A curriculum to fill the gap between business and technical knowledge to meet the global need for business and industry professionals.
Over the last decade, Business Process Management (BPM) education and certification have received significant attention in various businesses, professional organizations, and academia. Recker (2012) pointed out that organizations turn to universities to provide a response to the skill challenge. This is partially due to the fact that today's enterprises are much more information driven and, to achieve and maintain competitiveness, more attention must be placed on business processes and, in particular, agile BPM solutions. Not only do long-running and routine processes need to be automated, but attention also needs to be paid to automating the adhoc and non-routine processes to achieve competitiveness. This has caused "a strong demand for college graduates prepared with the knowledge on business processes," (Lee, 2008). Harmon and Wolf (2012) pointed out that BPM has become a significant competitive tool for all kinds of organizations. A recent Gartner report (McGee, 2010) indicated that BPM is among the priority list of businesses worldwide.
Academic and industry experts defined a business process and Business Process Management somewhat differently partially due to the fact that BPM's original roots started with industry and methodologies such as Kaizen (Masaaki, 1986); Business Process Reengineering (Davenport, 1993); Hammer and Champy (1993); Total Quality Management (Powell, 1995); Business Process Change (Harmon, 2007); and Business Process Management--the Third Wave (Smith & Fingar, 2003). Davenport (1993) defined a business process as "a structured, measured set of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market." The Association of Business Process Management Professionals (ABPMP, 2009) defines a process as a "set of activities or behaviors performed by humans or machines to achieve one or more goal." Hammer and Champy (1993) defined BPM as "a complete end-to-end set of activities that together create value for the customer." Further, Smith and Fingar (2003) describe BPM as "not only does it encompass the discovery, design and development of business processes, but also the executive, administrative and supervisory control over them to ensure that they remain compliant with business objectives for the delight of customers."
In spite of some differences existing in the literature among various definitions of a business process and Business Process Management, to better manage business processes; technical, organizational, and process knowledge as well as understanding of people issues such as resistance to change are needed. The author refers to these knowledge areas as the four pillars of Business Process Management presented in Figure 1. Other authors also need to incorporate the above four knowledge areas in the BPM curriculum. In particular, people play a significant role in BPM as Jeston and Nelis (2010) pointed out: "people are at the heart of processes."
Global competition, economic conditions, and more emphasis on automation over the past several decades have forced organizations to improve and manage their business processes more efficiently and effectively. In addition, globalization has resulted in the need for collaborative business processes in areas such as payment systems, customer relationship management, and supply chain management. In order to improve performance, organizations need to identify, document, analyze, measure, improve, and manage their business processes. Furthermore, organizations need to align their business processes with their own business and business partners (Mathiesen, et al., 2013).
This study incorporates the Business Process Management Common Body of Knowledge developed by the Association of Business Process Management (BPM) Professionals, in the Master of Science in Information Systems (MSIS) model curriculum developed by a joint committee of the Association for Information Systems and the Association for Computing Machinery. The study identifies four knowledge areas: performance management, process transformation, process management organization, and enterprise process management from the Common Body of Knowledge that need to be covered in the MSIS model curriculum. Specific courses are identified to incorporate these knowledge areas. Industry stakeholders and a small number of higher education institutions have provided professional training and certification in this area since the 1990's with the hope of filling the gap that exists between business and technical expertise of many business school graduates.
ORGANIZATIONAL INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL
Many organizations have relied on internal and/or external talents to train their employees to become better business and process analysts. In response to some of these needs and challenges, a relatively small number of academic institutions such as Boston University, Duke University, Queensland University of Technology, Stevens Institute of Technology, Temple University, University of Houston, University of Illinois Springfield, University of Iowa, University of Minnesota, University of North Carolina Charlotte, and University of San Francisco have developed educational courses, training, and curricula in the business and process analysis area that some authors refer to as Business Process Management or similar titles such as Business Process Modeling, Enterprise Modeling, or Workflow Systems (Smith & Fingar, 2003).
These curricula are expected to provide students with the required knowledge, skills, and hands-on training to become BPM practitioners. These curricula cover a wide range of topics including technical, organizational, process, and people related issues. University based BPM courses are offered at both graduate and undergraduate levels. There are also concentrations and certificate programs that are offered by a number of institutions. In addition, non-academic professional and consulting firms have also developed BPM training and certificate programs that cover a wide range of areas (The BPM Council, 2013).
