancient mine sites are known to exist in China.

Mining in China today is much more intense than in the past. At the end of 2003, China had about 10,000 state-operated medium-size to large mines, and 280,000 township and private mines. Collectible minerals come largely from the smaller mines, but these mines also contribute disproportionately to the mining accident and death rate, and to environmental degradation. For these reasons, the central government has closed approximately 10,000 small mines, and such closures will continue.

POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY

The People's Republic of China is divided into 23 provinces (sheng), five autonomous regions (zizhiqu), abbreviated hereafter as A.R., four municipalities (shi), abbreviated hereafter as M, and two special administrative zones: Hong Kong and Macao. The four municipalities consist of very large urban agglomerations with enough non-urban area that they contain some mineral localities (e.g. topaz from Laojuntang, Beijing).

There are two principal methods for transliterating Chinese ideograms into Roman characters that can be read phonetically: the Wade and the Pinyin systems. For the benefit of those holding labels and atlases using the older conventional (Wade) locality names, we provide the list shown below, equating the conventional spellings of these provinces, etc., with the now-preferred Pinyin spelling. Note that the Beijing government counts Taiwan as the twenty-third province (but no Taiwanese mineral localities are included here). The provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning constitute the region known as Manchuria (in Chinese: Dongbei = Northeast); its Manchu population is closely related to the Han population of the other provinces.

Anhwei -- Anhui

Chungking -- Chongqing M

Chekiang -- Zhejiang

Fukien -- Fujian

Hainan -- Hainan

Heilungkiang -- Heilongjiang

Honan -- Henan

Hopeh -- Hebei

Hunan -- Hunan

Hupei -- Hubei

Inner Mongolia, Neimeng Ku -- Nei Mongol AR

Kansu -- Gansu

Kiangsi -- Jiangxi

Kiangsu -- Jiangsu

Kirin -- Jilin

Kwangsi Chuang -- Guangxi AR

Kwangtung -- Guangdong

Kweichow -- Guizhou

Liaoning -- Liaoning

Ningsia Hui -- Ningxia Huizu AR

Peking -- Beijing M

Shanghai -- Shanghai M

Shansi -- Shanxi

Shantung -- Shandong

Shensi -- Shaanxi

Sinkiang Uighur -- Xinjiang Uygur AR

Szechwan -- Sichuan

Taiwan -- Taiwan

Tibet -- Xizang AR

Tientsin -- Tianjin M

Tsinghai -- Qinghai

Yunnan -- Yunnan

Following conventional usage, we will continue to use both "Tibet" and "Inner Mongolia" in our table, but "Sinkiang Uighur" will be replaced by "Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region."

The highest level of internal government consists of the Provinces, Autonomous Regions and Municipalities; the next level below is frequently translated as "prefectures" (diqu). There are roughly 150 of these, plus approximately 200 cities whose administrations operate at the prefectural level.

The third level of administration is usually translated as "counties" (xian); there are over 2,000 of these, and more than 700 cities that function as counties. The name of the county is taken from the name of the city or town that serves as the county seat.

Below the county level are "districts" (qu) and "areas" (xiang); the qu are largely urban and the xiang are largely rural. The lowest level are "villages" (cun) and "small towns" (zhen).

LANGUAGES AND TRANSLITERATION

The official version of Chinese is the Puitonghua (= "standard") version, based on the Beijing dialect; this dialect more or less equates to what was once called Mandarin, and it is in wide use in northern China. In southern China, however, a wide variety of other languages are in use: Wu-Hu (90 million speakers), Yue, or Cantonese (70 million speakers), Hakka and others; there are over 100 dialects in Fujian Province alone. China also has over 50 minority (non-Han) languages. It is therefore quite possible that a mineral locality has more than one name; this problem is worsened because we report more mineral localities in southern China than in the north. The primary names we provide here are those used by the national government, but if we know of variant names, we include them as well.

The transliteration used throughout our gazetteer is the standard Pinyin as formally adopted by China in 1979. The older conventional (Wade) transliteration is still in use in Taiwan. Readers should know that in Pinyin, "q" is pronounced close to the English "ch" and "x" is pronounced approximately "sh". Pinyin also uses "ch" and "sh" which are pronounced slightly differently than "q" and "x"; the differences are sufficiently narrow that one of the junior authors cannot detect them when the spoken language is transmitted through electronic hearing aids.

In the following table the meanings of the first two column headings are obvious. The third column contains the county seat, whose name is also that of the county in which this locality resides.

The "Lat, Long/dist from mine" column has entries that should be read as from the locality to the county seat; thus for our second entry from Amo to Ximeng. These distances and directions are only approximate.

The Province is always that in which the listed locality and county lie.

An asterisk (*) preceding a mineral name means that this is the type locality for this species. We have attempted to include all minerals of collector interest, as well as associated species that may serve as diagnostic aids. We have also included some localities of high scientific interest (Bayan Obo, Koktokay). No inferred species are included.

Readers must accept that this gazetteer is both incomplete and contains errors that we have not detected.

SOURCES

The senior author provided the basic table of localities; he and the second author provided the mineral species attributed to these localities. The senior author also provided the geological and historical comments. Much use was made of the Columbia Gazetteer of the World (with 3,736 Chinese entries); other invaluable tools were the Handbook of Mineralogy (Anthony, et al.), and Fleischer's Glossary of Mineral Species (Mandarino, 1999).

