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A flora of the Ballona wetlands and environs.

A list of vascular plant taxa is provided for a study area that encompasses the current Ballona Wetlands Ecological Reserve, Ballona Freshwater Wetlands, and areas that were part of the historic Ballona Wetlands and adjacent bluffs. The flora for this area has been documented in unpublished reports and voucher collections but not compiled into a single list. A total of 407 taxa comprise this flora, of which 40% are not indigenous to California. This percentage is higher than the percentage of non-indigenous species in California as a whole (17%). Out of 242 native species reported for the study area, 26 percent (62 species) have not been observed or collected since major hydrological alterations of the watershed began in the 1930s. Restoration planned for the Ballona Wetlands Ecological Reserve offers an opportunity to re-introduce some of the historically native flora, including rare and endangered species.

The study area is located about two miles north of Los Angeles International Airport (Fig. 1). Limits of the study area were defined based on maps of the historical extent of the wetlands and adjacent uplands. Land use planning in this region has been controversial for at least 40 years, with various proposals ranging from development to restoration. With the exception of occasional botanical collections, systematic floristic surveys were not documented until Clark (1979), when a single season of field work was conducted in March and April of 1978. Subsequent floristic surveys in 1980-1981 by Gustafson (1981) and in 1990 by Henrickson (1991) covered more than one season. While these surveys were supported in part by voucher collections deposited with the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, results of these and subsequent surveys (Read 1995; MEC Analytical Systems 2005; Johnston 2011) were not published. This paper combines plant lists and historical collection records for the Ballona region into a single list and updates nomenclature. Historical conditions, occurrence of rare species, and occurrence of non-native invasive taxa are also discussed.

Latin nomenclature was updated based on current taxonomy (Baldwin et al. 2012). In cases of species subject to extensive taxonomic revisions, older taxonomies were used to verify identification of historical collections (Abrams 1902, 1917; Munz 1974). Historical maps were examined to locate landmarks cited in voucher collections but not present on current maps. These historical maps consisted of a United States Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1876 (Grossinger et al. 2011) and a vegetation mapping survey of the Redondo 15-minute quadrangle by Jensen (1933). These maps were overlaid on current topography using Geographic Information System software to verify locations of historical landmarks relative to the study area. Reports of archaeological surveys (Altschul et al. 1992, 2003) were reviewed for historical land alterations potentially affecting the flora.

All plant taxa reported from the study area are listed in Table 1. This table is necessarily abbreviated for presentation here. The entire database, including details such as accession numbers and references for each observation or collection, can be provided upon request. Only taxa indigenous or naturalized in the study area were included in this table in order to make the list more meaningful for analysis, restoration and management. In other words, non-invasive, non-native ornamental taxa known to be confined to existing or abandoned landscapes were omitted. A total of 407 taxa are shown in Table 1, of which about 40 percent (165 taxa) are not native to California. Changes in taxonomy over time, especially below the species level, have a minor effect on these statistics.

Out of the 242 native taxa listed, about 26 percent (62 species) have not been observed or collected since the 1930s when there were major hydrological alterations of the area for flood control and farming. One of these historical species, Ballona cinquefoil (Potentilla multijuga), is believed to have been endemic to Ballona but extirpated sometime after its last collection in 1890 by H.E. Hasse from a "brackish area in coastal sage scrub".

Human impacts in the study area over the past two centuries have been documented extensively by others (Dark et al. 2011; Grossinger et al. 2011), so it is important to recognize that historical botanical collections from the study area do not represent pristine (pre-human disturbance) conditions or a complete flora of the region. A survey map of the wetlands was not published until 1876, which is 57 years after cattle herds were pastured in the Ballona Creek drainage beginning around 1819 (Altschul et al., 1992 p. 56). After 1819, the earliest known botanical collections from Ballona were by S.B. Parish 63 years later, in 1882.

Thus, given at least two centuries of land alteration in the region, it is not surprising that a substantial portion of the flora is not native. The proportion of non-native flora is high when compared to the proportion of 17% non-native taxa in California as a whole (1), and especially high considering the small size of the study area (1,824 ha) relative to the geographic extent of California (42,476 ha).

Most of the non-native flora has established in the absence of systematic efforts at restoring conditions suitable for sustaining native species in a heavily urbanized watershed, but not all of the invaders have been equally successful. One of the first records of non-native species is of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), collected by Abrams in 1902, yet this species has not invaded the wetlands as extensively as a relative newcomer, pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana). There are no historic collections of Cortaderia from the study area and its occurrence at Ballona was unremarked until it was reported by Clark (1979).

Coastal estuarine and saltmarsh taxa are noticeably rare in the historical collections. Most of the historic flora is composed of species associated with upland, freshwater or brackish habitats. While there could be various reasons for this, the high proportion of non-estuarine taxa in historical collections is consistent with documentation by Dark et al. (2011) of springs and seasonal ponds that were prevalent historically but no longer exist. One example of this freshwater flora is giant horsetail (Equisetum telmateia), collected by Abrams in 1901 from Ballona Creek while it was still a meandering, natural stream. Another example is Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia) collected by Ewan in 1932 along Ballona Creek in the area of what is now Culver City. This is the only native tree represented in the historic flora.

Examination of the plant list also reveals interesting inconsistencies in the taxonomic records. For example, Senecio californicus was collected by Abrams in 1901, but later collectors (Gustafson 1981; Henrickson 1991) identified only Senecio vulgaris, a non-native species. This may be a simple misidentification, but alternatively could be an example of niche displacement of a native Senecio by an exotic species.

Lastly, determination of which species are truly "native" to the study area is complicated by changes in taxonomy (e.g., "lumping" vs. "splitting" varieties and subspecies), misidentifications, and intentional introduction of taxa for "restoration" without documentation of variety or seed origin. A species of pincushion (Chaenactis glabriuscula), an annual herb associated with sandy soils, has been reported several times since it was first collected in 1901. This taxon persists into the current period, but tracing its history of occurrence is complicated by taxonomic re-classifications of some historical collections, and "restoration" efforts that distributed C. glabriuscula seeds of unspecified variety and unknown origin. Currently, a variety considered rare by the California Native Plant Society and identified as C. g. var. orcuttiana persists in dunes that are subject to ongoing restoration efforts, but it is not clear whether this variety is indigenous, intentionally planted, or some combination of both. Some voucher specimens from the study area are classified as the more common variety, C. g. var. glabriuscula, and deserve further study.

Historical maps show "marsh" but are silent on the issue of what proportion of the wetlands consisted of freshwater vs. saltwater or brackish marsh. However, botanical records show that the study area was occupied by a highly diverse ecosystem. The area encompassed not just wetlands, but a wide variety of other habitat types including dunes, freshwater marshes, seasonal ponds, and riparian communities. Taxonomic inconsistencies in the botanical record introduce some margin of error in calculating species richness, but this is largely of academic interest. Habitat restoration in the study area offers a unique opportunity to reverse a decades-old trend of exotic invasion at the expense of native diversity, while recognizing that significant alterations of the watershed render it impossible to fully restore the historic flora. This study provides a starting point for enhancing function and diversity of the Ballona Wetlands.

Literature Cited

Abrams, L.A. 1902. Additions to the flora of Los Angeles County, please change to Bull. S. Calif. Acad. Sci., 1 (7): 87.

Abrams, L.A. 1917. Flora of Los Angeles and Vicinity. New Era Printing Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

Altschul, J.H., J.A. Homburg, and R.S. Ciolek-Torrello. 1992. Life in the Ballona: Archaeological Investigations at the Admiralty Site (CA-LAN-47) and the Channel Gateway Site (CA-LAN-1596-H). Statistical Research, Inc. Technical Series No. 33.

Altschul, J.H., A.Q. Stoll, D.R. Grenda, and R. Ciolek-Torrello. 2003. At the Base of the Bluff: Archaeological Inventory and Evaluation along Lower Centinela Creek, Marina del Rey, California. Statistical Research, Inc. Playa Vista Monograph Series Test Excavation Report 4.

Baldwin, B.G., D.H. Goldman, D.J. Keil, R. Patterson, T.J. Rosatti, and D.H. Wilken, editors. 2012. The Jepson manual: vascular plants of California, second edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Clark, J. 1979. Ballona Vegetation Survey. Report dated May 10, 1979, prepared for The Conservation Foundation.

Dark, S., E.D. Stein, D. Bram, J. Monteferante, T. Longcore, R. Grossinger, and E. Beller. 2011. Historical Ecol- ogy of the Ballona Creek Watershed. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report #671.