Organizations are finding that their ability to maintain a sustainable growth, competitive advantage, and prosperity depends on their ability to better manage their business processes across their entire enterprises. Some organizations are also finding that most of their employees lack the experience and skills needed to function as process analysts. In spite of these needs and challenges, not many institutions of higher education are offering courses and certificates in the area of Business Process Management.
For example, in one Midwest state in the U.S. that the author searched, there are only three Colleges of Business or similar units that have courses, majors, or certificate programs in the area of Business Process Management. Bandara, et al. (2010) states that world-wide there are still only a small number of institutions that offer specific education in BPM in an organized and thorough fashion. Furthermore, they compare BPM programs in five universities from Australia, Europe, Africa, and North America and ultimately conclude that globally, there is a heterogeneous view of BPM.
Given that this is the case, it is helpful for academicians and practitioners alike to formally incorporate the BPM Common Body of Knowledge into the MSIS model and/or an MBA curriculum. As Pal and Sen (2011) indicate, it is our responsibility to assess our curriculum with new waves of change in industry and modify and/or develop it further as necessary. The author of this current study accomplishes these tasks over the next few sections of this study.
Traditionally, some basic concepts of BPM such as business process modeling, requirements analysis, and data/information architecture are covered in information systems courses such as Systems Analysis and Design and Database Management. However, the MSIS 2000 model curriculum (Gorgone, et al., 2000), for example, did not include any specific courses in the BPM area. But, the revised version of the model curriculum that was published in 2006 (Gorgone, et al., 2006; Topi, et al., 2007) includes an Enterprise Models course in the curriculum.
The education committee of the Association of Business Process Management Professionals (ABPMP) also regularly publishes its work related to the evolution of BPM as a professional discipline. Currently, Version 2.0 of the BPM Common Body of Knowledge is available (ABPMP, 2009). Anbazhagan (2010) suggests that adopting ISO 9000 standards can also serve organizations as "a springboard for BPM."
BPM CERTIFICATION AND COMMON BODY OF KNOWLEDGE
Several professional development organizations are offering curriculum and examinations leading to certification in BPM. Among them are the Association of Business Process Management Professionals (ABPMP), Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM), BP Group, BPM Chile, BPM Council, BPTrends Associates, IBM, and SAI Global. The commercial BPM training programs vary significantly in terms of duration (about 4 to 40 hours), target audience (business analysts, lower to mid-level managers), required pre-requisites (number of years of professional experience), and training location (availability at various locations).
The ABPMP, in particular, has been active in developing and publishing a BPM Common Body of Knowledge. It describes (ABPMP, 2009) Business Process Management as "both a management discipline and a set of technologies that supports managing by process."
The ABPMP is a vendor independent and non-profit organization with their main office in Chicago, Illinois. It has active chapters throughout the U.S. and other countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, and Ecuador. The ABPMP has international affiliate chapters in Austria, France, Germany, and Switzerland.
Specifically, the ABPMP is led by BPM professionals, and their proposed Common Body of Knowledge is geared towards practitioners. This Common Body of Knowledge has been translated into French and German languages.
The mission of ABPMP, 2009 is "to engage in activities that promote the practice of business process management; to develop a Common Body of Knowledge for BPM, and to contribute to the advancement and skill development of professionals who work in the BPM discipline." The ABPMP administers exams leading to the Certified Business Process Professional certificate. The efforts of ABPMP in developing BPM Common Body of Knowledge and the offering of courses and certificates by similar organizations have been helpful in the professionalization of Business Process Management.
BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT COMMON BODY OF KNOWLEDGE
As a part of its mission, the ABPMP develops and publishes Guide to the Business Process Management Common Body of Knowledge (ABPMP, 2009). The Guide is also used as a basis for the ABPMP certificate. Version 2.0 of the Guide is currently available and was released in 2009. The Guide describes in detail a process-oriented, rather than a functional or silo, view of organizations. The main purpose of the Guide (ABPMP, 2009) is to recognize and offer a comprehensive overview of the Knowledge Areas that are generally documented and accepted as good practice. The Guide provides a general overview of each Knowledge Area and provides a list of common activities and tasks associated with each Knowledge Area. It also provides links and references to other sources of information which are part of the broader BPM Common Body of Knowledge. In addition, the Guide provides various resources and references that are essential to understanding the BPM Common Body of Knowledge. It includes BPM model curricula at the undergraduate, Master's degree, and MBA concentrations.