Special thanks are due to Dr. Marvin Rausch, who provided the essential personal introduction that initiated this project. Clara and Steve Smale and Collector's Edge both provided data that helped to get our project moving. We are grateful to the late Richard Bideaux for his careful reading of our table, which led to the correction of many imperfections.
CHINA MINERAL GAZETTEER

                                    County,         Lat/Long,
Location       Location type      town or city    dist. from mine

884 (Leiping   Mine               Guiyuan          25[degrees]43' N
Mining area)                                      112[degrees]43' E
                                                   27 km SW
Altay          Mining district    Altay City       47[degrees]50' N
                                                   88[degrees]12' E
                                                   10 km S
Amo            Mine               Ximeng           22[degrees]44' N
                                                   99[degrees]26' E
                                                   36 km SE
Anpeng         Mine               Tongbai          32[degrees]21' N
                                                  113[degrees]24' E
                                                   32 km SE
Anyuan         Mine               Linwu            25[degrees]16' N
                                                  112[degrees]32' E
                                                   56 km N
Aoshan         Iron mine          Ma'anshan City   31[degrees]43' N
                                                  118[degrees]28' E
                                                   30 km NW
Babu           Area               Hezhou City      24[degrees]25' N
                                  (Hexian)        111[degrees]32' E
                                                   10 km NW
Baisha         Quarry             Changning        26[degrees]24' N
                                                  112[degrees]23' N
                                                   40 km NW
Baiyinchang    Mine               Baiyin City      36[degrees]33' N
                                                  104[degrees]12' E
                                                   10 km S
Bantanhe       Mine               Taishan City     22[degrees]15' N
                                                  112[degrees]48' E
                                                   20 km SW
Bayan Obo      Mine               Baotou City      40[degrees]39' N
(Baiyunerbo)                                      109[degrees]49' E
                                                   29 km S
Beiwagou       Jade mine          Xiuyan           40[degrees]17' N
                                                  123[degrees]17' E
                                                   56 km W
Beiyan         Mountain, village  Changle          36[degrees]42' N
                                                  118[degrees]50' E
                                                   14 km N
Bianning       Jade mine          Xiuyan           40[degrees]17' N
                                                  123[degrees]17' E
                                                   24 km SE
Bofang         Copper mine        Changning        26[degrees]24' N
                                                  112[degrees]23' E
                                                   20 km S
Caiwa          Antimony mine      Danfeng          33[degrees]42' N
                                                  110[degrees]21' E
                                                   16 km S
Chalaka        Area               Geji             32[degrees]25' N
                                                   81[degrees]08' E
                                                   75 km W
Changbai       Mountain range     Tonghua          41[degrees]43' N
                                                  125[degrees]56' E
                                                   25 km N
Chashan        Lead and           Linwu            25[degrees]16' N
               zinc mine          (Chenzhou)      112[degrees]32' E
                                                   17 km S
Chao'an        Area               Chao'an          23[degrees]27' N
Chaozhou                          City            116[degrees]40' E
                                                    6 km S
Chaobuleng     Area               Xilinhot         43[degrees]57' N
                                  City            116[degrees]03' E
                                                   40 km N
Chatian        Town, mine         Fenghuang        27[degrees]56' N
(incl. #1,                                        109[degrees]36' E
#2, #3 shafts                                      28 km NE
and ten
small mines
nearby)
Chengmenshan   Copper mine        Shahe County,    29[degrees]43' N
(incl. Weijia                     Jiujiang City   115[degrees]58' E
mine)                                               8 km N
Chimashan      Mine               Yangxin          29[degrees]49' N
                                                  115[degrees]13' E
                                                   34 km SE
Daba           Tin mine           Leiyang          26[degrees]24' N
                                                  112[degrees]51' E
                                                   30 km NE
Dachang        Mine               Qinglong         25[degrees]50' N
                                  (Liancheng)     105[degrees]13' E
                                                   14 km NE
Dafangshen     Jade mine          Xiuyan           40[degrees]177' N
                                                  123[degrees]17' E
                                                   24 km S
Dahegou        Mine               Lushi            34[degrees]03' N
                                                  111[degrees]02' E
                                                   45 km N
Damiao         Town               Chengde City     40[degrees]46' N
                                                  118[degrees]09' E
                                                   25 km SE
Daoping        Lead-zinc mine     Gongcheng        24[degrees]51' N
                                                  110[degrees]4' E
                                                   30 km SE
Daye (incl.    Copper & iron      Daye             30[degrees]06' N
some small     mines                              114[degrees]58' E
mines)                                              2 km E
De'an          Mine               De'an            29[degrees]19' N
                                                  115[degrees]45' E
                                                   26 km NE
Dingjiagang    Area               Changde          29[degrees]02' N
                                                  111[degrees]51' E
                                                   17 km NE
Donghai        Area               Donghai,         34[degrees]32' N
                                  Niushan         118[degrees]45' E
                                                   12 km E
Dongshan       Tungsten mine      Linwu            25[degrees]16' N
                                                  112[degrees]32' E
                                                   10 km S
Ebian          Area               Ebian            29[degrees]14' N
                                                  103[degrees]16' E
                                                   26 km NE
Ertixi (#3     River              Fuyan            47[degrees]02' N
pegmatite)                                         89[degrees]29' E
                                                   20 km
Fengjiashan    Wollastonite mine  Daye             30[degrees]06' N
                                                  114[degrees]58' E
                                                    7 km E
Fenglin        Mine               Dongxiang        28[degrees]13' N
                                                  116[degrees]37' E
                                                    8 km S
Fengsandong    Mine               Yangxin          29[degrees]49' N
                                                  115[degrees]13' E
                                                   49 km W
Fushan         Iron mine          Xintai City      37[degrees]04' N
                                                  114[degrees]30' E
                                                   56 km E
Fushun         Mine               Fushun City      41[degrees]51' N
                                                   123[degrees]54' E
                                                    5 km S
Fuyun          Area               Fuyun            47[degrees]02' N
                                                   89[degrees]29' E
                                                   20 km
Gaiyang        Area               Mingxi           26[degrees]21' N
                                  (Xuefeng)       117[degrees]12' E
                                                   18 km SE
Ganzhou Dayu   Area, mountains    Dayu             25[degrees]23' N
                                                  114[degrees]22' E
                                                   47 km SE
Gaofeng        Area               Qianshan         30[degrees]37' N
                                                  116[degrees]34' E
                                                   71 km S
Gaoligongshan  Mountain           Fugong           26[degrees]54' N
                                                   98[degrees]54' E
                                                   12 km E
Gaoshitai      Village            Chengde City     40[degrees]46' N
                                                  118[degrees]09' E
                                                   15 km S
Gaowang        Mine               Conghua          23[degrees]33' N
                                  (Jiekou)        113[degrees]33' E
                                                   15 km SE
Gejiu          Mine               Gejiu City       23[degrees]21' N
                                                  103[degrees]09' E
                                                   29 km N
Gongchangling  Iron mine          Liaoyang         41[degrees]13' N
                                                  123[degrees]03' E
                                                   31 km NW
Gongga         Village, mountain  Ningnan          27[degrees]05' N
                                                  102[degrees]46' E
                                                   20 km
Gongxian       Mines              Gongxian         34[degrees]46' N
                                                  112[degrees]58' E
                                                   45 km SW