Grossinger, R.M., E.D. Stein, K.N. Cayce, R.A. Askevold, S. Dark, and A.A. Whipple. 2011. Historical Wetlands of the Southern California Coast: An Atlas of US Coast Survey T-Sheets, 1851-1889. San Francisco Estu- ary Institute Contribution # 586, Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Technical Report # 589. data download for T-Sheet #T1432b from caltsheets.org/socal/index.html.

Gustafson, R.J. 1981. The Vegetation of Ballona. Undated report prepared for Playa Vista.

Henrickson, J. 1991. Botanical Resources of Playa Vista. Report dated May 12, 1991, prepared for Playa Vista.

Jensen, S.A. 1933. Vegetation Map of the Redondo 15-Minute Quadrangle. Downloaded from http://vtm. berkeley.edu.

Johnston, K., 2011. The Ballona Wetlands Ecological Reserve Baseline Assessment Program 2009-2010 Final Report. Prepared for the California State Coastal Conservancy and California Department of Fish and Game. Issued November, 2011.

MEC Analytical Systems, 2005. 2004 Biological Study of Ballona Wetlands, Los Angeles County, California. Final Report, prepared for US Army Corps of Engineers Los Angeles District.

Munz, P.A. 1974. A Flora of Southern California. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Read, E. 1995. Sensitive Plant Surveys and Vegetation Update for Playa Vista. Report prepared for Impact Sciences, Inc.

E.A. Read

E Read and Associates, Inc. Orange, CA 92866, marshmistress@msn.com

(1) Calculated from Baldwin et al. (2012), p. 1521.

Table 1. Checklist of the Flora of the Ballona Wetlands and
Environs.

                FERNS

Equisetaceae                             Horsetail Family
Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. ssp.
braunii (J. Milde) Hauke                 giant horsetail

              MAGNOLIDS

Lauraceae                                Laurel Family
Umbellularia californica
(Hook. & Am.) Nutt.                      California bay

Saururaceae                              Lizard's-Tail Family
Anemopsis californica (Nutt.)
Hook. & Am.                              yerba mansa

               EUDICOTS

Adoxaceae                                Muskroot Family

Sambucus nigra L. ssp. caerulea
(Raf.) Bolli                             blue elderberry

Aizoaceae                                Iceplant Family
Aptenia cordifolia (L.f.)
Schwantes *                              baby sun rose
Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E. Br. *       freeway iceplant
Delosperma litorale (Kensit) L.
Bolus *                                  ice plant
                                         coppery
Malephora crocea (Jacq.) Schwantes *     mesembryanthemum
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. *       common iceplant
                                         slender-leaved
Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum L. *         iceplant
Sesuvium verrucosum Raf.                 western sea-purslane
Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pall.)
Kuntze *                                 New Zealand spinach

Amaranthaceae                            Amaranth Family
Amaranthus albus L. *                    tumbleweed
Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson           procumbent pigweed
Amaranthus californicus (Moq.) S.
Watson                                   Californian amaranth
                                         large fruited
Amaranthus deflexus L. *                 amaranth
Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J.D.
Sauer var. rudis (J.D.
Sauer) Costea & Tardif *                 common waterhemp

Anacardeaceae                            Sumac Family
Malosma laurina (Nutt.) Abrams           laurel sumac
Rhus integrifolia (Nutt.) Rothr.         lemonade berry
Rhus ovata S. Watson                     sugar bush
Schinus molle L. *                       pepper tree
                                         Brazilian pepper
Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi *         tree

Apiaceae                                 Carrot Family
Apium graveolens L. *                    celery
Conium maculatum L. *                    poison hemlock
Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.)
Britton & P. Wilson *                    marsh parsley
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. *               fennel
Oenanthe sarmentosa DC.                  water parsley

Apocynaceae                              Dogbane Family
Asclepias fascicular is Decne.           narrow-leaf milkweed

Asteraceae                               Sunflower Family
Acroptilon repens (L.) DC. *             Russian knapweed
Amblyopappus pusillus Hook. & Am.        dwarf coastweed
Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hook.              annual bursage
Ambrosia chamissonis (Less.) Greene      beach bur-sage
Ambrosia psilostachya DC.                western ragweed
Anthemis cotula L. *                     mayweed
Artemisia californica Less.              California sagebrush
Artemisia douglasiana Besser             mugwort
Artemisia dracunculus L.                 tarragon
Baccharis glutinosa Pers.                marsh baccharis
Baccharis pilularis DC.                  coyote brush
Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.)
Pers.                                    mulefat
Bidens laevis (L.) Britton et al.        bur-marigold
                                         California
Brickellia californica (Torr. & A.
Gray) A. Gray                            brickellbush
Centaurea melitensis L. *                tocalote
Centromadia parryi (Greene) Greene
ssp. australis (D.D.
Keck) B.G. Baldwin                       southern tarplant
Chaenactis glabriuscula DC. var.
orcuttiana (Greene) H.M.
Hall                                     Orcutt's pincushion
Chondrilla juncea L. *                   skeleton weed
Cichorium intybus L. *                   chicory

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. *            bull thistle
Coreothrogyne filaginifolia
(Hook. & Am.) Nutt.                      Califomia-aster

Cotula australis (Spreng.) Hook, f. *    Australian cotula

Cotula coronopifolia L. *                brass-buttons
Deinandra fasciculata (DC.) Greene       clustered tarplant
Deinandra paniculata (A. Gray)
Davidson & Moxley                        paniculate tarplant

                                         trailing African
Dimorphothecafruticosa (L.) DC. *        daisy
                                         California
Encelia californica Nutt.                brittlebush
Ericameria ericoides (Less.) Jeps.       California goldenbush
Ericameriapinifolia (A. Gray)
H.M. Hall                                pine-bush

Erigeron bonariensis L. *                flax-leaved horseweed
Erigeron canadensis L.                   horseweed
Euryopspectinatus (L.) Cass. *           gray-leaf euryops
Euthamia occidentalis Nutt.              western goldenrod
                                         treasure flower,
Gazania linearis (Thunb.) Druce *        African daisy
Glebionis coronaria (L.) Spach *         garland or crown daisy
Grindelia camporum Greene                common gumplant
Hedypnois cretica (L.) Dum.-Cours. *     Crete weed
Helianthus annuus L.                     common sunflower
Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub *    bristly ox-tongue
Heterotheca grandiflora Nutt.            telegraph weed

Hypochaeris glabra L. *                  smooth cat's ear
Isocoma menziesii (Hook. & Am.)          coastal goldenbush
Iva axillaris Pursh                      poverty weed
                                         fleshy jaumea, marsh
Jaumea camosa (Less.) A. Gray            jaumea
Lactuca serriola L. *                    prickly lettuce
Lactuca virosa L. *                      bitter lettuce
Laennecia coulteri (A. Gray)
G.L. Nesom                               Coulter's horseweed
Lasthenia califomica Lindl.              California goldfields
                                         crowned or royal
Lasthenia coronaria (Nutt.) Omduff       goldfields
Lasthenia glabrata Lindl. ssp.
coulteri (A. Gray) Omduff                Coulter's goldfields
Logfia filaginoides (Hook. & Am.)
Morefield                                California cottonrose

Malacothrix saxatilis (Nutt.)
Torrey & A. Gray                         cliff aster
Matricaria discoidea DC. *               pineapple weed
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. var.
odorata                                  saltmarsh fleabane
                                         two-color rabbit-
Pseudognaphalium bioletti Anderb.        tobacco
Pseudognaphalium californicum (DC.)
Anderb.                                  ladies' tobacco
Pseudognaphalium canescens (DC.)
Anderb.                                  cudweed
Pseudognaphalium microcephalum
(Nutt.) Anderb.                          Wright's cudweed
Pseudognaphalium ramosissimum
(Nutt.) Anderb.                          pink cudweed
Pseudognaphalium stramineum (Kunth)
Anderb.                                  cottonbatting plant
Senecio califomicus DC.                  California ragwort
Senecio vulgaris L. *                    common groundsel
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. *          milk thistle
Solidago velutina DC. ssp.
californica (Nutt.) Semple               California goldenrod
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill *                prickly sow thistle
Sonchus oleraceus L. *                   common sow thistle
Stephanomeria diegensis Gottlieb         wreathplant
Stephanomeria exigua Nutt.               small wirelettuce
Stephanomeria virgata Benth.             twiggy wreath plant
Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.)
G.L. Nesom                               annual saltmarsh aster
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. *        common dandelion
Tragopogon porrifolius L. *              purple salsify
Xanthium spinosum L.                     spiny cocklebur
Xanthium strumarium L.                   cocklebur

Betulaceae                               Birch Family
Alnus rhombifolia Nutt.                  white alder

