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A comparison of the Clarendonian equid assemblages from the Mission Pit, South Dakota and Ashfall Fossil Beds, Nebraska.

The Mission Pit locality (SDSM V5314), near Mission, South Dakota, has produced a large collection of equid teeth obtained from the Miocene Ash Hollow (=Thin Elk) Formation. Ashfall Fossil Beds (UNSM Ap-116), near Royal, Nebraska, has yielded an extensive collection of equid cranial elements and teeth derived from the Cap Rock Member, Ash Hollow Formation. The two sites are interpreted to be Clarendonian in age [12.5 to 9.0 Ma], but may contain faunal assemblages from differing Clarendonian subages.

The two sites exhibit a notably similar composition of equid genera, including the tribes Equini (Pliohippus, Calippus, and Protohippus), and Hipparionini (Cormohipparion, Neohipparion, and Pseudhipparion). Both sites share the same proportion of the equid tribes Hipparionini and Equini. Approximately seventy-five percent of the equids at both sites are members of the Hipparionini tribe, whereas twenty-five percent are of the Equini tribe. The comparative composition within the Equini tribe between the two sites is nearly identical with differences in the absence of Calippus at Ashfall and a larger proportion of Protohippus at Mission. Only slight differences are observed in the composition of genera within the Hipparionini tribe between the two sites, with the Mission Pit containing a higher percentage of Neohipparion. The striking taxonomic similarity between the two sites is not only unique but also rare, suggesting a correlative relationship within the early to medial Clarendonian (Cl1 or Cl2). This similarity also suggests unique paleoecological relationships among equids and has a potential for insight into plant ecology and equid niche partitioning during this time interval.

Introduction

The Mission Pit of South Dakota contains a middle-to-late Miocene assemblage preserved in a series of fluvial channel deposits. Although generally recognized as a Clarendonian assemblage based on the presence of Paratomarctus (= Tomarctus) euthos, Aelurodon taxoides, Epicyon saevus (= Aelurodon cf. inflatus), Carpocyon robustus, Ischyrocyon gidleyi (= Pliocyon walkerae), Merychippus sp., Hypohippus sp., Cormohipparion (= Neohipparion) occidentale, Neohipparion affine (= whitneyi), Pseudhipparion (= Nannippus) gratus, Pliohippus pernix (= lullianus), Ustatochoerus sp., and Cosoryx sp. (MacDonald, 1960; Tabrum, 1981; Wang et al., 1999) there is yet no definitive referral to a Clarendonian subage. The assemblage from the Mission Pit has not been extensively described other than a primary work by MacDonald (1960).

The fossil bearing units of the Ash Hollow Formation within Ashfall Fossil Beds State Historical Park in Nebraska have been dated to 11.83 Ma (Perkins et al., 1998) and represent a watering hole environment preserved during an ashfall event. Based on the occurrence of Mioheteromys cf. M. amplissimus, cf. Ischyrocyon sp., Epicyon cf. E. saevus, Cynarctus cf. C. voorhiesi, Aelurodon sp., cf. Eubelodon sp., Hypohippus sp., Cormohipparion occidentale, Neohipparion affine, Pseudhipparion gratum, Pliohippus pernix, Ustatochoerus major (= skinneri), Cranioceras sp., cf. Plioceras sp., and Longirostromeryx wellsi (Voorhies, 1990, 2006) this assemblage is referred to the Clarendonian North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA). Unfortunately, the fossil assemblage at Ashfall Fossil Beds has been extensively studied, but remains unpublished.

Both sites have a particularly large sample of equids from both the Equini and Hipparionini tribes, common constituents in many medial to late Miocene assemblages. A comparison of equid taxa from both sites would provide improved understanding of the relative age of the assemblage at the Mission Pit, and would provide unique insight into environmental variation within the northern Great Plains during the medial to late Miocene.

The Mission Pit is a gravel pit on the Thomas Fox Ranch near Mission, Mellette County, South Dakota (Fig. 1). The sediments preserve a paleo-channel deposit, consisting of unconsolidated yellow to brown sands and gravels with limited occurrence of caliche and minor amounts of volcanic ash (MacDonald, 1960; Harsken and Green, 1971). The deposits at the Mission Pit are of a typical cut and fill stream channel with interbedded lenses of fine, garnet-rich sands within layers of gravel and cobbles (MacDonald, 1960). The Mission Pit is also the type section of the now invalidated Thin Elk Formation of South Dakota, lithologic correlative of the Ash Hollow Formation (Harsken and Green, 1971; Wang et al., 1999).

Ashfall Fossil Beds contains a 2-m-thick bed of volcanic ash in the Cap Rock Member, a ledge-forming sandstone (Skinner et al., 1972), of the Ash Hollow Formation in the drainage basin of Verdigre Creek, Antelope County, northeastern Nebraska (Voorhies and Thomasson, 1979; Voorhies, 1992). The site is underlain by the older Valentine Formation and overlain by the younger Long Pine Formation (Voorhies, 2006). The site has been exposed by Colson Creek near Royal, Antelope County, Nebraska (Fig. 1).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The Mission Pit faunal assemblage has been studied briefly. MacDonald (1960) identified six equid taxa from Mission that include Hypohippus sp., Cormohipparion (= Neohipparion) cf. C. occidentale and/or Neohipparion affine (= whitneyi), Neohipparion sp., Pliohippus sp., Pliohippus cf. P. martini, and Pseudhipparion (= Nannippus) gratus. Tabrum (1981) re-described the equids at the Mission Pit and assigned them to six taxa including Merychippus sp., Calippus sp., Protohippus sp., Pliohippus pernix (= lullianus), Pseudhipparion n. sp., and Cormohipparion (= Neohipparion) occidentale. He also suggested the possibility of two additional equid taxa at Mission Pit, but these remain undescribed. Based on the equids, Tabrum (1981) dated the assemblage as intermediate between the early Clarendonian Burge fauna and late Clarendonian Big Springs Canyon fauna, i.e., early medial Clarendonian. Tabrum (1981) and MacDonald (1960) concluded that the sediments at the Mission Pit site were deposited under fluvial conditions.