Guangshanzai   Mine               Yunxi            32[degrees]59' N
                                                  110[degrees]25' E
                                                   59 km NE
Guichi         Copper mine        Guichi City      30[degrees]39' N
                                                  117[degrees]28' E
                                                   10 km NW
Guilin         Area               Guiliun          25[degrees]17' N
                                                  110[degrees]17' E
Harhada        Area (orebody)     Erenhot Erlian   43[degrees]38' N
                                  City            111[degrees]58' E
                                                   28 km E
Hazhen         Jade mine          Xiuyan           40[degrees]17' N
                                                  123[degrees]17' E
                                                   52 km SW
Heshan         Iron mine          Chengde City     40[degrees]46' N
                                                  118[degrees]09' E
                                                   46 km S
Honggou        Copper mine        Qilian           38[degrees]10' N
                                                  100[degrees]12' E
                                                   36 km SW
Hongqizhen     Quarry             Meigu            27[degrees]28' N
                                                  101[degrees]22' E
                                                   25 km SE
Hongshan       Mine               Guangning        23[degrees]38' N
                                  (Nanjie)        112[degrees]25' E
                                                   48 km NE
Hongshuidong   see Yungchangping
Houshan        Mountain           Mianning         28[degrees]36' N
                                                  102[degrees]10' E
                                                   20 km S
Huahe          Mine               Hong'an          31[degrees]17' N
                                                  114[degrees]37' E
                                                   20 km SE
Huangcheng     Mine               Zhushan          32[degrees]13' N
                                                  110[degrees]12' E
                                                   37 km S
Huangjindong   Mine               Pingjiang        28[degrees]42' N
                                                  113[degrees]33' E
                                                   36 km W
Huangpolong    see Leiping
Huangpuzhen    Quarry             Qianshan         30[degrees]37' N
                                                  116[degrees]34' E
                                                   11 km S
Huangshaping   Mine               Guiyang          25[degrees]43' N
                                                  112[degrees]43' E
                                                    8 km NE
Huaniushan     Mine               Anxi             40[degrees]31' N
                                  (Yuanquan)       95[degrees]48' E
                                                   75 km SE
Huoshosi       Mine               Yunxian          32[degrees]49' N
                                                  110[degrees]49' E
                                                   45 km NW
Jialu          Mine               Luonan           34[degrees]06' N
                                                  110[degrees]09' E
                                                   28 km N
Jiangcheng     Copper mine        Jiangcheng       24[degrees]25' N
                                                  102[degrees]48' E
                                                   20 km N
Jiguanshan     Jade mine          Fengcheng        40[degrees]28' N
                                                  124[degrees]02' E
                                                   14 km SE
Jinchuan       Mine, area         Jinchang City    38[degrees]28' N
                                                  102[degrees]10' E
                                                    6 km S
Jinduicheng    Mine, town         Huaxian          34[degrees]30' N
                                                  109[degrees]46' E
                                                   24 km NW
Jingtieshan    Mine               Jiayugaun City   39[degrees]48' N
                                                   98[degrees]14' E
                                                   30 km SE
Jining         Area               Jining City      41[degrees]02' N
                                                  113[degrees]06' E
                                                   26 km S
Jinkouhe       Town               Ebian            29[degrees]14' N
                                                  103[degrees]16' E
                                                   25 km SE
Jinliantong    Mine               Zhushan          32[degrees]13' N
                                                  110[degrees]12' E
                                                   45 km NW
Jinlong        Village            Longchuan        24[degrees]05' N
(incl. Rushan                     (Laolong)       115[degrees]15' E
Xiacun),                                           55 km SW
closed to
Shangping
Zhen (town)
Kangjiawan     Lead-zinc mine     Changning        26[degrees]24' N
(Shuikoushan)                                     112[degrees]23' N
                                                   25 km SW
Koktokay       Mines              Fuyun            46[degrees]31' N
                                                   90[degrees]25' E
                                                   30 km SW
Labashan       Mine               Zhushan          32[degrees]13' N
                                                  110[degrees]12' E
                                                   57 km SE
Laiyuan        Iron mines         Laiyuan          39[degrees]19' N
                                                  114[degrees]4' E
                                                   20 km W
Lamo           Mine               Nandan City      24[degrees]54' N
                                                  107[degrees]32' E
                                                   25 km NW
Laojuntang     Area               Changping        40[degrees]13' N
                                                  116[degrees]14' E
                                                   12 km SW
Laotiangou     Mine               Wafangdian       39[degrees]37' N
                                  City            122[degrees]00' E
                                                   46 km NE
Leiping        Mining area        Guiyang          25[degrees]43' N
(incl.                                            112[degrees]43' E
Huangpolong,                                       26 km SW
New May
First and ten
small mines)
Lianshan       Mountain           Liuhe            31[degrees]31' N
                                                  121[degrees]15' E
                                                   37 km W
Lianyuan       Coal mine          Lianyuan         27[degrees]41' N
                                                  111[degrees]41' E
                                                   15 km NE
Lieshiting     Phosphate mine     Qianshan         30[degrees]37' N
                                                  116[degrees]34' E
                                                   14 km SW
Lin Xian       Areas              Linxian          37[degrees]57' N
                                                  110[degrees]58' E
                                                   16 km S
Libo           Mine               Libo             24[degrees]55' N
                                                  107[degrees]30' E
Limu           Mine               Gongcheng        24[degrees]51' N