Boraginaceae                             Borage Family
Amsinkia intermedia Fisch. & C.A. Mey    common fiddleneck
Amsinkia spectabilis Fisch. &
C.A. Mey                                 seaside amsinkia
Cryptantha clevelandii Greene            cryptantha
Cryptantha clevelandii Greene var.
florosa I.M. Johnst.                     coastal cryptantha
Cryptantha intermedia (A. Gray)
Greene                                   common cryptantha
Cryptantha microstachys (A.Gray)
Greene                                   Tejon cryptantha
Heliotropium curassavicum L. var.
oculatum (A. Heller)
Tidestr.                                 seaside heliotrope
Phacelia parryi Torr.                    Parry's phacelia
Phacelia ramosissima Lehm.               branching phacelia

Brassicaceae                             Mustard Family

Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch *        black mustard
Brassica rapa L. *                       field mustard

Cakile maritima Scop. *                  sea-rocket
Caulanthus lasiophyllus
(Hook. & Am.) Payson                     California mustard
Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton
ssp. brachycarpa
(Richardson) Detling                     tansy mustard
Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton
ssp. menziesii (D.C.)
Detling                                  Menzies' tansy mustard
                                         suffrutescent
Erysimum suffrutescens (Abrams)
Rossbach                                 wallflower

Hirschfeldia incana (L.)
Lagr.-Fossat *                           summer mustard

Lepidium didymum L. *                    lesser swine cress
Lepidium lasiocarpum Nutt.               shaggyfruit pepperweed
Lepidium latipes Hook.                   dwarf peppergrass
Lepidium latifolium L. *                 perennial pepperweed
Lepidium nitidum Nutt.                   peppergrass
Lepidium pinnatifidum Ledeb. *           featherleaf pepperweed
Lepidium virginicum L. ssp.
menziesii (DC.) Thell.                   wild peppergrass

Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. *          sweet alyssum
Raphanus sativus L. *                    radish

Sinapis alba L *                         white mustard
Sisymbrium altissimum L. *               tumble mustard

Sisymbrium irio L. *                     London rocket
Tropidocarpum gracile Hook.              slender keel fruit

Cactaceae                                Cactus Family
Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.)
Cockerell                                coast prickly-pear

Caryophyllaceae                          Pink Family
Polycarpon depressum Nutt.               California allseed
Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L. var.
tetraphyllum *                           four-leaved all seed
Silene gallica L. *                      small-flower catchfly
Spergula arvenis L. *                    stickwort, startwort
Spergularia bocconi (Scheele)
Graebn. *                                Boccone's sand-spurrey
Spergularia macrotheca (Cham. &
Schltdl.) Heynh.                         sticky sand-spurrey
Spergularia marina (L.) Besser           saltmarsh sand-spurrey
Spergularia villosa (Pers.)
Cambess. *                               hairy sand-spurrey

Chenopodiaceae                           Goosefoot Family
Arthrocnemum subterminale (Parish)
Standi                                   pickleweed
Atriplex argentea Nutt. var. exparna
(S. Watson) S.L. Welsh
& Reveal                                 silverscale
Atriplex californica Moq.                California orach
Atriplex lentiformis (Torr.) S.
Watson                                   big saltbush
Atriplex lentiformis (Torr.) S.
Watson subsp. lentiformis                big saltbush
Atriplex leucophylla (Moq.) D. Dietr     beach saltbush
Atriplex nummularia Lindl. *             bluegreen saltbush

Atriplex patula L.                       spear orach
A trip lex prostrata DC. *               fat-hen
Atriplex rosea L. *                      tumbling orach
Atriplex semibaccata R. Br. *            Australian saltbush
Atriplex suberecta I. Verd. *            sprawling saltbush
Bassia hyssopifolia (Pall.) Kuntze *     five hom bassia

Beta vulgaris L. *                       common beet
Chenopodium album L. *                   lamb's quarters
Chenopodium berlandieri Moq.             pitseed goosefoot
Chenopodium murale L. *                  nettle leaf goosefoot
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin
& Clemants *                             Mexican tea
Dysphania pumilio (R.Br.) Mosyakin &
Clemants *                               Tasmanian goosefoot
Salicomia pacifica Standi                pickleweed
Salsola tragus L. *                      Russian thistle

Suaeda calceoliformis (Hook.) Moq        homed seablite
Suaeda californica S. Watson             California seablite
Suaeda taxifolia (Standi.) Standi.       woolly sea-blite

Cleomaceae                               Spiderflower Family
Peritoma arborea (Nutt.) H.H. litis      bladderpod
                                         Morning-Glory
Convolvulaceae                           Family
Calystegia macrostegia (Greene)
Brummit ssp. cyclostegia
(House) Brummit                          coast morning glory
Calystegia soldanella (L.) R.Br.         beach morning glory
Convolvulus arvensis L. *                orchard morning glory
Cressa truxillensis Kunth                alkali weed
Cuscuta californica Hook. & Am.          chaparral dodder
Cuscuta indecora Choisy var. indecora    large-seeded dodder
Cuscuta campestris Yunck                 field dodder
Cuscuta salina Engelm                    salt dodder
Dichondra occidentalis House             western dichondra

Crassulaceae                             Stonecrop Family
Crassula connata (Ruiz & Pav.) A.
Berger                                   pygmy-weed
Dudleya lanceolata (Nutt.) Britton &
Rose                                     lance leaf liveforever

Cucurbitaceae                            Gourd Family
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. &
Nakai var. citroides
(L.H. Bailey) Mansf. *                   wild watermelon
                                         calabazilla, buffalo
Cucurbita foetidissima Kunth.            gourd

Euphorbiaceae                            Spurge Family
Chamaesyce albomarginata (Torr. & A.
Gray) Small                              rattlesnake weed
Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small *         spotted spurge
Chamaesyce polycarpa (Benth.) Millsp.    small seeded spurge
Chamaesyce serpens (Kunth) Small *       creeping spurge
Croton californicus Mull. Arg.           California croton
Croton setigerus Hook.                   turkey-mullein
Euphorbia peplus L. *                    petty spurge
Euphorbia terracina L. *                 carnation weed
Euphorbia virgata Waldst. & Kit. *       leafy spurge
Ricinus communis L. *                    castor bean

Fabaceae                                 Legume Family
Acacia bailey ana F. Muell. *            Cootamundra wattle
Acacia cyclops G. Don *                  western coastal wattle

Acacia dealbata Link *                   silver wattle
Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd. *     Sydney golden wattle
Acacia neriifolia A. Cunn. ex Benth *    black wattle
                                         American bird's foot
Acmispon americanus (Nutt.) Rydb.
var. americanus                          trefoil
                                         deerweed, California
Acmispon glaber (Vogel) Brouillet        broom
Acmispon heermannii (Durand & Hilg.)
Brouillet                                Heermann's lotus
Acmispon strigosus (Nutt.) Brouillet     strigos lotus

Albizia distachya J.F. Macbr. *          Australian albizia
Albizia lophantha (Willd.) Benth. *      plume acacia
Astragaluspycnostachyus A. Gray var.
lanosissimus (Rydb.)                     Ventura marsh milk
Munz & McBumey                           vetch
                                         coastal dunes milk
Astragalus tener A. Gray var. titi
(Eastw.) Bameby                          vetch
                                         Santa Barbara
Astragalus trichopodus (Nutt.) A.
Gray                                     milkvetch
Astragalus trichopodus (Nutt.) A.
Gray var. lonchus (M.E.                  Santa Barbara
Jones) Bameby                            milkvetch
Hoffmanseggia glauca (Ortega) Eifert     pig-nut, hog potato
Lupinus bicolor Lindl.                   miniature lupine
Lupinus chamissonis Eschsch.             beach blue lupine, dune
                                         lupine
Lupinus excubitus M.E. Jones var.
hallii                                   grape soda lupine
Lupinus longifolius (S. Watson)
Abrams                                   longleaf bush lupine
Lupinus succulentus K. Koch              arroyo lupine
Lupinus truncatus Nutt.                  blunt leaved lupine
Medicago polymorpha L. *                 California burclover
Melilotus albus Medik. *                 white sweetclover
Melilotus indicus (L.) All. *            sourclover
Phaseolus limensis Macfad. *             lima bean
Spartium junceum L. *                    Spanish broom

Frankeniaceae                            Frankenia Family
Frankenia salina (Molina) I.M.
Johnst.                                  alkali heath

Geraniaceae                              Geranium Family
Erodium botrys (Cav.) Bertol. *          broad leaf filaree

Erodium cicutarium (L.) Aiton *          redstem filaree
Erodium moschatum (L.) Aiton *           greenstem filaree

Grossulariaceae                          Gooseberry Family
Ribes malvaceum Sm.                      chaparral currant