Ashfall Fossil Beds has been extensively researched in comparison, although primarily through unpublished work. Ashfall Fossil Beds contains a 0.5 m to 2.0 m thick ash bed (Skinner et al, 1972; Rose, et al., 2003) that also occurs in Morrill County, western Nebraska (Diffendal, 1982, 1995; Diffendal et al., 1996), and has been tentatively associated with an eruption from the Bruneau-Jarbridge Volcano of western Idaho (Perkins, 1998), about 1400 km west (Rose, et al., 2003). The Ashfall ash is correlated to the Ibex Hollow Ash dated at 11.83 Ma (Perkins et al., 1998). Five taxa of equids were described from the ash bed by Voorhies (2006), including Neohipparion affine, Pseudhipparion gratum, Cormohipparion occidentale, Pliohippus pernix, and Protohippus simus. Hypohippus sp. has been identified from the sands below the ash (Herbel, 1994; Voorhies, 2006). These equid occurrences closely resemble the composition of the medial Clarendonian Chokecherry Quarry and Minnechaduza faunas of Nebraska (Voorhies, 1990). Ashfall Fossil Beds represents a perennial watering hole where several of the present taxa congregated (Voorhies, 1992). Work on the paleotopography of the sands below the ash indicates that Ashfall represents a seasonally water-filled deflation basin (Herbel, 1994). The objective of this research is to compare the equid assemblages from Ashfall Fossil Beds and the Mission Pit localities.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Methods

To compare the equid assemblages from the two localities we analyzed a sample of 384 isolated teeth from the Mission Pit locality and 81 skulls with teeth from Ashfall Fossil Beds. Most of the specimens from Mission Pit are in the collections of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (SDSM), whereas most of those from Ashfall Fossil Beds are in the collections at the University of Nebraska State Museum (UNSM), Lincoln, Nebraska.

Figure 2 shows the tooth morphology utilized in the study (after MacFadden, 1984). Several diagnostic structures are present on the occlusal surface of equid teeth. Structures analyzed include the mesostyle, prefossette, postfossette, pli-caballin, protocone, protoconule and hypoconal groove.

The specimens at Ashfall Fossil Beds allowed examination of the cranial structures as there are two fossae that are generically distinctive and can be used to support the identifications based only on dentition. These distinctive features include the dorsal preobital fossa (DPOF) and the malar fossa. Terminology of these fossae follows Woodburne (2007).

Measurements taken on the upper premolars and molars include mesostyle crown height (MSTHT), length of tooth (APL), width of tooth (TRNW), protocone length (PRTL), protocone width (PRTW), and number of plications. Terminology of some measurements follows MacFadden (1992) and Woodburne (2007). Measurements were taken by using a Cen-Tech 6" digital caliper with an error of [+ or -] 0.001" (0.03 mm). A hand lens was used to aid in counting plications. An examination of the presence of occlusal surface structures was also preformed. A Spearman-Kendall rank coefficient test was performed to ascertain the similarity of the two assemblages.

Diagnostic Equid Morphology

Hipparionine and equinine taxa are defined by several characteristics within the cranial and dental morphology. A high degree of distinctive variation is present within the DPOF) within both tribes. Hipparionines have a greater number of plications, in the tooth enamel thereby increasing the most durable part of the tooth to resist wear (Fig. 2A). In hipparionlnes, the protocone is closed and isolated and the hypoconal groove is open to the base of the crowns (Quinn, 1955). Equinines adapted relatively tall teeth with simple enamel borders (Fig. 2B). The upper teeth exhibit heavy styles and deep valleys (Quinn, 1955). The protocones are elongate, and are usually grooved and heeled (Quinn, 1955). Protolophs are also connected to the protoselene in the later forms and unconnected in early forms (Quinn, 1955). Additionally, the hypoconal groove opens with wear (Quinn, 1955). MacFadden, 1998, provides detailed diagnoses of each of the genera utilized in this study.

In Pseudhipparion the DPOF is poorly developed and has indistinct boundaries. The malar fossa is absent. The protocone is large and elliptical. It is isolated during early wear but is connected in later wear stages.

In Neohipparion the DPOF is relatively poorly defined. The malar fossa is absent. The protocone is isolated and is an elongate- to very elongate oval shape. Teeth were compared to MacFadden (1984, Fig. 63).

In Nannippus the DPOF is moderately well developed to absent. Teeth are very hypsodont with moderately complex enamel plications. The protocone is oval and isolated. Teeth were compared to MacFadden and Waldrop (1980, Fig. 15).

In Cormohipparion the DPOF is teardrop shaped and is well developed on the anterior and posterior rims. The DPOF contains a distinct posterior "pocket". The malar fossa is absent. Fossette borders are moderately to highly plicated. The pli caballin is well developed. The protocone is isolated. Teeth were compared to Hulbert (1988a, Fig. 6).

In Protohippus, the DPOF is large and oval-shaped. The lacrimal is large and is included within the posterior portion of the DPOF. The malar fossa is absent. The protocone is isolated during early wear stages. Fossette enamel borders are simple. Teeth were compared to Osborn (1918, Plate 22).

In Calippus, the DPOF, when present, is long, shallow, and not pocketed. The malar fossa is absent. The protocone is open, large, and oval to elongate. The pli caballin is rudimentary or absent. The hypoconal groove is shallow and frequently forms hypoconal lakes. Teeth were compared to Hulbert (1988, Fig. 15).

In Pliohippus, the DPOF and malar fossa are well developed and are often strongly pocketed and complex. The cheek teeth are strongly curved. The protocone is connected. The hypoconal groove is shallow. Teeth were compared to Osborn (1918, Fig. 120).

In Dinohippus, the malar fossa is small or absent. The DPOF is rudimentary or absent. The cheek teeth are moderately curved. The protocone is strongly connected. The hypoconal groove is well developed.

The enamel plications are simple. Skulls and teeth were compared to Osborn (1918, Fig. 130). Dinohippus is generally regarded as a Hemphillian or Blancan genus, but many specimens from this study were referred to Dinohippus based on older diagnoses.