                                                  110[degrees]4' E
                                                   30 km SE
Liufengshan    Copper mine        Guichi City      30[degrees]39' N
                                                  117[degrees]28' E
                                                   10 km NW
Liuhuang-      Mine               Subei            39[degrees]30' N
Kuang                             (Dangchengwan)   94[degrees]52' E
                                                    5 km N
Luanhe         Area, river        Chengde City     40[degrees]46' N
                                                  118[degrees]09' E
                                                   14 km E
Lucun          Village            Jianshui         23[degrees]38' N
                                                  102[degrees]49' E
                                                   27 km NW
Lufeng         Area               Lufeng           25[degrees]09' N
                                                  102[degrees]05' E
                                                   20 km SE
Lugucun        Village            Huili            26[degrees]41' N
                                                  102[degrees]13' E
                                                   10 km NE
Majiagou       Mine               Yunxi            32[degrees]59' N
                                                  110[degrees]25' E
                                                   26 km SE
Malipo         Town               Malipo           23[degrees]07' N
                                                  104[degrees]41' E
                                                   15 km SE
Molongshan     Mountain           Honghe           23[degrees]21' N
                                                  102[degrees]24' E
                                                    2 km N
Nanjiangqiao   Area               Pingjiang        28[degrees]42'N
                                                  113[degrees]33' E
                                                   35 km SW
Nanshan        Iron & copper      Ma'anshan City   31[degrees]43' N
               mine                               118[degrees]28' E
                                                   27 km NW
Nanshankeng    Mine               Yiwu             29[degrees]18' N
                                                  120[degrees]04' E
                                                   49 km N
Nanshu         Mine               Laixi City       36[degrees]52' N
                                                  120[degrees]31' E
                                                   24 km SE
Ningdu         Area               Ningdu           26[degrees]28' N
                                                  116[degrees]00' E
                                                   21 km SE
Nuanshui       Lead-zinc mine     Rucheng          25[degrees]45' N
                                  (Chenzhou)      113[degrees]01' E
                                                   10 km
Pangjiabao     Iron mine          Xuanhua          40[degrees]37' N
                                                  115[degrees]02' E
                                                   33 km W
Pangushan      Wolfram mine       Yudu             25[degrees]57' N
                                                  115[degrees]23' E
                                                   32 km N
Panshan        Mountain           Jixian           40[degrees]02' N
                                                  117[degrees]24' E
                                                   10 km SE
Penglai        Mine               Wenchang         19[degrees]36' N
                                                  110[degrees]45' E
                                                   30 km NE
Pingdu         Mine               Pingdu City      36[degrees]47' N
                                                  119[degrees]58' E
                                                   24 km S
Pingtouling    Mine               Liannan          24[degrees]42' N
                                  (Sanjiang)      112[degrees]18' E
                                                   20 km N
Qingjiang      Mine               Wuning           29[degrees]15' N
                                                  115[degrees]05' E
                                                   30 km NE
Qingshuigou    Area               Qilian           38[degrees]10' N
                                                  100[degrees]12' E
                                                   28 km SE
Qinghe         Mountain           Qinghe           47[degrees]00' N
                                                   90[degrees]20' E
                                                   20 km S
Qinjiafang     Mine               Pingjiang        28[degrees]42' N
(Hupei)                                           113[degrees]33' E
                                                   20 km SW
Ruyan          Area               Lechang          25[degrees]09' N
                                                  113[degrees]21' E
                                                   40 km NE
Sha'ertuohai   Mine               Tuoli            45[degrees]56' N
                                                   83[degrees]37' E
                                                   47 km SE
Shangbao       Pyrite mine        Leiyang          26[degrees]24' N
                                                  112[degrees]51' E
                                                   32 km NW
Shangyangpo    Mine               Yunxian          32[degrees]49' N
                                                  110[degrees]49' E
                                                   26 km NW
Shilu          Copper mine        Yangchun         22[degrees]10' N
                                  (Chuncheng)     111[degrees]48' E
                                                   15 km SE
Shilu          Mine               Changjiang       19[degrees]16' N
                                  (Shilu)         109[degrees]03' E
                                                   10 km N
Shimen         Mine               Shimen           27[degrees]46' N
(Jiepiayu)                                        110[degrees]01' E
                                                   33 km SE
Shitouzui      Copper-iron mine   Daye             30[degrees]06' N
                                                  114[degrees]58' E
                                                   18 km SW
Shizhuyuan     Mine               Chenzhou City    25[degrees]46' N
                                                  113[degrees]02' E
                                                   14 km W
Shuijingping   Village            Yunxiao          23[degrees]58' N
                                                  117[degrees]21' E
                                                   20 km S
Shuikoushan    see Kangjiawan
Siding         Mine               Rong'an          25[degrees]13' N
                                                  109[degrees]22' E
                                                   25 km NW
Suzhou         Area               Suzhou City      31[degrees]19' N
                                                  120[degrees]37' E
Taolin         Mine               Linxiang         29[degrees]29' N
                                                  113[degrees]27' E
                                                   14 km N
Tongbei        Area               Yunxiao          23[degrees]58' N
                                                  117[degrees]21' E
                                                   30 km
Tong-          Copper mine        Tongling &       30[degrees]35' N
guangshan                         Tongling City   117[degrees]48' E