Hamamelidaceae                           Witch-Hazel Family
Liquidambar styraciflua L. *             sweet-gum

Juglandaceae                             Walnut Family
                                         southern California
Juglans californica S. Watson            black walnut
Juglans regia L. *                       English walnut

Lamiaceae                                Mint Family
Lycopus americanus W.P.C. Barton         bugleweed
Marrubium vulgare L. *                   horehound
Mentha x piperita L. *                   peppermint
Mentha x smithiana R. A. Graham *        redstem mint
Salvia apiana Jeps.                      white sage
Salvia carduacea Benth.                  thistle sage
Salvia columbariae Benth.                chia
Salvia leucophylla Greene                purple sage
Stachys ajugoides Benth.                 hedge-nettle
Stachys albens A. Gray                   white hedge-nettle
Stachys bergii G.A. Mulligan & D. B.
Munro                                    Berg's hedge-nettle

Lythraceae                               Loosestrife Family
Lythrum californicum Torr. & A. Gray     California loosestrife
Lythrum hyssopifolia L. *                hyssop loosestrife

Malvaceae                                Mallow Family
Malacothamnus fasciculatus (Torr. &
A. Gray) Greene                          chaparral mallow
Malva nicaeensis All. *                  bull mallow
Malvaparviflora L. *                     cheeseweed
Malvapseudolavatera Webb & Berthel. *    Cretan mallow
Malvella leprosa (Ortega) Krapov.        alkali-mallow
                                         Miner's Lettuce

Montiaceae                               Family
Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC.    red maids
Myrsinaceae                              Myrsine Family
Anagallis arvensis L. *                  scarlet pimpernel

Myrtaceae                                Myrtle Family
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. *        red gum, river red gum
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. *            blue gum
Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. *            forest red gum
Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. *           manna gum

Nyctaginaceae                            Four O' Clock Family
Abronia maritima S. Watson               red sand-verbena
Abronia umbellata Lam.                   beach sand-verbena

Oleaceae                                 Olive Family
Fraxinus latifolia Benth.                Oregon ash
Fraxinus velutina Torr.                  velvet ash
                                         Evening-Primrose

Onagraceae                               Family

Camissoniopsis bistorta (Torr. & A.
Gray) W.L. Wagner &
Hoch                                     California sun cup
Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia
(Spreng.) W.L. Wagner & Hoch ssp.
suffruticosa                             beach evening-primrose
                                         Lewis' evening
Camissoniopsis lewisii (P.H. Raven)
W.L. Wagner & Hoch                       primrose
Camissoniopsis micrantha (Spreng.)
W.L. Wagner & Hoch                       miniature suncup
Epilobium campestre (Jeps.) Hoch &
W.L. Wagner                              smooth boisduvalia
Epilobium ciliatum Raf.                  slender willow herb
Oenothera elata Kunth.                   evening primrose

Orobanchaeae                             Broomrape Family
Castilleja exserta (A. Heller) T.I.
Chuang & Heckard ssp.
exserta                                  purple owl's-clover
Chloropyron maritimum (Benth.) A.
Heller ssp. maritimum (h)                salt marsh bird's beak
Oxalidaceae                              Oxalis Family
Oxalis pilosa Nutt.                      hairy wood sorrel

Oxalis pes-caprae L. *                   Bermuda buttercup

Papaveraceae                             Poppy Family
Eschscholzia californica Cham.           California poppy
Papaver heterophyllum (Benth.) Greene    wind poppy

Plantaginaceae                           Plantain Family
Antirrhinum coulterianum A. DC.          Coulter's snapdragon
Antirrhinum nuttallianum A. DC. ssp.
nuttalianum                              Nuttall's snapdragon
Plantago erecta E. Morris                California plantain
Plantago lanceolata L. *                 English plantain
Plantago major L. *                      common plantain

Platanaceae                              Sycamore Family
Platanus racemosa Nutt.                  western sycamore

Polygonaceae                             Buckwheat Family
                                         San Fernando Valley
Chorizanthe parryi Wats, vax.
fernandina (Wats.) Jeps.                 spineflower
Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth.            California buckwheat
                                         coastal California
Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth. var.
fasciculatum                             buckwheat
Eriogonum gracile Benth.                 slender buckwheat
Eriogonum parvifolium Sm.                seacliff wild buckwheat
Lastarriaea coriacea (Goodman) Hoover    leather-spineflower
Mucronea californica Benth.              California spineflower
Persicaria hydropiperoides (Michx.)
Small                                    false waterpepper
Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray        willow weed
Persicaria maculosa Gray *               lady's thumb
Polygonum aviculare L. *                 knotweed, knotgrass
Rumex conglomeratus Murray *             clustered dock
Rumex crispus L. *                       curly dock
Rumex fueginus Phil.                     golden dock
Rumex salicifolius Weinm.                willow dock

Ranunculaceae                            Buttercup Family
Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt.            western virgin's bower
Delphinium parryi A. Gray                larkspur
Delphinium parryi A. Gray ssp.
maritimum (Davidson) M. J.
Wamock                                   maritime larkspur

Rosaceae                                 Rose Family
Heteromeles arhutifolia (Lindl.)
M. Roem.                                 toyon
Horkelia cuneata Lindl. var.
sericea A. Gray                          Kellogg's horkelia
Potentilla anserina L. ssp.
pacifica (Howell) Rousi                  Pacific silverweed
Potentilia multijuga Lehm.               Ballona cinquefoil
Pyracantha cf. crenulata (D. Don)
M. Roem. *                               Himalayan firethom
Rosa californica Cham. & Schltdl.        California rose
Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schltdl.           California blackberry

Rubiaceae                                Madder Family
Galium angustifolium A. Gray             narrowly leaved
                                         bedstraw

Salicaceae                               Willow Family
Populus fremontii S. Watson ssp.
fremontii                                Fremont cottonwood
Salix exigua Nutt. var. exigua           narrow-leaved willow
Salix goodingii C.R. Ball                Gooding's black willow
Salix laevigata Bebb                     red willow
Salix lasiolepis Benth.                  arroyo willow

Scrophulariaceae                         Figwort Family
Myoporum laetum G. Forst. *              myoporum
Scrophularia californica Cham. &
Schltdl.                                 California figwort
Verbascum virgatum Stokes *              wand mullein

Solanaceae                               Nightshade Family
Datura wrightii Regel                    Jimson weed
Lycium ferocissimum Miers *              African boxthom
Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. *          tomato
Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray            Cleveland's tobacco
Nicotiana glauca Graham *                tree tobacco
Petunia parviflora Juss.                 wild petunia
                                         American black
Solanum americanum Miller                nightshade
Solanum douglasii Dunal                  Douglas' nightshade

Solanum nigrum L. *                      black nightshade
Solanum physalifolium Rusby var.
nitidibaccatum (Bitter)
Edmonds *                                nightshade
Solanum xanti A. Gray                    chaparral nightshade

Tamariscaceae                            Tamarisk Family
Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. *             saltcedar

Ulmaceae                                 Elm Family
                                         Chinese elm, lacebark
Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. *                 elm

Urticaceae                               Nettle Family
Urtica dioica L. ssp. holosericea
(Nutt.) Thome                            hoary nettle
Urtica urens L. *                        dwarf nettle

Verbenaceae                              Vervain Family
Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene         lance leaf lippia
Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr.           bracted verbena
Verbena lasiostachys Link                western verbena
Verbena lasiostachys Link var.
lasiostachys                             western vervain

Zygophyllaceae                           Caltrop Family
Tribulus terrestris L. *                 puncture vine

               MONOCOTS

Agavaceae                                Century Plant Family
Hesperoyucca whipplei (Torr.) Trel.      chaparral yucca
                                         Water-Plantain

Alismataceae                             Family
Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. &
Schltdl ssp. calycina (Engelm.)          arrowhead

Amaryllidaceae                           Amaryllus Family
Narcissus tazetta L. *                   paper white

Araceae                                  Arum Family
Lemna minuta Kunth                       duckweed

Arecaeae                                 Palm Family
Phoenix canariensis Chabaud *            Canary Island palm
Phoenix dactylifera L. *                 date palm
Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl. *         fan palm

Cyperaceae                               Sedge Family
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla       saltmarsh bulrush
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla
ssp. paludosus (A.
Nelson) T. Koyama                        saltmarsh bulrush

Bolboschoenus robustus (Pursh) Sojak     seacoast bulrush
                                         black creeper, freeway
Carex praegracilis W. Boott              sedge
Cyperus eragrostis Lam.                  tall flatsedge
Cyperus esculentus L.                    yellow nutgrass