Results

Approximately 78 % of the equids at Ashfall represent the Hipparionini tribe, whereas 22% represent the Equini tribe (n = 81) (Fig. 3B). There are three genera present from the Hipparionini tribe, Pseudhipparion, Neohipparion, and Cormohipparion. Of the Hipparionini, Pseudhipparion comprises 72%, Neohipparion 5%, and Cormohipparion 23% (n = 63) (Fig. 3A). Table 1 shows the number of individuals (skulls) for each genus at Ashfall and the distribution of all equid genera is shown in Fig. 3B.

An analysis was conducted on the equid teeth at Ashfall Fossil Beds. Measurements are presented in Appendix A. A relationship between the ratio of protocone length to width and the total number of plications was discovered on all genera sampled at Ashfall Fossil Beds (Fig. 4). The Equines fall near Pseudhipparion, which is the most basal Clarendonian Hipparionine. The more advanced hipparionines appear to increase the surface area of enamel through an increased number of plications.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

Figure 4 shows the relationship between protocone length multiplied by width verses total plication count for Ashfall Fossil Beds genera. When calculating a linear regression line for the data we find an R value of 0.752 indicating a strong positive relationship. We see that the positive relationship correlates with the phylogenetic relationship of the Hipparionini genera. MacFadden (1992) indicates that Pseudhipparion is the most basal Hipparionini, while Cormohipparion is the most derived. This is reflected in the dentition of each genus, as represented in the plot in Figure 4. We expect Pseudhipparion to have the lowest number of plications among the hipparionines, and the data in Figure 4 supports this hypothesis. The Equini in this graph plot in the same area of the graph as Pseudhipparion, which is also expected considering the adaptations of low plication counts for the Equini tribe. An interesting correlation is also observed between a more elongate protocone and an increased number of plications.

The sample population for the Mission Pit was compiled from individual upper teeth. The summary of the Mission Pit data can be found in Table 2.

Approximately 75% of the equids at the Mission Pit represent the Hipparionini tribe, while 25% represent the Equini tribe (n = 384) (Fig. 5B). The three genera present within the Hipparionini tribe include Pseudhipparion, Neohipparion, and Cormohipparion. Of the Hipparionini, Pseudhipparion represents 60%, Neohipparion represents 19%, and Cormohipparion represents 21% (n = 288) (Fig. 5A). The distribution of all equid genera at the Mission Pit can be seen in Figure 5B.

Measurements of the Mission Pit samples are presented in Appendix B.

Statistical tests

A nonparametric test for abundance correlation, the Spearman-Kendall test, was performed using PAST analytical software (Hammer et al., 2001). This test was utilized to test the correlation of abundance rank between the two sites based on the percentage of each genus as a portion of the whole sample for each locality (Fig. 3). The analysis on the overall population yielded a Spearman [r.sub.s] of 0.77, and Kendall tau of 0.6 (Table 4). When we remove Calippus, the Spearman [r.sub.s] becomes 0.8 and the Kendall tau remains the same (Table 5).

Interpretation of the Spearman-Kendall statistics shows a strong abundance rank correlation between Ashfall and Mission, with [r.sub.s] values between 0.75 and 0.8, and a tau value of 0.6. The associated p values are greater than 0.05 allowing acceptance of the null hypothesis ([H.sub.0]) that the two localities contain statistically similar abundance rankings. The main differences lie in the abundances between Neohipparion, Pliohippus, Protohippus and, of course, Calippus (only present at a one locality).

Discussion

Ashfall Fossil Beds and the Mission Pit demonstrate minor differences in equid taxonomic composition. All genera, except Calippus, are present at both localities based on the identification of upper dentition. The two sites have the same abundance between the Hipparionini tribe and the Equini tribe. There are, however, differences in the generic level composition. Mission and Ashfall vary most significantly in the abundance of Neohipparion and Protohippus as well as the absence of Calippus at Ashfall. We see the same relative distribution of higher taxonomic groupings (tribes) at the two sites. This stands in slight contrast to the different generic level abundance. The differences observed among genera could be due to preservation and collection biases. The two sites were deposited under different conditions. Additionally, the manner in which the specimens were collected was different. Ashfall specimens were collected with traditional excavation techniques and consist of more complete elements. The Mission specimens were collected in a more unorthodox manner. The Mission Pit was a functioning gravel pit during investigations; the easiest way to collect specimens was by examining the sediment being conveyed by belts on the machinery (MacDonald, 1960). MacDonald used a rake to pull specimens off of the conveyer belts. This method produced more incomplete elements at the Mission pit, and a much higher percentage of isolated teeth.

It is important to note that the Ashfall ash bed represents a short period of time, roughly four weeks. The Ashfall ash bed does not include all taxa present in this area, as the fragmental zone beneath the ash bed contains over 35 mammalian taxa while the ash bed contains only 12 mammalian taxa (Voorhies, 2006). The Mission Pit represents an accumulative attritional assemblage, with specimens deposited over a much longer span of time.

In the process of conducting this study a rudimentary taxonomic review was performed on the equids at each site. The identification of specimens from the Mission Pit were conducted in the early 1960s. The specimens labeled Nannippus were reidentified as either Pseudhipparion or Calippus. Specimens labeled Neohipparion were determined to be Neohipparion or Cormohipparion. Specimens labeled Merychippus were generally at an early wear stage obscuring diagnostic features. These teeth were then referred at the familial level to Equidae. There were also some minor issues with the specimens in the Ashfall Fossil Beds collection. These specimens were identified in the late 1970s. Several specimens were identified as Dinohippus; these were determined to be referable to Pliohippus, while a few were referred to Protohippus. Two specimens labeled Calippus were determined to be individuals of Pseudhipparion in later stages of tooth wear.
Appendix A. Measurements of Teeth From Ashfall Fossil Beds State
Historical Park A key to measurements is provided at the end of
Appendix B