The Guide defined Business Process Management as "a disciplined approach to identify, design, execute, document, measure, monitor, and control both automated and non-automated business processes to achieve consistent, targeted results aligned with an organization's strategic goals" (ABPMP, 2009). The Guide organizes the BPM Common Body of Knowledge into nine knowledge areas. These areas and a summary of key concepts are presented in Table 1.
As the knowledge areas and key concepts in Table 1 indicate, the focus of the BPM Common Body of Knowledge is on processes, not functions or silos in organizations. The Guide provides a detailed description of the BPM Common Body of Knowledge and, as far as Business Process Management Systems is concerned, the Guide is vendor neutral. A chapter of the Guide is devoted to each of the nine knowledge areas listed in Table 1. The Guide also presents and endorses the Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) that has become a widely accepted BPM notation in the industry.
THE MSIS MODEL CURRICULUM
The two most recent MSIS model curricula were designed by a joint committee of the Association for Information Systems (AIS) and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) and published in 2006 (Gorgone et al., 2006) and 2000 (Gorgone et al., 2000), respectively. These two model curricula recommend a set of courses and course sequences along with detailed course contents and descriptions. The 2006 model is a major update of the MSIS 2000 model curriculum and includes options for career paths. This model suggests a 30 and a 24 unit programs. The 30 unit program includes five different options. Among the changes made in the 2006 model curriculum is the inclusion of an Enterprise Models course to reflect the need of graduates to have the knowledge in the area of Business Process Management. The model adopted here is the 30 unit program.
Table 2 shows the required courses in the curriculum that are grouped in three areas of IS Technology, IS Management, and elective courses. The MSIS 2006 model curriculum includes two prerequisites, Fundamentals of IS (IS2002.1) and Programming, Data, File, and Object Structures (IS2002.5). These two courses were included in the 2002 model curriculum and the descriptions of them are available from Gorgone, et al., 2003. The curriculum also includes two alternative requirements to cover Business Foundation courses.
Coverage of ABPMP's BPM Common Body of Knowledge in the MSIS Model Curriculum
Table 3 shows the above MSIS 2006 model curriculum with the extent that the ABPMP's BPM Common Body of Knowledge is covered in various courses. These are shown as covered (*), partially covered, (**) or not covered (***). As shown in Table 3, a good amount of the ABPMP's BPM Common Body of Knowledge is covered in the MSIS 2006 model curriculum. The knowledge areas that are not covered (***) in at least four courses are: process performance management, process transformation, process management organization, and enterprise process management. Not every knowledge area needs to be covered in every course. However, adequate overall coverage of the Common Body of Knowledge is essential so that graduates of MSIS programs may be qualified to become BPM practitioners and potentially be able to obtain professional certification in this important area.
Table 4 summarizes the ABPMP's Business Process Management Common Body of Knowledge areas with specific topics that are not covered at all or are partially covered in the MSIS model curriculum. The specific topics within the courses in the curriculum that could be covered are included in Table 4. The topics related to the knowledge areas are added to courses where these topics are not covered at all or are only partially covered. As it is apparent from the knowledge areas in Table 4, most of the contents deal with refocusing from business functions to business processes. As such, it seems feasible to incorporate the BPM Common Body of Knowledge into the MSIS model curriculum with limited additional time and with a judicious use of class time in the affected courses. It is important to note that the new MSIS model curriculum includes a course in BPM. However, the focus of the course is on the foundation knowledge as it is the case for many academic based courses. The ABPMP Business Process Management Common Body of Knowledge on the other hand focuses on skill sets required by the industry. Our goal in Table 4 above is to create a curriculum that covers both areas.
RECOMMENDATION FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
Future research in the connection and interaction between technical, organizational, process knowledge, and people issues (such as resistance to change), which the author of this study refers to as the four pillars of Business Process Management is essential to further refine the Business Process Management curriculum and skill sets.