Cyperus involucratus Rottb. *            umbrella sedge
Eleocharis macrostachya Britton          creeping spike rush
Eleocharis montevidensis Kunth           sand spikerush
                                         Olney's three-square
Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.)
Schinz & R. Keller                       bulrush
Schoenoplectus californicus
(C.A. Mey.) Sojak                        southern bulrush

Iridaceae                                Iris Family
Iris pseudacorus L. *                    horticultural iris
                                         western blue-eyed-
Sisyrinchium bellum S. Watson            grass
Juncaceae                                Rush Family
Juncus acutus L.                         spiny rush

Juncus balticus Willd. subsp. ater
(Rydb.) Snogerup                         Baltic rush
Juncus bufonius L.                       toad rush
Juncus mexicanus Willd.                  Mexican rush
Juncus textilis Buchenau                 mat or basket rush

Poaceae                                  Grass Family

Agrostis stolonifera L. *                creeping bent
Arundo donax L. *                        giant reed
Avena barbata Link *                     slender wild oat
A vena fatua L. *                        wild oat
Brachypodium distachyon (L.)
P. Beauv. *                              false brome
Bromus carinatus Hook. & Am. var.
marginatus (Steud.)
Barkworth & Anderton                     mountain brome
Bromus catharticus Vahl var.
catharticus *                            rescue grass
Bromus diandrus Roth *                   ripgut grass
Bromus hordeaceus L. *                   soft chess
Bromus madritensis L. ssp. rubens
(L.) Husn. *                             red brome

Cortaderia jubata (Lem.) Stapf *         purple pampas grass
                                         Uruguayan pampas
Cortaderia selloana (Schult. &
Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn. *            grass
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. *            Bermuda grass
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. *       hairy crab grass
Distichlis littoralis (Engelm.) H.L.
Bell & Columbus                          shore grass
Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene           salt grass

Echinochloa cnis-galli (L.) P.
Beauv. *                                 barnyard grass
Ehrharta erecta Lam. *                   panic veldt grass
Elymus condensatus J. Presl.             giant wild-rye
Elymus glaucus Buckley                   western wild-rye
Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Shinn,
ssp. trachycaulus                        slender wheatgrass
Elymus triticoides Buckley               beardless wild rye
Festuca arundinacea Schreb. *            tall fescue
Festuca myuros L. *                      rattail sixweeks grass
Festuca perennis (L.) Columbus &
J.P. Sm. *                               rye grass
Festuca tementula (L.) Columbus &
J.P. Sm. *                               Darnel ryegrass
Hainardia cylindrica (Willd.)
Greuter *                                barb grass
Hordeum brachyantherum Nevski            meadow barley
Hordeum murinum L. ssp. leporinum
(Link) Arcang. *                         hare barley
Hordeum intercedens Nevski               bobtail barley

Hordeum vu/gare L. *                     barley
Koelaria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult.      June grass
Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench *            goldentop
Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth ssp.
uninervia (J. Presl) N.
Snow                                     Mexican sprangletop
Melica imperfecta Trin.                  little California melica
Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubb. *     sickle grass
Paspalum dilatatum Poir. *               dallis grass
Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.)
Chiov. *                                 crimson fountain grass
                                         Mediterranean canary
Phalaris minor Retz. *                   grass
Phalaris paradoxa L. *                   Hood canary grass
Poa annua L. *                           annual blue grass

Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. *     annual beard grass
Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr. *     water beard grass

Schismus barbatus (L.) Thell. *          Mediterranean grass
Setaria parvijlora (Poir.) Kerguelen     knotroot bristle grass
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. *           Johnson grass
Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter)
Kuntze *                                 Saint Augustine grass
Stipa cernua Stebbins & Love             nodding needle grass
Stipa lepida Hitchc.                     foothill needle grass
Stipa miliacea (L.) Hoover var.
miliacea *                               smilo grass
Stipa pulchra Hitchc.                    purple needle grass

Ruppiaceae                               Ditch-Grass Family
Ruppia maritima L.                       ditch-grass

Themidaceae                              Brodiaea Family
Dichelostemma capitatum (Benth.)
Alph. Wood                               blue dicks
Typhaceae                                Cattail Family
Sparganium erectum L. ssp.
stoloniferum (Grabner) C. Cook
& M.S. Nicholls                          bur reed
Typha domingensis Pers.                  southern cattail
Typha latifolia L.                       broad-leaved cattail

                                                             Earliest
                FERNS                       Reference       Collection

Equisetaceae
Equisetum telmateia Ehrh. ssp.
braunii (J.Milde) Hauke                      DS, POM           1901

              MAGNOLIDS

Lauraceae
Umbellularia californica
(Hook. & Am.) Nutt.                            FWM              R

Saururaceae
Anemopsis californica (Nutt.)
Hook. & Am.                                POM, RSA.UC         1902

               EUDICOTS

Adoxaceae
                                         Henrickson 1991,
Sambucus nigra L. ssp. caerulea
(Raf.) Bolli                                   FWM              R

Aizoaceae
Aptenia cordifolia (L.f.)
Schwantes *                                    RSA             1981
Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E. Br. *             RSA             1980
Delosperma litorale (Kensit) L.
Bolus *                                        RSA             1981

Malephora crocea (Jacq.) Schwantes *           RSA             1981
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. *       Henrickson 1991        R

Mesembryanthemum nodiflorum L. *               RSA             1980
Sesuvium verrucosum Raf.                        UC             1902
Tetragonia tetragonioides (Pall.)
Kuntze *                                       RSA             1981

Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus albus L. *                          RSA             1930
Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson                 RSA             1980
Amaranthus californicus (Moq.) S.
Watson                                    Gustafson 1981        R

Amaranthus deflexus L. *                       RSA             1981
Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J.D.
Sauer var. rudis (J.D.
Sauer) Costea & Tardif *                 Henrickson 1991        R

Anacardeaceae
Malosma laurina (Nutt.) Abrams                 POM             1980
Rhus integrifolia (Nutt.) Rothr.          Gustafson 1981        R
Rhus ovata S. Watson                           RSA             1981
Schinus molle L. *                             RSA             1980

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi *         Henrickson 1991        R

Apiaceae
Apium graveolens L. *                          RSA             1902
Conium maculatum L. *                          RSA             1981
Cyclospermum leptophyllum (Pers.)
Britton & P. Wilson *                          RSA             1981
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. *                  POM,RSA.UC         1902
Oenanthe sarmentosa DC.                      POM, UC           1902

Apocynaceae
Asclepias fascicular is Decne.                 RSA             1930

Asteraceae
Acroptilon repens (L.) DC. *                   POM             1980
Amblyopappus pusillus Hook. & Am.               DS             1901
Ambrosia acanthicarpa Hook.                    RSA             1980
Ambrosia chamissonis (Less.) Greene         DS,POM,RSA         1899
Ambrosia psilostachya DC.                 DS,POM,UC,RSA        1902
Anthemis cotula L. *                            DS             1901
Artemisia californica Less.                 DS,RSA,UC          1902
Artemisia douglasiana Besser                DS,POM,RSA         1901
Artemisia dracunculus L.                    DS,RSA,UC          1902
Baccharis glutinosa Pers.                     DS,POM           1903
Baccharis pilularis DC.                        POM             1980
Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.)
Pers.                                         POM,UC           1907
Bidens laevis (L.) Britton et al.             DS,UC            1902

Brickellia californica (Torr. & A.
Gray) A. Gray                            Henrickson 1991        R
Centaurea melitensis L. *                      POM             1980
Centromadia parryi (Greene) Greene
ssp. australis (D.D.                      JEPS,POM,RSA,U
Keck) B.G. Baldwin                              C              1890
Chaenactis glabriuscula DC. var.
orcuttiana (Greene) H.M.
Hall                                         POM,RSA           1980
Chondrilla juncea L. *                         POM             1981
Cichorium intybus L. *                         POM             1980
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. *            Henrickson 1991        R
Coreothrogyne filaginifolia
(Hook. & Am.) Nutt.                           DS,POM           1899
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Cotula australis (Spreng.) Hook, f. *    Henrickson 1991        R
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Cotula coronopifolia L. *                Henrickson 1991        R
Deinandra fasciculata (DC.) Greene             POM             1980
Deinandra paniculata (A. Gray)
Davidson & Moxley                        Henrickson 1991        R
                                         Gustafson 1981,

Dimorphothecafruticosa (L.) DC. *        Henrickson 1991        R

Encelia californica Nutt.                       DS             1899
Ericameria ericoides (Less.) Jeps.             POM             1981
Ericameriapinifolia (A. Gray)
H.M. Hall                                Henrickson 1991        R
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Erigeron bonariensis L. *                Henrickson 1991        R
Erigeron canadensis L.                         POM             1980
Euryopspectinatus (L.) Cass. *           Henrickson 1991        R
Euthamia occidentalis Nutt.                   RSA,UC           1902