                  Field
   Spec. Num       Num         Taxon        Tooth   Locality   Side

UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    P2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    P3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    P4      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    M1      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    M2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    M3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    P2      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    P3      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    P4      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    M1      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27875        PI1100   Pseudhipparion    M2      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27675        PI1100   Paeudhipparion    M3      Ap-116     L
UNSM 52296        PI2413    Neohipparion     P2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52296        PI2413    Neohipparion     P3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52296        PI2413    Neohipparion     P4      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52296        PI2413    Neohipparion     M1      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52296        PI2413    Neohipparion     M2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52296        PI2413    Neohtpparion     M3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    P2      Ap-116     L
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    P3      Ap-116     L
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    P4      Ap-116     L
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    M1      Ap-116     L
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    M2      Ap-116     L
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    M3      Ap-116     L
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    P2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    P3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    P4      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    M1      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    M2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 52300         N/A     Cormohipparion    M3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Pseudhipparion    P2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Pseudhipparion    P3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Pseudhipparion    P4      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Pseudhipparion    M1      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Pseudhipparion    M2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Pseudhipparion    M3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Pseudhipparion    P2      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Pseudhipparion    P3      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Paeudhipparion    P4      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Pseudhipparion    M1      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Pseudhipparion    M2      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27845        PI 896   Paeudhipparion    M3      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      P2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      P3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      P4      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      M1      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      M2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      M3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      P2      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      P3      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      P4      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      M1      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      M2      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27864        PI 653     Pliohippus      M3      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      P2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      P3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      P4      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      M1      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      M2      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      M3      Ap-116     R
UNSM 27685        PI 975     Pliohippus      P2      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      P3      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      P4      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      M1      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      M2      Ap-116     L
UNSM 27865        PI 975     Pliohippus      M3      Ap-116     L

                  Mesostyle
   Spec. Num      Crwn hght   Length   Width     L x W     L/W

UNSM 27875            9.27    20.80    15.90    330.72    1.31
UNSM 27875           10.34    15.88    16.86    267.74    0.94
UNSM 27875           11.52    16.29    17.15    279.37    0.95
UNSM 27875           12.68    13.27    16.50    218.96    0.80
UNSM 27875           10.72    15.57    16.98    264.38    0.92
UNSM 27875           10.04    18.44    16.04    295.78    1.15
UNSM 27875             N/A    19.43    15.85    307.97    1.23
UNSM 27875             N/A    16.64    17.95    280.74    0.87
UNSM 27875             N/A    15.91    17.50    278.43    0.91
UNSM 27875             N/A    13.50    17.35    234.23    0.78
UNSM 27875             N/A    15.03    17.10    257.01    0.88
UNSM 27675             N/A    18.48    15.77    291.43    1.17
UNSM 52296           32.49    30.14    20.72    624.50    1.45
UNSM 52296           32.92    25.51    22.66    578.06    1.13
UNSM 52296           38.23    24.04    21.15    506.45    1.14
UNSM 52296             N/A    21.28    21.35    454.33    1.00
UNSM 52296             N/A    24.20    19.80    479.16    1.22
UNSM 52296             N/A    19.83    13.50    267.71    1.47
UNSM 52300           27.06    33.28    23.06    767.44    1.44
UNSM 52300             N/A    27.71    25.84    716.03    1.07
UNSM 52300             N/A    26.00    24.72    642.72    1.05
UNSM 52300             N/A    23.35    21.97    513.00    1.06
UNSM 52300             N/A    23.95    21.56    516.36    1.11
UNSM 52300             N/A    22.10    17.38    384.10    1.27
UNSM 52300             N/A    33.82    22.72    768.39    1.49
UNSM 52300             N/A    28.42    24.95    709.08    1.14
UNSM 52300             N/A    26.33    24.12    635.08    1.09
UNSM 52300             N/A    22.90    22.43    513.65    1.02
UNSM 52300             N/A    23.89    21.68    517.94    1.10
UNSM 52300             N/A    22.50    17.82    400.95    1.26
UNSM 27845           32.73    21.59    16.33    352.56    1.32
UNSM 27845             N/A    17.34    18.53    321.31    0.94
UNSM 27845             N/A    16.90    18.99    320.93    0.89
UNSM 27845             N/A    14.55    17.52    254.92    0.83
UNSM 27845             N/A    16.07    16.88    271.26    0.95
UNSM 27845             N/A    17.52    15.23    266.83    1.15
UNSM 27845             N/A    21.13    15.94    336.81    1.33
UNSM 27845             N/A    17.44    18.54    323.34    0.94
UNSM 27845             N/A    16.80    19.06    320.21    0.88
UNSM 27845             N/A    14.54    17.16    249.51    0.85
UNSM 27845             N/A    16.80    16.99    285.43    0.99
UNSM 27845             N/A    17.40    14.79    257.35    1.18
UNSM 27864           32.21    29.65    21.35    633.03    1.39
UNSM 27864           38.32    25.71    24.99    642.49    1.03
UNSM 27864             N/A    25.48    25.54    650.76    1.00
UNSM 27864             N/A    23.15    25.30    585.70    0.92
UNSM 27864             N/A    23.90    24.02    574.08    1.00
UNSM 27864             N/A    21.80    17.22    375.40    1.27
UNSM 27864             N/A    29.90    21.14    632.09    1.41
UNSM 27864             N/A    25.33    24.37    617.29    1.04
UNSM 27864             N/A    26.96    25.18    678.85    1.07
UNSM 27864             N/A    24.41    25.48    621.97    0.96
UNSM 27864             N/A    23.55    23.65    556.96    1.00
UNSM 27864             N/A    22.30    18.41    410.54    1.21
UNSM 27865           34.13    26.05    19.71    513.45    1.32
UNSM 27865           34.06    23.67    21.90    518.37    1.08
UNSM 27865             N/A    23.18    23.44    543.34    0.99
UNSM 27865             N/A    19.12    21.94    419.49    0.87
UNSM 27865             N/A    22.03    20.84    459.11    1.06
UNSM 27865             N/A    18.43    17.12    315.52    1.08
UNSM 27685           29.85    26.94    18.93    509.97    1.42
UNSM 27865           36.17    23.94    21.40    512.32    1.12
UNSM 27865             N/A    23.17    22.17    513.68    1.05
UNSM 27865             N/A    19.49    21.66    422.15    0.90
UNSM 27865             N/A    22.18    20.68    458.68    1.07
UNSM 27865             N/A    18.54    17.44    323.34    1.06