Globalization and increasing competition are forcing businesses to become more efficient. More organizations today accept and use BPM in their operations to achieve this important goal. One way to improve efficiency is to focus on all business processes and to become a process-centric organization. Acceptance and incorporation of BPM in organizations require trained work force that are capable of integrating business and a technology skills set to add value to business operations. Business school programs need to provide an educational path to incorporate Business Process Management into existing MSIS and MBA curricula. This study reviewed and compared the contents of the MSIS model curriculum developed by a joint committee of the Association for Information Systems (AIS) and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) to identify knowledge areas and skill sets of the BPM Common Body of Knowledge developed by the Association of Business Process Management Professionals (ABPMP) that are not covered in the model curriculum.
This study identified four knowledge areas: process performance management, process transformation, process management organization, and enterprise process management from the BPM Common Body of Knowledge that need to be covered in the MSIS model curriculum. Specific courses are identified to incorporate these knowledge areas. As more colleges and professional organizations offer courses, programs, professional training, and certification in the BPM area, collaboration and dialogue need to continue between academic and professional organizations in order to incorporate an acceptable BPM Common Body of Knowledge into the MSIS, MBA, and other similar curricula. This will allow the graduates of these programs to be qualified to become BPM practitioners and potentially be able to obtain professional certification in this important area. These efforts will facilitate filling the global unmet demand for Business Process Management professionals as well as leading to a better understanding and recognition of BPM as a professional discipline.
Anbazhagan, S. (2010). ISO 9000: A Springboard for BPM. Retrieved January 12, 2013 from http://www.bptrends.com.
Association of Business Process Management Professionals (2009). Guide to the Business Process Management Body of Knowledge, Version 2.0, Second Release. Chicago: ABPMP.
Association for Information and Image Management (AIIM) (2013). Business Process Management certificate program. Retrieved January 14, 2013 from http://www.aiim.org.
Bandara, W., Chand, D. R., Chircu, A. M., Hintringer, S., Dimitris, K., Recker, J., van Rensburg, A., Usoff, C., & Welke, R. (2010). Business Process Management education in academia: status, challenges, and recommendations. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 27(41), 743-776.
BPGroup (2013). The Business Process Professional Series. Retrieved January 14, 2013 from http://www.bp2010.com.
BPM Chile, (2013). OMG-certified expert in BPM. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http://www.omg.org
BPTrends Associates, (2013). Business Process Management certificate program. Retrieved January 15, 2013 from http://www.bptrends.com
Davenport, T. H. (1993). Process Innovation: Reengineering work through information technology. Boston: Harvard Business Press.
Gorgone, J. T., Gray, P., Feinstein, D. L., Kasper, G. M., Luftman, J., Stohr, E. A., Valacich, J. S., & Wigand, R. T. (2000). MSIS 2000: Model curriculum and guidelines for graduate degree programs in information systems. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 7(1), 1-51.
Gorgone, J. T., Davis, G. B., Valacich, J. S., Topi, H., Feinstein, D. L., & Longenecker, H. E. (2003). IS 2002: Model curriculum and guidelines for undergraduate degree programs in information systems. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 11(1), 1-49.
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Jeston, J., & Nelis, J. (2010). Ten impediments to achieving process excellence, BPTrends, San Francisco: Business Process Trends.
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Mathiesen, P., Bandara, W., Marjanovic, O., & Delavari, H. (2013). A critical analysis of Business Process Management education and alignment with industry demand: An Australian perspective. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 33(27), 463-485.
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University of Illinois Springfield
Rassule Hadidi is Professor and Chair of the Management Information Systems Department at the College of Business and Management, University of Illinois Springfield. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of MissouriColumbia and completed the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB International) sponsored post-doctoral studies at Indiana University. He has published more than 40 peer-reviewed articles in professional journals and in international, national, and regional conference proceedings and has made more than 50 presentations at various national and international professional conferences. He is the First Hanson Professional Services Faculty Scholar; served as the President of the Midwest United States Association for Information Systems (MWAIS) during 2009-2010 and is currently serving a two-year term as At-Large Director of the MWAIS. Dr. Hadidi serves on the Editorial Board of a number of International and National professional journals.