                                                    2.5 km NW
Tonglushan     Copper mine        Daye City        30[degrees]06' N
                                                  114[degrees]58' E
                                                   10 km E
Tongshan       Copper & iron      Guichi City      30[degrees]39' N
               mine                               117[degrees]28
                                                   30 km NE
Tongshankou    Copper-iron mine   Daye             30[degrees]06' N
                                                  114[degrees]58' E
                                                   34 km NE
Wagou          Jade mine          Xiuyan           40[degrees]17' N
                                                  123[degrees]17' E
                                                   22 km SE
Weija          see Chengmenshan
Wenchuan       Area               Wenchua          31[degrees]57' N
                                                  106[degrees]18' E
                                                   68 km W
Wenshan        Area               Jiashan          32[degrees]47' N
                                                  117[degrees]58' E
                                                   27 km NE
Wenyu          Mine               Lingbao          34[degrees]31' N
                                                  110[degrees]52' E
                                                   58 km NW
Wuning         Mine               Wuning           29[degrees]12' N
(Wuling),                                         115[degrees]03' E
Qingjiang                                          40 km NE
Wushan         Copper mines       Ruichang         29[degrees]40' N
                                                  115[degrees]38' E
                                                   10 km S
Wutaishan      Mountain           Pangjiapu        39[degrees]00' N
                                                  113[degrees]30' E
                                                   17 km S
Wuyu-Shuilou   Area               Hechi City       24[degrees]42' N
                                                  107[degrees]51' E
                                                   25 km NE
Xianghualing   Tin mine           Linwu            25[degrees]16' N
(incl. many                       (Chenzhou)      112[degrees]32' E
small mines)                                       20 km S
Xianghuapu     Mine               Linwu            25[degrees]16' N
(incl. Maiwan                     (Chenzhou)      112[degrees]32' E
& other small                                      13 km S
mines)
Xiangtan       Mine               Xiangtan City    27[degrees]52' N
                                                  112[degrees]53' E
                                                    7 km N
Xiaojie        Mine               Panzhihua        26[degrees]44' N
                                                  101[degrees]41' E
Xiaosongshan   Mountain           Alashan Zuoqi    38[degrees]50' N
                                                  105[degrees]41' E
                                                   69 km SE
Xikuangshan    Antimony mine      Lenshuijiang     27[degrees]42' N
                                  City            111[degrees]26' E
                                                    9 km SW
Xinzai         Village            Wenshan city     23[degrees]22' N
                                                  104[degrees]13' E
                                                   97 km W
Xiongxiong'    Iron mine          Hezhang          27[degrees]07' N
  ga                                              104[degrees]42' E
                                                   38 km NE
Xixia          Area               Xixia            33[degrees]18' N
                                                  111[degrees]29' E
                                                   13 km SE
Xiyugou        Jade mine          Xiuyan           40[degrees]17' N
                                                  123[degrees]17' E
                                                   45 km NE
Xuebaoding     Mountain           Pingwu           32[degrees]26' N
(Hujia)                                           104[degrees]31' E
                                                   40 km SE
Yangliuping    Mine               Danba            30[degrees]52' N
                                                  101[degrees]52' E
                                                   30 km N
Yangshuo       Area, mine         Yangshuo         25[degrees]17' N
                                                  110[degrees]17' E
                                                   40 km SW
Yanmeitong     Mine               Laiyuan          37[degrees]11' N
                                                  112[degrees]31' E
                                                   14 km SW
Yanwuping      Mine               Wanshan          27[degrees]31' N
(incl.                                            109[degrees]12' E
Zhangjiawan                                        12 km SW
& other
small mines)
Yanzigou       Mine               Daixian          39[degrees]04' N
                                                  112[degrees]57' E
                                                   47 km SE
Yaogangxian    Wolfram mine       Yizhang          25[degrees]46' N
                                                  113[degrees]02' E
                                                   45 km SW
Yianpo         Mine               Yunxi            32[degrees]59' N
                                                  110[degrees]25' E
                                                   47 km SW
Yingcheng      Mine               Yingcheng City   30[degrees]57' N
                                                  113[degrees]33' E
                                                   57 km N
Yujangyan      Mine               Zhushan          32[degrees]13' N
                                                  110[degrees]12' E
                                                   49 km S
Yunchangping   Mining area        Tongren City     27[degrees]43' N
(incl. Hong-                                      109[degrees]12' E
shuidong,                                          13 km SW
Dadongla,
and other
mines)
Yungaisi       Mine               Yunxian          32[degrees]49' N
                                                  110[degrees]49' E
                                                   56 km W
Yunling        Area               Zhangpu          24[degrees]06' N
                                  (Siu'an)        117[degrees]37' E
                                                   30 km SE
Yunzhongshan   Mountain           Linqiu           39[degrees]26' N
                                                  114[degrees]13' E
                                                   36 km S
Yushipo        Area               Shangzhou        33[degrees]52' N
                                                  109[degrees]57' E
                                                   47 km S
Zhang'ergou    Mine               Lushi            34[degrees]03' N
                                                  111[degrees]02' E
                                                   48 km N
Zhongjia       Mine               Longyan City     25[degrees]06' N
                                                  117[degrees]01' E
                                                   15 km NW
Zhongxingtang  Mine               Dongyang         29[degrees]14' N
                                                  120[degrees]14' E
                                                   30 km N
Zhoukoudian    Area               Fangshan         39[degrees]42' N
                                                  115[degrees]58' E
                                                    6 km W