                  Protoloph-
                   Metaloph       Pra-        Post-     Hypocone
   Spec. Num         conn       fossette    fossette      open

UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27875        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27675        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52296        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52296        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52296        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52296        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52296        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52296        connected      closed        N/A        N/A
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 52300        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27845        connected    connected    connected      +
UNSM 27845        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27845        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27845        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27845        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27845        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27845        connected    connected    connected      +
UNSM 27845        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27845        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27845        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27845        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27845        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27864        connected    connected    connected      +
UNSM 27864        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27864        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27864        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27864        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27864        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27864        connected    connected    connected      +
UNSM 27864        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27864        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27864        connected    connected    connected      +
UNSM 27864        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27864        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27865        connected    connected    connected      +
UNSM 27865        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27865        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27865        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27865        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27865        connected      closed      closed       N/A
UNSM 27685        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27865        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27865        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27865        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27865        connected      closed      closed        +
UNSM 27865        connected      closed      closed       N/A

                  Hypoconal   Nature of   Protocone   Protocone
   Spec. Num       groove     Protocone    Length       Width

UNSM 27875            -         open          6.04        3.99
UNSM 27875            -         open          6.69        4.12
UNSM 27875            -         open          6.37        4.40
UNSM 27875            -         open          5.94        4.04
UNSM 27875            -         open          6.86        4.33
UNSM 27875            +         open          6.22        3.77
UNSM 27875            -         open          5.37        3.77
UNSM 27875            -         open          6.40        4.22
UNSM 27875            -         open          5.69        4.25
UNSM 27875            -         open          5.76        3.90
UNSM 27875            -         open          6.30        3.74
UNSM 27675            +         open          6.38        4.01
UNSM 52296            +        closed         7.16        4.54
UNSM 52296            +        closed         9.45        4.53
UNSM 52296            +        closed        10.81        4.55
UNSM 52296            +        closed         8.93        4.97
UNSM 52296            +        closed         9.62        5.28
UNSM 52296           N/A       closed         7.41        3.72
UNSM 52300            +        spurred        6.89        3.92
UNSM 52300            +         open         10.28        3.77
UNSM 52300            +         open         10.44        3.86
UNSM 52300            +         open          8.89        3.64
UNSM 52300            +         open          8.90        3.67
UNSM 52300            -         open          7.94        2.68
UNSM 52300            +         open          7.16        4.00
UNSM 52300            +         open         10.67        3.54
UNSM 52300            +         open         10.25        4.01
UNSM 52300            +         open          9.41        4.33
UNSM 52300            +         open          8.69        3.81
UNSM 52300            -         open          8.48        2.65
UNSM 27845            +         open          5.72        3.48
UNSM 27845            +        closed         6.47        3.96
UNSM 27845            +        closed         6.02        3.60
UNSM 27845            +         open          6.37        3.56
UNSM 27845            +         open          5.73        3.45
UNSM 27845            -        closed         5.96        3.36
UNSM 27845            +         open          5.45        3.78
UNSM 27845            +        closed         6.04        4.01
UNSM 27845            +        closed         6.43        4.00
UNSM 27845            +         open          5.95        4.26
UNSM 27845            +         open          6.15        3.60
UNSM 27845            -        closed         5.74        3.72
UNSM 27864            +         open          6.86        4.91
UNSM 27864            +         open          8.51        5.21
UNSM 27864            +         open          8.68        5.00
UNSM 27864            +         open          7.30        4.45
UNSM 27864            +         open          7.74        5.03
UNSM 27864           N/A        open          8.22        3.93
UNSM 27864            +         open          6.66        5.10
UNSM 27864            +         open          7.33        5.05
UNSM 27864            +         open          8.20        4.66
UNSM 27864            +         open          8.50        4.90
UNSM 27864            +         open          7.85        4.27
UNSM 27864           N/A        open          8.21        4.63
UNSM 27865            +         open          5.12        4.34
UNSM 27865            +         open          5.94        4.68
UNSM 27865            +         open          6.00        4.56
UNSM 27865            +         open          7.14        4.15
UNSM 27865            +         open          7.10        3.80
UNSM 27865           N/A       closed         5.96        3.42
UNSM 27685            +         open          5.05        4.20
UNSM 27865            +         open          6.28        4.59
UNSM 27865            +         open          6.50        4.26
UNSM 27865            +         open          7.25        4.53
UNSM 27865            +         open          7.79        4.15
UNSM 27865           N/A       closed         4.71        2.35

                  Protocone     Pli        Pli        Pli
   Spec. Num         L/W        cab       prtlph      prf