Gazania linearis (Thunb.) Druce *        Henrickson 1991        R
Glebionis coronaria (L.) Spach *               UCR             1996
Grindelia camporum Greene                      POM             1980
Hedypnois cretica (L.) Dum.-Cours. *           POM             1981
Helianthus annuus L.                           POM             1980
Helminthotheca echioides (L.) Holub *          RSA             1980
Heterotheca grandiflora Nutt.                  POM             1980

Hypochaeris glabra L. *                  Henrickson 1991        R
Isocoma menziesii (Hook. & Am.)                FWM              R
Iva axillaris Pursh                            FWM              R

Jaumea camosa (Less.) A. Gray                 POM.UC           1899
Lactuca serriola L. *                          POM             1902
Lactuca virosa L. *                      Henrickson 1991        R
Laennecia coulteri (A. Gray)
G.L. Nesom                                     POM             1980
Lasthenia califomica Lindl.                  POM.RSA           1901

Lasthenia coronaria (Nutt.) Omduff           JEPS.POM          1901
Lasthenia glabrata Lindl. ssp.
coulteri (A. Gray) Omduff                      POM             1903
Logfia filaginoides (Hook. & Am.)
Morefield                                      POM             1901
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Malacothrix saxatilis (Nutt.)
Torrey & A. Gray                         Henrickson 1991        R
Matricaria discoidea DC. *                     POM             1981
Pluchea odorata (L.) Cass. var.
odorata                                         UC             1902

Pseudognaphalium bioletti Anderb.              POM             1901
Pseudognaphalium californicum (DC.)
Anderb.                                      POM.UCR           1981
Pseudognaphalium canescens (DC.)
Anderb.                                        POM             1981
Pseudognaphalium microcephalum
(Nutt.) Anderb.                               POM.UC           1902
Pseudognaphalium ramosissimum
(Nutt.) Anderb.                                POM             1981
Pseudognaphalium stramineum (Kunth)
Anderb.                                        POM             1981
Senecio califomicus DC.                        POM             1901
Senecio vulgaris L. *                          RSA             1930
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. *                RSA             1981
Solidago velutina DC. ssp.
californica (Nutt.) Semple               Henrickson 1991        R
Sonchus asper (L.) Hill *                      RSA             1981
Sonchus oleraceus L. *                         RSA             1981
Stephanomeria diegensis Gottlieb               RSA             1980
Stephanomeria exigua Nutt.                Gustafson 1981        R
Stephanomeria virgata Benth.                   RSA             1981
Symphyotrichum subulatum (Michx.)
G.L. Nesom                                    POM.UC           1901
Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. *        Henrickson 1991        R
Tragopogon porrifolius L. *                     UC             1897
Xanthium spinosum L.                           RSA             1981
Xanthium strumarium L.                          UC             1902

Betulaceae
Alnus rhombifolia Nutt.                        FWM              R

Boraginaceae
Amsinkia intermedia Fisch. & C.A. Mey          POM             1901
Amsinkia spectabilis Fisch. &
C.A. Mey                                       RSA             1951
Cryptantha clevelandii Greene                  UCR             2011
Cryptantha clevelandii Greene var.
florosa I.M. Johnst.                           POM             1901
Cryptantha intermedia (A. Gray)
Greene                                         POM             1901
Cryptantha microstachys (A.Gray)
Greene                                         POM             1901
Heliotropium curassavicum L. var.
oculatum (A. Heller)
Tidestr.                                       POM             1930
Phacelia parryi Torr.                    Henrickson 1991        R
Phacelia ramosissima Lehm.                   POM.RSA           1901

Brassicaceae
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch *        Henrickson 1991        R
Brassica rapa L. *                             RSA             1930
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Cakile maritima Scop. *                  Henrickson 1991        R
Caulanthus lasiophyllus
(Hook. & Am.) Payson                            DS             1899
Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton
ssp. brachycarpa
(Richardson) Detling                            DS             1901
Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton
ssp. menziesii (D.C.)
Detling                                        POM             1901

Erysimum suffrutescens (Abrams)
Rossbach                                    DS,POM,RSA         1901
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Hirschfeldia incana (L.)
Lagr.-Fossat *                           Henrickson 1991        R
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Lepidium didymum L. *                    Henrickson 1991        R
Lepidium lasiocarpum Nutt.                    DS,POM           1901
Lepidium latipes Hook.                          DS             1904
Lepidium latifolium L. *                 Henrickson 1991        R
Lepidium nitidum Nutt.                         RSA             1954
Lepidium pinnatifidum Ledeb. *                 RSA             1981
Lepidium virginicum L. ssp.
menziesii (DC.) Thell.                         RSA             1930
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Lobularia maritima (L.) Desv. *          Henrickson 1991        R
Raphanus sativus L. *                          UCR             1996
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Sinapis alba L *                         Henrickson 1991        R
Sisymbrium altissimum L. *               Henrickson 1991        R
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Sisymbrium irio L. *                     Henrickson 1991        R
Tropidocarpum gracile Hook.                     UC             1897

Cactaceae
Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.)
Cockerell                                Henrickson 1991        R

Caryophyllaceae
Polycarpon depressum Nutt.                     POM             1901
Polycarpon tetraphyllum (L.) L. var.
tetraphyllum *                               RSA,UCR           1981
Silene gallica L. *                          RSA,UCR           1980
Spergula arvenis L. *                          RSA             1981
Spergularia bocconi (Scheele)
Graebn. *                                Henrickson 1991        R
Spergularia macrotheca (Cham. &
Schltdl.) Heynh.                             POM,RSA           1901
Spergularia marina (L.) Besser               CDA,POM           1901
Spergularia villosa (Pers.)
Cambess. *                               Henrickson 1991        R

Chenopodiaceae
Arthrocnemum subterminale (Parish)
Standi                                      POM,RSA,UC         1902
Atriplex argentea Nutt. var. exparna
(S. Watson) S.L. Welsh
& Reveal                                        UC             1902
Atriplex californica Moq.                      RSA             1981
Atriplex lentiformis (Torr.) S.
Watson                                         RSA             1981
Atriplex lentiformis (Torr.) S.
Watson subsp. lentiformis                       UC             1902
Atriplex leucophylla (Moq.) D. Dietr          RSA,UC           1899
Atriplex nummularia Lindl. *             Henrickson 1991        R

Atriplex patula L.                             RSA             1980
A trip lex prostrata DC. *                     RSA             1980
Atriplex rosea L. *                           RSA,UC           1902
Atriplex semibaccata R. Br. *                 RSA,UC           1902
Atriplex suberecta I. Verd. *                  RSA             1981
Bassia hyssopifolia (Pall.) Kuntze *           RSA             1980
                                          CDA,POM,RSA,U
Beta vulgaris L. *                              C              1902
Chenopodium album L. *                         RSA             1981
Chenopodium berlandieri Moq.                   RSA             1980
Chenopodium murale L. *                      CDA,RSA           1930
Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin
& Clemants *                                  RSA,UC           1902
Dysphania pumilio (R.Br.) Mosyakin &
Clemants *                               Henrickson 1991        R
Salicomia pacifica Standi                     RSA,UC           1902
Salsola tragus L. *                            RSA             1980
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Suaeda calceoliformis (Hook.) Moq        Henrickson 1991        R
Suaeda californica S. Watson              Gustafson 1981        R
Suaeda taxifolia (Standi.) Standi.           POM,RSA           1901

Cleomaceae
Peritoma arborea (Nutt.) H.H. litis           DS,POM           1899

Convolvulaceae
Calystegia macrostegia (Greene)
Brummit ssp. cyclostegia
(House) Brummit                                RSA             1981
Calystegia soldanella (L.) R.Br.               SFV             1994
Convolvulus arvensis L. *                      RSA             1930
Cressa truxillensis Kunth                  POM,RSA,UCR         1901
Cuscuta californica Hook. & Am.                RSA             1981
Cuscuta indecora Choisy var. indecora    Henrickson 1991        R
Cuscuta campestris Yunck                       RSA             1981
Cuscuta salina Engelm                         RSA,UC           1902
Dichondra occidentalis House             Henrickson 1991        R

Crassulaceae
Crassula connata (Ruiz & Pav.) A.
Berger                                       POM,RSA           1901
Dudleya lanceolata (Nutt.) Britton &
Rose                                           POM             1901

Cucurbitaceae
Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. &
Nakai var. citroides
(L.H. Bailey) Mansf. *                         RSA             1981