Location       Province        Minerals

884 (Leiping   Hunan           v-twinned calcite, galena, pyrite,
Mining area)                   arsenopyrite, fluorite
Altay          Xinjiang,       albite, amazonite, apatite, aquamarine,
               Uygur A.R.      epidote, fluorite, garnet, gold,
                               polylithionite, molybdenite, muscovite,
                               pollucite, pyrite, sphalerite, spodumene,
                               topaz, tourmaline, zircon
Amo            Yunnan          cassiterite
Anpeng         Henan           gypsum
Anyuan         Hunan           arsenopyrite
Aoshan         Anhui           apatite, calcite, hematite, pyrite
Babu           Guangxi,        aurichalcite, calcite, rhodochrosite
               Zhuang A.R.
Baisha         Hunan           calcite
Baiyinchang    Gansu           arsenopyrite, bornite, chalcopyrite,
                               galena, jarosite, pyrite, sphalerite,
                               stannite
Bantanhe       Guangdong       zircon, samarskite
Bayan Obo      Inner Mongolia  *aeschynite-(Nd), *baotite, *bafertisite,
(Baiyunerbo)                   bastnasite-(Ce), calcite, carbocernaite,
                               *cebaite-(Ce), *cebaite-(Nd), cordylite-
                               (Ce), *daqingshanite-(Ce), *fergusonite-
                               beta-(Ce), *fergusonite-beta-(Nd),
                               *fergusonite-beta-(Y) *fergusonite-(Ce),
                               *fergusonite-(Nd), fergusonite-(Y),
                               hematite, *huanghoite, *magbasite,
                               magnetite, monazite-(Ce),
                               nioboaeschynite-(Ce), *parisite-(Nd),
                               strontianite, witherite
Beiwagou       Liaoning        antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile,
                               lizardite, talc, tremolite
Beiyan         Shandong        sapphire
Bianning       Liaoning        antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile,
                               lizardite, talc, tremolite
Bofang         Hunan           adamite, "limonite"
Caiwa          Shaanxi         kermesite, paakkonenite, senarmontite
Chalaka        Tibet A.R.      borax
Changbai       Jilin           *changbaiite
Chashan        Hunan           galena, pyrite, quartz, dolomite,
                               fluorites and calcite
Chao'an        Guangdong       helvite
Chaozhou
Chaobuleng     Inner Mongolia  xilingolite
Chatian        Hunan           cinnabar, barite, pyrite, quartz,
(incl. #1,                     sphalerite
#2, #3 shafts
and ten
small mines
nearby)
Chengmenshan   Jiangxi         azurite, chalcopyrite, copper, cuprite
(incl. Weijia                  (chalcotrichite), pyrite, quartz
mine)
Chimashan      Hubei           chalcocite
Daba           Hunan           calcite
Dachang        Guizhou         arsenopyrite, barite, calcite,
               Zhuang A.R.     cassiterite, fluorite, jamesonite,
                               marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite, stibnite
Dafangshen     Liaoning        antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile,
                               lizardite, talc, tremolite
Dahegou        Henan           calcite, barite, stibiconite, stibnite
Damiao         Hebei           *damiaoite
Daoping        Guangxi         cerussite, galena, pyromorphite,
               Zhuang A.R.     sphalerite
Daye (incl.    Hubei           calcite, azurite, malachite, hematite
some small
mines)
De'an          Jiangxi         fluorite
Dingjiagang    Hunan           diamond
Donghai        Jiangsu         carbonate-apatite, quartz
Dongshan       Hunan           fluorite, scheelite, calcite
Ebian          Sichuan         barite, quartz
Ertixi (#3     Xinjiang,       *ertixiite
pegmatite)     Uygar A.R.
Fengjiashan    Hubei           amethyst, apophyllite, braunite, calcite,
                               chalcopyrite, datolite, hubeite, ilvaite,
                               inesite, japanese twins, pyrite,
                               stilbite/stellarite, wollastonite
Fenglin        Jiangxi         chalcocite
Fengsandong    Hubei           amethyst, bornite, apophyllite,
                               chalcopyrite, datolite, inesite,
                               molybdenite, pyrite, parsettensite,
                               stilbite
Fushan         Hebei           vesuvianite, hematite
Fushun         Liaoning        amber
Fuyun          Xinjiang,       aquamarine, fluorite, garnet, hiddennite,
               Uygur A.R.      pollucite, tourmaline
Gaiyang        Fujian          sapphire, pyrope
Ganzhou Dayu   Jiangxi         barite, bismuth, cassiterite, fluorite,
                               scheelite, sphalerite, wolframite
Gaofeng        Anhui           epidote, garnet
Gaoligongshan  Yunnan          topaz, tourmaline
Gaoshitai      Hebei           *gaotaiite
Gaowang        Guangdong       fergusonite, samarskite
Gejiu          Yunnan          barite, bornite, cassiterite,
                               hemimorphite
Gongchangling  Liaoning        magnetite
Gongga         Sichuan         barite