UNSM 27875            1.51       1          0          0
UNSM 27875            1.62       0          0          0
UNSM 27875            1.45       1          0          0
UNSM 27875            1.47       0          0          0
UNSM 27875            1.58       0          0          3
UNSM 27875            1.65       0          0          3
UNSM 27875            1.42       0          0          0
UNSM 27875            1.52       0          0          0
UNSM 27875            1.34       0          0          0
UNSM 27875            1.48       0          0          0
UNSM 27875            1.68       0          0          2
UNSM 27675            1.59       0          0          3
UNSM 52296            1.58       1          2          2
UNSM 52296            2.09       1          3          3
UNSM 52296            2.38       1          2          1
UNSM 52296            1.80       0          1          4
UNSM 52296            1.82       1          1          3
UNSM 52296            1.99       1          1          2
UNSM 52300            1.76       2          3          5
UNSM 52300            2.73       2          2          6
UNSM 52300            2.70       1          2          4
UNSM 52300            2.44       1          0          6
UNSM 52300            2.43       1          1          9
UNSM 52300            2.96       1          5          9
UNSM 52300            1.79       2          3          5
UNSM 52300            3.01       2          1          7
UNSM 52300            2.56       1          1          7
UNSM 52300            2.17       1          1          6
UNSM 52300            2.28       1          1          7
UNSM 52300            3.20       1          4          7
UNSM 27845            1.64       1          2          3
UNSM 27845            1.63       1          0          2
UNSM 27845            1.67       1          0          2
UNSM 27845            1.78       0          0          2
UNSM 27845            1.66       0          0          2
UNSM 27845            1.77       1          0          2
UNSM 27845            1.44       1          2          3
UNSM 27845            1.51       1          1          2
UNSM 27845            1.61       1          0          2
UNSM 27845            1.40       0          0          3
UNSM 27845            1.71       0          0          2
UNSM 27845            1.54       1          0          3
UNSM 27864            1.40       1          0          1
UNSM 27864            1.63       1          0          1
UNSM 27864            1.74       1          0          1
UNSM 27864            1.64       0          0          1
UNSM 27864            1.54       0          0          1
UNSM 27864            2.09       0          0          2
UNSM 27864            1.31       1          1          1
UNSM 27864            1.45       1          0          2
UNSM 27864            1.76       1          0          1
UNSM 27864            1.73       0          0          1
UNSM 27864            1.84       0          0          1
UNSM 27864            1.75       0          0          1
UNSM 27865            1.18       0          0          3
UNSM 27865            1.27       1          0          2
UNSM 27865            1.32       1          1          2
UNSM 27865            1.72       0          0          0
UNSM 27865            1.87       0          0          2
UNSM 27865            1.74       0          0          0
UNSM 27685            1.20       0          1          2
UNSM 27865            1.37       1          0          2
UNSM 27865            1.53       0          0          2
UNSM 27865            1.60       0          0          0
UNSM 27865            1.88       0          0          2
UNSM 27865            2.00       0          0          0

                    Pli        Pli        Total
   Spec. Num        psf        hyst     plications

UNSM 27875           0          0            1
UNSM 27875           0          0            0
UNSM 27875           0          0            1
UNSM 27875           0          0            0
UNSM 27875           0          0            3
UNSM 27875           0          1            4
UNSM 27875           0          0            0
UNSM 27875           0          0            0
UNSM 27875           0          0            0
UNSM 27875           0          0            0
UNSM 27875           2          0            4
UNSM 27675           2          0            5
UNSM 52296           2          1            8
UNSM 52296           2          1           10
UNSM 52296           2          1            7
UNSM 52296           3          0            8
UNSM 52296           2          0            7
UNSM 52296          N/A        N/A           4
UNSM 52300           5          1           16
UNSM 52300           6          1           17
UNSM 52300           5          1           13
UNSM 52300           6          1           14
UNSM 52300           6          1           16
UNSM 52300           6          1           22
UNSM 52300           5          1           16
UNSM 52300           4          1           15
UNSM 52300           6          1           16
UNSM 52300           5          1           14
UNSM 52300           5          1           15
UNSM 52300           7          0           19
UNSM 27845           1          0            7
UNSM 27845           1          0            4
UNSM 27845           2          0            5
UNSM 27845           1          0            3
UNSM 27845           1          0            3
UNSM 27845           1          0            4
UNSM 27845           2          0            8
UNSM 27845           1          0            5
UNSM 27845           2          0            5
UNSM 27845           2          0            5
UNSM 27845           1          0            3
UNSM 27845           1          0            5
UNSM 27864           1          0            3
UNSM 27864           1          0            3
UNSM 27864           1          0            3
UNSM 27864           1          0            2
UNSM 27864           1          0            2
UNSM 27864           1         N/A           3
UNSM 27864           1          0            4
UNSM 27864           1          0            4
UNSM 27864           1          0            3
UNSM 27864           1          0            2
UNSM 27864           0          0            1
UNSM 27864           1         N/A           2
UNSM 27865           1          0            4
UNSM 27865           1          0            4
UNSM 27865           1          0            5
UNSM 27865           1          0            1
UNSM 27865           1          0            3
UNSM 27865           0          0            0
UNSM 27685           1          1            5
UNSM 27865           1          1            5
UNSM 27865           1          0            3
UNSM 27865           1          0            1
UNSM 27865           1          0            3
UNSM 27865           0          0            0

                                        Comments
   Spec. Num                       (Measumments in mm)

UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed, Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed, Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed, Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed, Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed. Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed, Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed, Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed. Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed. Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed, Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27875        Full skull, half crushed, Labled as Calippus
UNSM 27675        Full skull, half crushed, Labled as Calippus
UNSM 52296        Full skull, half exposed; weak DPOF
UNSM 52296        Full skull, half exposed; weak DPOF
UNSM 52296        Full skull, half exposed; weak DPOF
UNSM 52296        Full skull, half exposed; weak DPOF
UNSM 52296        Full skull, half exposed; weak DPOF
UNSM 52296        Full skull, half exposed; weak DPOF; tooth
UNSM 52300        Full skull, well defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, wall defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, well defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, well defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, well defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, wall defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, well defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, well defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, well defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, well defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, well defined DPOF
UNSM 52300        Full skull, well defined DPOF
UNSM 27845        hypoconual lake
UNSM 27845        hypoconual lake
UNSM 27845        hypoconual lake
UNSM 27845        hypoconual lake
UNSM 27845        hypoconual lake
UNSM 27845
UNSM 27845        hypoconual lake
UNSM 27845        hypoconual lake
UNSM 27845        hypoconual lake
UNSM 27845        hypoconual lake
UNSM 27845        hypoconual lake
UNSM 27845
UNSM 27864        hypoconual lake, both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        hypoconual lake, both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        hypoconual lake, both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        hypoconual lake, both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        hypoconual lake, both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27864        both fossas present in skull
UNSM 27865        hypoconual lake. Originally Dinohippus.
UNSM 27865        hypoconual lake. Originally Dinohippus.
UNSM 27865        hypoconual lake. Originally Dinohippus.
UNSM 27865        Originally Dinohippus.
UNSM 27865        Originally Dinohippus.
UNSM 27865        little wear. Originally Dinohippus
UNSM 27685        hypoconual lake. Originally Dinohippus
UNSM 27865        hypoconual lake. Originally Dinohippus
UNSM 27865        hypoconual lake. Originally Dinohippus
UNSM 27865        Originally Dinohippus.
UNSM 27865        Originally Dinohippus.
UNSM 27865        little wear. Originally Dinohippus.