Cucurbita foetidissima Kunth.                  RSA             1980

Euphorbiaceae
Chamaesyce albomarginata (Torr. & A.
Gray) Small                                    RSA             1981
Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small *               RSA             1981
Chamaesyce polycarpa (Benth.) Millsp.          RSA             1981
Chamaesyce serpens (Kunth) Small *             RSA             1980
Croton californicus Mull. Arg.               POM,RSA           1899
Croton setigerus Hook.                         RSA             1930
Euphorbia peplus L. *                          RSA             1981
Euphorbia terracina L. *                     RSA,UCR           1996
Euphorbia virgata Waldst. & Kit. *       Henrickson 1991        R
Ricinus communis L. *                        RSA,UCR           1981

Fabaceae
Acacia bailey ana F. Muell. *                  RSA             1981
Acacia cyclops G. Don *                      RSA,UCR           1996
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Acacia dealbata Link *                   Henrickson 1991        R
Acacia longifolia (Andrews) Willd. *     Henrickson 1991        R
Acacia neriifolia A. Cunn. ex Benth *    Henrickson 1991        R

Acmispon americanus (Nutt.) Rydb.
var. americanus                                RSA             1980

Acmispon glaber (Vogel) Brouillet              RSA             1980
Acmispon heermannii (Durand & Hilg.)
Brouillet                                       UC             1902
Acmispon strigosus (Nutt.) Brouillet           RSA             1981
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Albizia distachya J.F. Macbr. *          Henrickson 1991        R
Albizia lophantha (Willd.) Benth. *          CDA,RSA           1981
Astragaluspycnostachyus A. Gray var.
lanosissimus (Rydb.)
Munz & McBumey                            NY,POM,RSA,UC        1882

Astragalus tener A. Gray var. titi
(Eastw.) Bameby                                 DS             1891

Astragalus trichopodus (Nutt.) A.
Gray                                     Henrickson 1991        R
Astragalus trichopodus (Nutt.) A.
Gray var. lonchus (M.E.
Jones) Bameby                                   DS             1901
Hoffmanseggia glauca (Ortega) Eifert     Henrickson 1991        R
Lupinus bicolor Lindl.                         POM             1981
Lupinus chamissonis Eschsch.                 POM,RSA           1917

Lupinus excubitus M.E. Jones var.
hallii                                       RSA,UCR           1980
Lupinus longifolius (S. Watson)
Abrams                                         POM             1901
Lupinus succulentus K. Koch                    RSA             1981
Lupinus truncatus Nutt.                      POM,RSA           1899
Medicago polymorpha L. *                       POM             1981
Melilotus albus Medik. *                       POM             1980
Melilotus indicus (L.) All. *              POM,UCD,UCR         1978
Phaseolus limensis Macfad. *                   POM             1981
Spartium junceum L. *                    Henrickson 1991        R

Frankeniaceae
Frankenia salina (Molina) I.M.
Johnst.                                      POM,RSA           1917

Geraniaceae
Erodium botrys (Cav.) Bertol. *              RSA,UCR           1981
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Erodium cicutarium (L.) Aiton *          Henrickson 1991        R
Erodium moschatum (L.) Aiton *                 UCR             1996

Grossulariaceae
Ribes malvaceum Sm.                            RSA             1981

Hamamelidaceae
Liquidambar styraciflua L. *             Henrickson 1991        R

Juglandaceae

Juglans californica S. Watson                  FWM              R
Juglans regia L. *                       Henrickson 1991        R

Lamiaceae
Lycopus americanus W.P.C. Barton                uc             1902
Marrubium vulgare L. *                         RSA             1981
Mentha x piperita L. *                          UC             1902
Mentha x smithiana R. A. Graham *              POM             1902
Salvia apiana Jeps.                            FWM              R
Salvia carduacea Benth.                      POM.UCR           1901
Salvia columbariae Benth.                    POM.UCR           1901
Salvia leucophylla Greene                      FWM              R
Stachys ajugoides Benth.                      POM.UC           1917
Stachys albens A. Gray                      POM,RSA,UC         1902
Stachys bergii G.A. Mulligan & D. B.
Munro                                           UC             1932

Lythraceae
Lythrum californicum Torr. & A. Gray        POM,RSA,UC         1902
Lythrum hyssopifolia L. *                    RSA.UCR           1980

Malvaceae
Malacothamnus fasciculatus (Torr. &
A. Gray) Greene                                RSA             1981
Malva nicaeensis All. *                        POM             1902
Malvaparviflora L. *                          RSA,UC           1932
Malvapseudolavatera Webb & Berthel. *        RSA.UCR           1981
Malvella leprosa (Ortega) Krapov.          POM,RSA.UCR         1917

Montiaceae
Calandrinia ciliata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC.           UC             1897
Myrsinaceae
Anagallis arvensis L. *                        RSA             1980

Myrtaceae
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. *              RSA             1981
Eucalyptus globulus Labill. *            Henrickson 1991        R
Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. *             Gustafson 1981        R
Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. *                 RSA             1981

Nyctaginaceae
Abronia maritima S. Watson                     POM             1901
Abronia umbellata Lam.                       POM,RSA           1901

Oleaceae
Fraxinus latifolia Benth.                       UC             1932
Fraxinus velutina Torr.                        RSA             1981

Onagraceae
Camissoniopsis bistorta (Torr. & A.
Gray) W.L. Wagner &
Hoch                                        POM.RSA.UC         1897
Camissoniopsis cheiranthifolia
(Spreng.) W.L. Wagner & Hoch ssp.
suffruticosa                               POM.RSA.UCD         1901

Camissoniopsis lewisii (P.H. Raven)
W.L. Wagner & Hoch                             POM             1899
Camissoniopsis micrantha (Spreng.)
W.L. Wagner & Hoch                             RSA             1981
Epilobium campestre (Jeps.) Hoch &
W.L. Wagner                                    POM             1901
Epilobium ciliatum Raf.                        RSA             1930
Oenothera elata Kunth.                         RSA             1981

Orobanchaeae
Castilleja exserta (A. Heller) T.I.
Chuang & Heckard ssp.
exserta                                      POM,RSA           1901
Chloropyron maritimum (Benth.) A.
Heller ssp. maritimum (h)                     DS,POM           1901
Oxalidaceae
Oxalis pilosa Nutt.                      Henrickson 1991        R
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Oxalis pes-caprae L. *                   Henrickson 1991        R

Papaveraceae
Eschscholzia californica Cham.           Henrickson 1991        R
Papaver heterophyllum (Benth.) Greene          RSA             1899

Plantaginaceae
Antirrhinum coulterianum A. DC.                POM             1911
Antirrhinum nuttallianum A. DC. ssp.
nuttalianum                                     UC             1902
Plantago erecta E. Morris                      POM             1899
Plantago lanceolata L. *                     POM,RSA           1902
Plantago major L. *                            RSA             1980

Platanaceae
Platanus racemosa Nutt.                        FWM              R

Polygonaceae

Chorizanthe parryi Wats, vax.
fernandina (Wats.) Jeps.                        DS             1901
Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth.                  RSA             1981
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth. var.
fasciculatum                             Henrickson 1991        R
Eriogonum gracile Benth.                     POM,RSA           1901
Eriogonum parvifolium Sm.                     RSA,UC           1902
Lastarriaea coriacea (Goodman) Hoover          POM             1901
Mucronea californica Benth.                   DS,POM           1899
Persicaria hydropiperoides (Michx.)
Small                                         POM,UC           1901
Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray              RSA             1930
Persicaria maculosa Gray *                     RSA             1980
Polygonum aviculare L. *                     CDA,RSA           1930
Rumex conglomeratus Murray *                   RSA             1930
Rumex crispus L. *                             RSA             1930
Rumex fueginus Phil.                         POM,RSA           1902
Rumex salicifolius Weinm.                      RSA             1981

Ranunculaceae
Clematis ligusticifolia Nutt.                  RSA             1981
Delphinium parryi A. Gray                       DS             1901
Delphinium parryi A. Gray ssp.
maritimum (Davidson) M. J.
Wamock                                          DS             1901

Rosaceae
Heteromeles arhutifolia (Lindl.)
M. Roem.                                 Henrickson 1991        R
Horkelia cuneata Lindl. var.
sericea A. Gray                            Abrams 1902          R
Potentilla anserina L. ssp.
pacifica (Howell) Rousi                     POM,UC,UCR         1900
Potentilia multijuga Lehm.                     POM             1890
Pyracantha cf. crenulata (D. Don)
M. Roem. *                               Henrickson 1991        R
Rosa californica Cham. & Schltdl.        Henrickson 1991        R
Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schltdl.                 FWM              R