Gongxian       Henan           bauxite (diaspore, boehmite)
Guangshanzai   Hubei           turquoise
Guichi         Anhui           azurite, malachite
Guilin         Guangxi Zhuang  calcite
               A.R.
Harhada        Inner Mongolia  *erlianite
               A.R.
Hazhen         Liaoning        antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile,
                               lizardite, talc, tremolite
Heshan         Hebei           coulsonite, (Ti-rich) magnetite
Honggou        Qinghai         chalcopyrite
Hongqizhen     Sichuan         epidote, quartz
Hongshan       Guangdong       ferrocolumbite, tantalite
Hongshuidong   see Yungchangping
Houshan        Sichuan         hematite, quartz
Huahe          Hubei           fluorite
Huangcheng     Hubei           turquoise
Huangjindong   Hunan           gold
Huangpolong    see Leiping
Huangpuzhen    Anhui           rutilated quartz, calcite
Huangshaping   Hunan           calcite, fluorite, galena, sphalerite,
                               wolframite
Huaniushan     Gansu           chalcocite, sphalerite
Huoshosi       Hubei           turquoise
Jialu          Shaanxi         chalcopyrite, *chrombismite, pyrite
Jiangcheng     Yunnan          tennantite
Jiguanshan     Liaoning        antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile,
                               lizardite, talc, tremolite
Jinchuan       Gansu           pentlandite, pyrite, pyrrhotite
Jinduicheng    Shaanxi         molybdenite
Jingtieshan    Gansu           calcite, barite, hematite, pyrite
Jining         Inner Mongolia  amazonite, apatite, muscovite,
               A.R.            phlogopite, quartz
Jinkouhe       Sichuan         barite, quartz
Jinliantong    Hubei           turquoise
Jinlong        Guangdong       helvite, hematite, quartz,
(incl. Rushan
Xiacun),
closed to
Shangping
Zhen (town)
Kangjiawan     Hunan           calcite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite
(Shuikoushan)
Koktokay       Xinjiang,       allanite-(Ce), albite, amazonite,
               Uygur A.R.      apatite, aquamarine, ashanite, bimushite,
                               bismutomicrolite, chrysoberyl,
                               *cygrayite, epidote, ertixiite, fluorite,
                               garnet, hiddenite, holmquistite,
                               ilmenite, ishikawaite, manganotantalite,
                               manganocolumbite, molybdenite, muscovite,
                               phenakite, pollucite, polylithionite,
                               pyrite, *qingheite, samarskite,
                               scheelite, sphalerite, spodumene,
                               staurolite, topaz, tourmaline,
                               trilithionite, uraninite, zircon
Labashan       Hubei           turquoise
Laiyuan        Hebei           hematite, ludwigite
Lamo           Guangxi,        apatite, galena, pyrite, quartz,
               Zhuang A.R.     rhodochrosite, sphalerite
Laojuntang     Beijing M.      topaz
Laotiangou     Liaoning        diamond
Leiping        Hunan           calcite (twins), fluorite, pyrite
(incl.
Huangpolong,
New May
First and ten
small mines)
Lianshan       Jiangsu         sapphire
Lianyuan       Hunan           selenite
Lieshiting     Anhui           apatite, calcite, pyrite
Lin Xian       Shanxi          orthoclase
Libo           Guizhou         Mg-calcite, stibnite
Limu           Guangxi         cassiterite, lepidolite, niobite,
               Zhuang A.R.     tantalite, topaz
Liufengshan    Anhui           azurite, malachite
Liuhuang-      Gansu           pyrite, sulfur
Kuang
Luanhe         Hebei           *changchengite, *chendeite
Lucun          Yunnan          calcite (orange), *jianshuiite
Lufeng         Yunnan          Cu-bearing aragonite
Lugucun        Sichuan         *jinshajiangite
Majiagou       Hubei           turquoise
Malipo         Yunnan          emerald, hemimorphite, hydrozincite,
                               scheelite
Molongshan     Yunnan          aquamarine, quartz
Nanjiangqiao   Hunan           aquamarine, garnet, tantalite
Nanshan        Anhui           turquoise, hematite
Nanshankeng    Zhejiang        fluorite
Nanshu         Shandong        graphite
Ningdu         Jiangxi         hemimorphite
Nuanshui       Hunan           sphalerite, galena, quartz
Pangjiabao     Hebei           hematite, siderite, cordierite
Pangushan      Jiangxi         wolframite
Panshan        Tienjin         *jixianite
Penglai        Hainan          bauxite (gibbsite)
Pingdu         Shandong        rutile
Pingtouling    Guangdong       mimetite
Qingjiang      Jiangxi         barite, calcite, stibnite
Qingshuigou    Qinghai         glaucophane
Qinghe         Xinjiang,       aquamarine, garnet, tourmaline
               Uygur A.R.
Qinjiafang     Hunan           aquamarine, garnet, tantalite
(Hupei)
Ruyan          Guangdong       fluorite
Sha'ertuohai   Xinjiang,       chromite
               Uygur A.R.
Shangbao       Hunan           calcite, bismuthinite, dolomite,
                               fluorite, pyrite, quartz
Shangyangpo    Hubei           turquoise
Shilu          Guangdong       azurite, malachite
Shilu          Hainan          hematite
Shimen         Hunan           calcite, orpiment, picropharmacolite,