Key: Appendices depict measurements of upper check teeth (in mm) of
specimens from the Ashfall Fossil Beds (Appendix A) and Mission Pit
(Appendix B) samples. + and - indicate presence or absence of
characteristics (e.g. open hypocone). Numbers expressed without
decimal value indicate presence and number of plications. N/A
indicates a feature which was broken and not available for
measurement. Mesostyle Crwn hght, Mesostyle Crown Height; L x W,
Length times Width; L / W, Length divided by Width;
Protoloph-Metaloph conn, Protoloph-Metaloph connected; Pli cab,
Pli-caballin; Pli prtlph, Pli-protoloph; Pli prf, Pli-prefossette;
Pli psf, Pli-postfossette; Pli hyst, Pli- hypostyle.

Appendix B. Measurements of Teeth From Mission Pit

                  Field
   Spec. Num       Num            Taxon          Tooth   Locality

SDSM 07887 AP      N/A           Equidae          M2      V5314
SDSM 6748          N/A        Neohipparion        P3      V5314
SDSM 5330          N/A      c.f Protohipppus      P3      V5314
SDSM 6746          N/A         Pliohippus         P2      V5314
SDSM 727           N/A       Pseudhipparion       P4      V5314
SDSM 579A          N/A      c.f. Protohipppus     P4      V5314
SDSM 577K          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 577F          N/A          Calippus          M2      V5314
SDSM 577L          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 577B          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 577I          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 577A          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 577J          N/A       Pseudhipparion       P4      VS314
SDSM 577N          N/A       Pseudhipparion       P4      V5314
SDSM 577FU         N/A        c.f. Calippus       P3      V5314
SDSM 577E          N/A        c.f. Calippus       M1      V5314
SDSM 577Q          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M3      V5314
SDSM 577P03        N/A          Calippus          P2      V5314
SDSM 577K1         N/A       Pseudhipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 577Q1         N/A          Calippus          M1      VS314
SDSM 577M          N/A       Pseudhipparion       P3      VS314
SDSM 577S          N/A          Calippus          M1      VS314
SDSM 577T          N/A       Pseudhipparion       P3      VS314
SDSM 577O          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 577G          N/A       Pseudbipparton       M1      VS314
SDSM 577           N/A       Pseudhipparion       P4      VS314
SDSM 577R          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 5711          N/A         Pliohippus         P3      VS314
SDSM 5711A         N/A         Pliohippus         P2      V5314
SDSM 5711B         N/A         Pliohippus         P3      V5314
SDSM 5711C         N/A         Pliohippus         P3      V5314
SDSM 5711D         N/A         Pliohippus         M2      V5314
SDSM 5711E         N/A         Pliohippus         M1      VS314
SDSM 6026 2-46     N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      VS314
SDSM 6026 2-54     N/A       Pseudhipparion       M3      V5314
SDSM 6026 2-85     N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 6026 2-39A    N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 6026 2-39B    N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 6026 2-50     N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 6855          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 6855A         N/A       Pseudhipparion       P2      V5314
SDSM 53217B        N/A        Neohipparion        P4      V5314
SDSM 53217-16      N/A     c.f. Cormohipparion    M1      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A        Neohipparion        M3      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A       Cormohipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A       Cormohipparion       M3      V5314
SDSM 53217 P-10    N/A        Neohipparion        P2      V5314
SDSM 53217 P-9     N/A        Neohipparion        P2      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A        Neohipparion        DP      V5314
SDSM 53217 P-07    N/A        Neohipparion        P2      V5314
SDSM 53217-3       N/a        Neohipparion        M2      V5314
SDSM 53217A        N/A       Cormohipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 63217-20      N/A       Cormohipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 53217-15      N/A       Cormohipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 53217P-04     N/A       Cormohipparion       P2      V5314
SDSM 53217-40      N/A      c.f. Neohipparion     P3      V5314
SDSM 53217-14      N/A        Neohipparion        P4      V5314
SDSM 53217-19      N/A        Neohipparion        P3      V5314
SDSM 53217-06      N/A       Cormohipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 53217-11      N/A       Cormohipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A       Cormohipparion       P2      V5314
SDSM 53217-5       N/A       Cormohipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 53217-800     N/A       Cormohipparion       P2      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A        Neohipparion        M1      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A       Cormohipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 53217-57      N/A       Cormohipparion       P4      V5314
SDSM 531217ZK      N/A        Neohipparion        M2      V5314
SDSM 631217AA      N/A       Cormohipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 6748          N/A        Neohipparion        P3      V5314
SDSM 53217B        N/A        Neohipparion        P4      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A        Neohipparion        M3      V5314
SDSM 53217 P-10    N/A        Neohipparion        P2      V5314
SDSM 53217 P-9     N/A        Neohipparion        P2      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A        Neohipparion        DP      V5314
SDSM 53217 P-07    N/A        Neohipparion        P2      V5314
SDSM 53217-3       N/A        Neohipparion        M2      V5314
SDSM 53217-40      N/A      c.f. Neohipparion     P3      V5314
SDSM 53217-14      N/A        Neohipparion        P4      V5314
SDSM 53217-19      N/A        Neohipparion        P3      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A        Neohipparion        M1      V5314
SDSM 531217ZK      N/A        Neohipparion        M2      V5314
SDSM 5330          N/A      c.f. Protohippus      P3      V5314
SDSM 579A          N/A      c.f. Protohippus      P4      V5314
SDSM 6746          N/A         Pliohippus         P2      V5314
SDSM 5711          N/A         Pliohippus         P3      V5314
SDSM 5711A         N/A         Pliohippus         P2      V5314
SDSM 5711B         N/A         Pliohippus         P3      V5314
SDSM 5711C         N/A         Pliohippus         P3      V5314
SDSM 5711D         N/A         Pliohippus         M2      V5314
SDSM 5711E         N/A         Pliohippus         M1      V5314
SDSM 727           N/A       Pseudhipparion       P4      V5314
SDSM 577K          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 577L          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 577B          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 577I          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 577A          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 577J          N/A       Pseudhipparion       P4      V5314
SDSM 577N          N/A       Pseudhipparion       P4      V5314
SDSM 577Q          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M3      V5314
SDSM 577K1         N/A       Pseudhipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 577M          N/A       Pseudhipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 577T          N/A       Pseudhipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 577O          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 577G          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 577           N/A       Pseudhipparion       P4      V5314
SDSM 577R          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 6026 2-46     N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 6026 2-54     N/A       Pseudhipparion       M3      V5314
SDSM 6026 2-85     N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 6026 2-39A    N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 6026 2-39B    N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 6026 2-50     N/A       Pseudhipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 6855          N/A       Pseudhipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 6855A         N/A       Pseudhipparion       P2      V5314
SDSM 577F          N/A          Calippus          M2      V5314
SDSM 577FU         N/A        c.f. Calippus       P3      V5314
SDSM 577E          N/A        c.f. Calippus       M1      V5314
SDSM 577P03        N/A          Calippus          P2      V5314
SDSM 577Q1         N/A          Calippus          M1      V5314
SDSM 577S          N/A          Calippus          M1      V5314
SDSM 53217-16      N/A     c.f. Cormohipparion    M1      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A       Cormohipparion       M2      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A       Cormohipparion       M3      V5314
SDSM 53217A        N/A       Cormohipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 53217-20      N/A       Cormohipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 53217-15      N/A       Cormohipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 53217P-04     N/A       Cormohipparion       P2      V5314
SDSM 53217-06      N/A       Cormohipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 53217-11      N/A       Cormohipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A       Cormohipparion       P2      V5314
SDSM 53217-5       N/A       Cormohipparion       P3      V5314
SDSM 53217-80D     N/A       Cormohipparion       P2      V5314
SDSM 53217         N/A       Cormohipparion       M1      V5314
SDSM 53217-57      N/A       Cormohipparion       P4      V5314
SDSM531217AA       N/A       Cormohipparion       M1      V5314