Rubiaceae
Galium angustifolium A. Gray                   POM             1980

Salicaceae
Populus fremontii S. Watson ssp.
fremontii                                      POM             1981
Salix exigua Nutt. var. exigua                 FWM              R
Salix goodingii C.R. Ball                      FWM              R
Salix laevigata Bebb                          DS.POM           1901
Salix lasiolepis Benth.                     DS,POM,UC          1932

Scrophulariaceae
Myoporum laetum G. Forst. *                    RSA             1981
Scrophularia californica Cham. &
Schltdl.                                       RSA             1930
Verbascum virgatum Stokes *                    RSA             1981

Solanaceae
Datura wrightii Regel                          RSA             1980
Lycium ferocissimum Miers *                  CDA.RSA           1978
Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. *                RSA             1981
Nicotiana clevelandii A. Gray                POM,RSA           1901
Nicotiana glauca Graham *                      RSA             1980
Petunia parviflora Juss.                       RSA             1981

Solanum americanum Miller                      RSA             1981
Solanum douglasii Dunal                    POM,RSA,UCR         1901
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Solanum nigrum L. *                      Henrickson 1991        R
Solanum physalifolium Rusby var.
nitidibaccatum (Bitter)
Edmonds *                                      RSA             1981
Solanum xanti A. Gray                    Henrickson 1991        R

Tamariscaceae
Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. *             Henrickson 1991        R

Ulmaceae

Ulmus parvifolia Jacq. *                 Henrickson 1991        R

Urticaceae
Urtica dioica L. ssp. holosericea
(Nutt.) Thome                                POM,RSA           1902
Urtica urens L. *                              RSA             1981

Verbenaceae
Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene              POM.UC           1902
Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr.                 POM             1902
Verbena lasiostachys Link                      RSA             1981
Verbena lasiostachys Link var.
lasiostachys                                   RSA             1930

Zygophyllaceae
Tribulus terrestris L. *                       RSA             1980

               MONOCOTS

Agavaceae
Hesperoyucca whipplei (Torr.) Trel.            FWM              R

Alismataceae
Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. &
Schltdl ssp. calycina (Engelm.)                RSA             1981

Amaryllidaceae
Narcissus tazetta L. *                         RSA             1981

Araceae
Lemna minuta Kunth                             RSA             1930

Arecaeae
Phoenix canariensis Chabaud *                  RSA             1981
Phoenix dactylifera L. *                     MEC 2005           R
Washingtonia robusta H. Wendl. *         Henrickson 1991        R

Cyperaceae
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla            DS,RSA           1904
Bolboschoenus maritimus (L.) Palla
ssp. paludosus (A.
Nelson) T. Koyama                            RSA,UCR           1981
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Bolboschoenus robustus (Pursh) Sojak     Henrickson 1991        R

Carex praegracilis W. Boott                CAS, DS, POM        1889
Cyperus eragrostis Lam.                     RSA,SD,UCR         1980
Cyperus esculentus L.                          RSA             1981
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Cyperus involucratus Rottb. *            Henrickson 1991        R
Eleocharis macrostachya Britton                RSA             1930
Eleocharis montevidensis Kunth                DS,RSA           1904

Schoenoplectus americanus (Pers.)
Schinz & R. Keller                            DS,RSA           1900
Schoenoplectus californicus
(C.A. Mey.) Sojak                             DS,RSA           1901

Iridaceae
Iris pseudacorus L. *                          RSA             1981

Sisyrinchium bellum S. Watson                  FWM              R
Juncaceae
Juncus acutus L.                                DS             1901
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Juncus balticus Willd. subsp. ater
(Rydb.) Snogerup                         Henrickson 1991        R
Juncus bufonius L.                             RSA             1981
Juncus mexicanus Willd.                        RSA             1981
Juncus textilis Buchenau                       RSA             1930

Poaceae
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Agrostis stolonifera L. *                Henrickson 1991        R
Arundo donax L. *                              RSA             1981
Avena barbata Link *                     Henrickson 1991        R
A vena fatua L. *                              RSA             1981
Brachypodium distachyon (L.)
P. Beauv. *                              Henrickson 1991        R
Bromus carinatus Hook. & Am. var.
marginatus (Steud.)
Barkworth & Anderton                      Gustafson 1981        R
Bromus catharticus Vahl var.
catharticus *                                  POM             1981
Bromus diandrus Roth *                         POM             1930
Bromus hordeaceus L. *                         POM             1981
Bromus madritensis L. ssp. rubens
(L.) Husn. *                                   POM             1901
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Cortaderia jubata (Lem.) Stapf *         Henrickson 1991        R

Cortaderia selloana (Schult. &
Schult. f.) Asch. & Graebn. *                  RSA             1980
Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. *                  RSA             1930
Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. *             POM             1981
Distichlis littoralis (Engelm.) H.L.
Bell & Columbus                          Henrickson 1991        R
Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene                  UC             1902

Echinochloa cnis-galli (L.) P.
Beauv. *                                       POM             1981
Ehrharta erecta Lam. *                       POM.UCR           1981
Elymus condensatus J. Presl.             Henrickson 1991        R
Elymus glaucus Buckley                         POM             1901
Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Shinn,
ssp. trachycaulus                          Abrams 1902          R
Elymus triticoides Buckley                     POM             1901
Festuca arundinacea Schreb. *            Henrickson 1991        R
Festuca myuros L. *                            POM             1913
Festuca perennis (L.) Columbus &
J.P. Sm. *                                 POM,RSA,UCR         1902
Festuca tementula (L.) Columbus &
J.P. Sm. *                                     POM             1901
Hainardia cylindrica (Willd.)
Greuter *                                    POM,UCD           1901
Hordeum brachyantherum Nevski                  POM             1930
Hordeum murinum L. ssp. leporinum
(Link) Arcang. *                               POM             1981
Hordeum intercedens Nevski                     POM             1901
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Hordeum vu/gare L. *                     Henrickson 1991        R
Koelaria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult.            POM             1901
Lamarckia aurea (L.) Moench *            Henrickson 1991        R
Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth ssp.
uninervia (J. Presl) N.
Snow                                           POM             1981
Melica imperfecta Trin.                        POM             1901
Parapholis incurva (L.) C.E. Hubb. *           POM             1981
Paspalum dilatatum Poir. *                     POM             1980
Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.)
Chiov. *                                 Henrickson 1991        R

Phalaris minor Retz. *                          uc             1932
Phalaris paradoxa L. *                         POM             1981
Poa annua L. *                                 RSA             1981
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Polypogon monspeliensis (L.) Desf. *     Henrickson 1991        R
Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr. *           RSA             1930
                                         Gustafson 1981,
Schismus barbatus (L.) Thell. *          Henrickson 1991        R
Setaria parvijlora (Poir.) Kerguelen           RSA             1981
Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. *                  UC             1902
Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter)
Kuntze *                                       RSA             1981
Stipa cernua Stebbins & Love             Henrickson 1991        R
Stipa lepida Hitchc.                           FWM              R
Stipa miliacea (L.) Hoover var.
miliacea *                                     POM             1981
Stipa pulchra Hitchc.                          FWM              R

Ruppiaceae
Ruppia maritima L.                             RSA             1980

Themidaceae
Dichelostemma capitatum (Benth.)
Alph. Wood                               Henrickson 1991        R
Typhaceae
Sparganium erectum L. ssp.
stoloniferum (Grabner) C. Cook
& M.S. Nicholls                               RSA,UC           1902
Typha domingensis Pers.                        RSA             1981
Typha latifolia L.                             RSA             1980

Asterisk (*) indicates taxon not native to California. Grey
background indicates a native taxon known only from
historical (pre-1940) collections or reports. References:
For herbarium specimens, the following acronyms from the
Consortium of California Herbaria are used: CAS (California
Academy of Sciences); CDA (California Department of Food and
Agriculture); DS (Dudley Herbarium in CAS); JEPS (Jepson
Herbarium, UC Berkeley); NY (New York Botanical Garden); POM
(Pomona Herbarium in the Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden);
RSA (Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden); SFV (California State
University Northridge); UC (University Herbarium, UC
Berkeley); UCD (UC Davis); UCR (UC Riverside). Where an
author and year are cited, the taxon was reported but no
voucher specimens could be located. "FWM" refers to a taxon
that was observed by this author as having been planted at
the constructed Ballona Freshwater Marsh but no records or
reports of historical occurrence at Ballona were found.
Earliest Collection: year of oldest voucher specimen is
given. "R" means reported with no record of collection.
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Author:Read, E.A.
Publication:Bulletin (Southern California Academy of Sciences)
Geographic Code:1U9CA
Date:Dec 1, 2015
Words:7734
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