(Jiepiayu)                     realgar
Shitouzui      Hubei           azurite
Shizhuyuan     Hunan           bismuthinite, calcite, cassiterite,
                               fluorite, galena, muscovite, pyrrhotite,
                               pyrite, scheelite, sphalerite, Ta/Nb
                               oxides, wolframite
Shuijingping   Fujian          feldspar, fluorite, helvite, pyrite,
                               smoky quartz, spessartite
Shuikoushan    see Kangjiawan
Siding         Guangxi,        hydrozincite
               Zhuang A.R.
Suzhou         Jiangsu         annite (F-rich)
Taolin         Hunan           barite, fluorite, galena, quartz,
                               sphalerite
Tongbei        Fujian          beryl, feldspar, fluorite, helvite,
                               hematite, mica, milarite, pyrite, schorl,
                               smoky quartz, spessartite, topaz
Tong-          Anhui           azurite, chalcopyrite, garnet, limonite,
guangshan                      malachite, pyrrhotite, wollastonite
Tonglushan     Hubei           azurite, chalcopyrite, cuprite, malachite
Tongshan       Anhui           azurite, chrysocolla, malachite
Tongshankou    Hubei           azurite, chalcopyrite, cuprite, malachite
Wagou          Liaoning        antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile,
                               lizardite, talc, tremolite
Weija          see Chengmenshan
Wenchuan       Sichuan         tourmaline
Wenshan        Anhui           anorthoclase
Wenyu          Henan           gold
Wuning         Jiangxi         stibnite
(Wuling),
Qingjiang
Wushan         Jiangxi         azurite
Wutaishan      Shanxi          tourmaline
Wuyu-Shuilou   Guangxi         calcite, galena, realgar, sphalerite,
               Zhuang A.R.     stibnite
Xianghualing   Hunan           calcite, cassiterite, fluorite,
(incl. many                    *hsianghualite, scheelite, topaz
small mines)
Xianghuapu     Hunan           barite, calcite, fluorite, zinnwaldite
(incl. Maiwan
& other small
mines)
Xiangtan       Hunan           manganite
Xiaojie        Sichuan         amazonite, quartz
Xiaosongshan   Ningxia         diopside
Xikuangshan    Hunan           barite, calcite, cervantite, fluorite,
                               gypsum, pyrite, quartz, senarmontite,
                               stibiconite, stibnite, sulfur,
                               valentinite
Xinzai         Yunnan          cassiterite
Xiongxiong'    Guizhou         hematite, "limonite," siderite
ga
Xixia          Henan           andalusite
Xiyugou        Liaoning        antigorite, chlorite, chrysotile,
                               lizardite, talc, tremolite
Xuebaoding     Sichuan         apatite, aquamarine, cassiterite,
(Hujia)                        dolomite, feldspar, fluorite, goshenite,
                               morganite, muscovite, quartz, scheelite
Yangliuping    Sichuan         bornite, chromium, *danbaite, gold,
                               linnaeite, sperrylite,
                               testiobiopallasite, violarite
Yangshuo       Guangxi,        calcite, cerussite, pyromorphite
               Zhuang A.R.
Yanmeitong     Hebei           asbestos, serpentine
Yanwuping      Guizhou         barite, calcite, cinnabar, dolomite,
(incl.                         pyrite, quartz, sphalerite
Zhangjiawan
& other
small mines)
Yanzigou       Shanxi          rutile
Yaogangxian    Hunan           apatite, arsenopyrite, bismuthinite,
                               bornite, boulangerite, bournonite,
                               calcite, cassiterite, chalcopyrite,
                               dolomite, fluorite, jamesonite, mica,
                               pyrite, quartz, rhodochrosite, scheelite,
                               sphalerite, stannite, topaz, wolframite
Yianpo         Hubei           turquoise
Yingcheng      Hubei           gypsum
Yujangyan      Hubei           turquoise
Yunchangping   Guizhou         cinnabar, calcite, dolomite, quartz,
(incl. Hong-                   pyrite, sphalerite, barite
shuidong,
Dadongla,
and other
mines)
Yungaisi       Hubei           turquoise
Yunling        Fujian          feldspar, fluorite, helvite, mica,
                               pyrite, smoky quartz, spessartine, topaz
Yunzhongshan   Shanxi          tourmaline
Yushipo        Shaanxi         fluorite
Zhang'ergou    Henan           barite, calcite, stibnite
Zhongjia       Fujian          scheelite, topaz, wolframite
Zhongxingtang  Zhejiang        fluorite
Zhoukoudian    Beijing         andalusite

* denotes that this is the type locality for this species


Bill Smith and Carol Smith

1731 Daphne

Broomfield, Colorado 80020

smith72@attglobal.net

Guanghua Liu

Franzosische Allee 24

D-72072 Tubingen, Germany

GhLiu@t-online.de

Berthold Ottens

Klingenbrunn Bahnhof 24

D-94518 Spiegelau, Germany

ottens-mineralien@t-online.de
COPYRIGHT 2005 The Mineralogical, Inc.
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Author:Smith, Bill; Smith, Carol; Liu, Guanghua; Ottens, Berthold
Publication:The Mineralogical Record
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Jan 1, 2005
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