Table 1 Summary of ABPMP's BPM Common Body of Knowledge and Key Concepts Knowledge Areas Key Concepts Business Process Understanding of BPM definitions; foundations of Management BPM; end-to-end processes; process types and components; BPM lifecycle; business architectures; critical skills set Process Modeling Understanding, documenting, communicating, measuring, and managing business processes; process modeling benefits; BPMN Process Analysis Understanding decomposition of, efficiency, and effectiveness of business processes, current and future processes, business analysis techniques; process components, attributes, and patterns Process Design Understanding of business processes' objectives and ability to create business processes' specifications; understanding of work flows, data recourses, financial and operational controls, technology platforms; common and good process design patterns Process Ability to monitor process execution to determine Performance the efficiency and effectiveness of processes; Management understanding of planned monitoring of process execution and alignment of business processes and enterprise performance; development and use of performance metrics; performance measurement benefits Process Understanding process improvement, redesign, Transformation reengineering, and process change; organizational change implementation; standard practices for organizational change management Process Understanding concepts of process driven Management enterprises; cultural considerations; governance Organization structures; business process governance; business process center of excellence Enterprise Understanding process portfolio management; Process enterprise process management; collaborative Management processes; process management maturity levels; standard practices; process architecture Business Process Understanding technologies that support planning, Management design, analysis, operation, and monitoring of Technologies business processes; business process management systems; BPM standards and suites; BPEL, XML, and XPDL standards; SOA and Web services Table 2 MSIS 2006 Model Curriculum (Gorgone et al., 2006) Course Numbers Course Titles (model curriculum) IS Technology MSIS 2006.1 IT Infrastructure MSIS 2006.2 Analysis, Modeling, and Design MSIS 2006.3 Enterprise Models MSIS 2006.4 Emerging Technologies and Issues MSIS 2000.1 Data Management MSIS 2000.3 Data Communications and Networking IS Management MSIS 2006.5 Project and Change Management MSIS 2006.6 Policy and Strategy MSIS 2006.7 Integrated Capstone Elective Courses MSIS 2006.8 or Implications of Digitization MSIS 2006.9 Human Computer Interaction Course Numbers Pre or Co-requisites (model curriculum) IS Technology MSIS 2006.1 IS foundations courses MSIS 2006.2 IS and business foundation courses MSIS 2006.3 IS foundations courses, MSIS2006.1, MSIS2006.2 MSIS 2006.4 IS and business foundation courses, MSIS 2006.1 and MSIS 2006.2 MSIS 2000.1 IS 2002.5 MSIS 2000.3 IS 2002.1, IS2002.4, IS2002.5 IS Management MSIS 2006.5 IS 2002.1, IS 2002.5, and MSIS 2006.2 MSIS 2006.6 MSIS2006.1, and MSIS2006.2 MSIS 2006.7 All IS foundations and technology courses, all management courses Elective Courses MSIS 2006.8 or All IS business foundation courses MSIS 2006.9 IS foundations courses Table 3 Current Coverage of ABPMP's BPM Common Body of Knowledge in MSIS 2006 Model Curriculum MSIS 2006 Model ABPMP's BPM Common Body of Curriculum Knowledge (ABPMP, 2009) (Gorgone, et al., 2006) * Covered Business Process Process ** Partially Covered Process Modeling Analysis *** Not Covered Management MSIS 2006.1 IT Infrastructure ** ** ** MSIS 2006.2 Analysis, Modeling, ** * * and Design MSIS 2006.3 Enterprise Models * * * MSIS 2006.4 Emerging ** *** ** Technologies and Issues MSIS 2000.1 Data Management *** ** ** MSIS 2000.3 Data ** *** *** Communications and Networking MSIS 2006.5 Project and Change ** ** ** Management MSIS 2006.6 Policy and Strategy ** ** ** MSIS 2006.7 Integrated Capstone ** ** ** MSIS 2006.8 or Implications of ** ** ** Digitization MSIS 2006.9 Human Computer ** ** ** Interaction MSIS 2006 Model ABPMP's BPM Common Body of Curriculum Knowledge (ABPMP, 2009) (Gorgone, et al., 2006) * Covered Process Process ** Partially Covered Design Performance *** Not Covered Management MSIS 2006.1 IT Infrastructure *** *** MSIS 2006.2 Analysis, Modeling, * ** and Design MSIS 2006.3 Enterprise Models * * MSIS 2006.4 Emerging *** *** Technologies and Issues MSIS 2000.1 Data Management ** *** MSIS 2000.3 Data ** *** Communications and Networking MSIS 2006.5 Project and Change ** ** Management MSIS 2006.6 Policy and Strategy ** ** MSIS 2006.7 Integrated Capstone ** ** MSIS 2006.8 or Implications of ** ** Digitization MSIS 2006.9 Human Computer ** ** Interaction MSIS 2006 Model ABPMP's BPM Common Body of Curriculum Knowledge (ABPMP, 2009) (Gorgone, et al., 2006) * Covered Process Process ** Partially Covered Transformation Management *** Not Covered Organization MSIS 2006.1 IT Infrastructure *** *** MSIS 2006.2 Analysis, Modeling, *** ** and Design MSIS 2006.3 Enterprise Models * * MSIS 2006.4 Emerging ** *** Technologies and Issues MSIS 2000.1 Data Management *** *** MSIS 2000.3 Data *** *** Communications and Networking MSIS 2006.5 Project and Change ** ** Management MSIS 2006.6 Policy and Strategy ** ** MSIS 2006.7 Integrated Capstone ** ** MSIS 2006.8 or Implications of ** Digitization MSIS 2006.9 Human Computer ** ** Interaction MSIS 2006 Model ABPMP's BPM Common Body of Curriculum Knowledge (ABPMP, 2009) (Gorgone, et al., 2006) * Covered Enterprise Business ** Partially Covered Process Process *** Not Covered Management Management Technologies MSIS 2006.1 IT Infrastructure *** * MSIS 2006.2 Analysis, Modeling, ** ** and Design MSIS 2006.3 Enterprise Models * * MSIS 2006.4 Emerging *** ** Technologies and Issues MSIS 2000.1 Data Management *** ** MSIS 2000.3 Data *** ** Communications and Networking MSIS 2006.5 Project and Change ** ** Management MSIS 2006.6 Policy and Strategy ** ** MSIS 2006.7 Integrated Capstone ** ** MSIS 2006.8 or Implications of ** ** Digitization MSIS 2006.9 Human Computer ** ** Interaction Table 4 Topics from ABPMP's BPM Common Body of Knowledge that need to be Incorporated into MSIS 2006 Model Curriculum A Partial List of ABPMP's BPM MSIS 2006 Model Curriculum Common Body of Knowledge (ABPMP, 2009) (Gorgone, et al., 2006) Process Process Performance Transformation Management MSIS IT Use of more Focus on people, 2006.1 Infrastructure standards processes, and technology MSIS Analysis, More people and Better process design 2006.2 Modeling, and process focus to minimize process Design performance changes measurement benefits MSIS Emerging 2006.4 Technologies and Issues MSIS Data Collect and Maintain accurate 2000.1 Management maintain process records of process performance expectations and metrics actual gains MSIS Data More focus on Focus on end-to-end 2000.3 Communications activity-based business processes and Networking costing MSIS Project and Process Process owners' and 2006.5 Change performance management Management metrics involvement for process change success standard practices for organizational change management Model Curriculum A Partial List of ABPMP's BMP MSIS 2006 Model Curriculum Common Body of Knowledge (ABPMP, 2009) (Gorgone, et al., 2006) Process Enterprise Management Process Organization Management MSIS IT Clear governance Support enterprise 2006.1 Infrastructure structure process improvement MSIS Analysis, Clearly Create and 2006.2 Modeling, and communicate all maintain metrics Design business processes to remain to employees customer centric MSIS Emerging Collaborative Business process 2006.4 Technologies business processes management and Issues systems MSIS Data Focus on process Maintain and 2000.1 Management management manage processes for process owners MSIS Data Focus on end-to- Define and 2000.3 Communications end business communicate and Networking processes enterprise process management MSIS Project and Change All processes need 2006.5 Change management due owners and need Management to process maturity to be managed
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|Publication:||International Journal of Education Research (IJER)|
|Date:||Mar 22, 2014|
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