                         Mesostyle
   Spec. Num      Side   Crwn hght   Length   Width     L x W     LAV

SDSM 07887 AP      L        28.57    19.02    15.67    298.04    1.21
SDSM 6748          L        45.03    23.36    23.42    547.09    1.00
SDSM 5330          R        23.28    16.75    21.46    402.38    0.87
SDSM 6746          L        20.04    30.11    23.44    705.78    1.28
SDSM 727           L        40.65    19.86    15.15    300.88    1.31
SDSM 579A          R        47.41    23.15    22.39    518.33    1.03
SDSM 577K          L        27.03    15.75    16.19    255.15    0.97
SDSM 577F          R        34.65    18.06    17.92    323.64    1.01
SDSM 577L          R        25.87    17.37    19.67    341.67    0.88
SDSM 577B          L        40.45    17.67    14.49    256.04    1.22
SDSM 577I          L        35.51    16.15    16.66    269.06    0.97
SDSM 577A          L        33.66    16.76    18.83    315.59    0.89
SDSM 577J          L        31.88    16.24    17.98    292.00    0.90
SDSM 577N          R        23.34    17.33    19.19    332.56    0.90
SDSM 577FU         R        40.06    19.39    15.60    302.48    1.24
SDSM 577E          L        40.48    18.61    15.09    280.82    1.23
SDSM 577Q          L        24.03    14.92    14.26    212.76    1.05
SDSM 577P03        L        19.73    19.63    16.19    317.81    1.21
SDSM 577K1         L        27.42    18.12    18.27    331.05    0.99
SDSM 577Q1         L        23.66    15.51    16.64    258.09    0.93
SDSM 577M          L        28.02    17.68    18.74    331.32    0.94
SDSM 577S          B         18.2    16.00    19.02    304.32    0.04
SDSM 577T          R        27.25    15.49    14.65    226.93    1.06
SDSM 577O          L        41.14    20.79    18.23    379.00    1.14
SDSM 577G          R        40.66    20.36    17.06    347.75    1.19
SDSM 577           P        29.09     N/A      N/A       N/A      N/A
SDSM 577R          R        37.18    19.02    17.43    331.52    1.09
SDSM 5711          L        22.99    23.21    24.67    572.59    0.94
SDSM 5711A         L        37.48    27.03    21.75    587.90    1.24
SDSM 5711B         R        32.47    21.85    23.26    508.23    0.94
SDSM 5711C         R        54.28    26.43    28.76    817.65    0.99
SDSM 5711D         L        53.89    27.81    21.44    596.25    1.30
SDSM 5711E         L        45.98    26.48    23.51    622.54    1.13
SDSM 6026 2-46     L        31.75    17.96    18.45    331.36    0.97
SDSM 6026 2-54     R        33.34    15.29    13.15    201.06    1.16
SDSM 6026 2-85     R        34.69     N/A     20.26      N/A      N/A
SDSM 6026 2-39A    L        10.78    14.23    17.28    245.89    0.82
SDSM 6026 2-39B    L        11.77    16.57    15.39    255.01    1.08
SDSM 6026 2-50     R        26.33    17.40    15.80    274.92    1.10
SDSM 6855          L        36.84    17.61    17.62    310.29    1.00
SDSM 6855A         R        23.71    21.09    16.54    348.83    1.28
SDSM 53217B        R        45.68    24.74    25.31    626.17    0.98
SDSM 53217-16      L        48.17    25.80    25.39    655.06    1.02
SDSM 53217         L        27.22    22.90    21.01    481.13    1.09
SDSM 53217         L        49.91    25.75    19.97    514.23    1.29
SDSM 53217         L        30.77    22.69    19.14    434.29    1.19
SDSM 53217 P-10    L        38.04    27.93    20.83    581.78    1.34
SDSM 53217 P-9     L        27.26    27.22    20.59    560.46    1.32
SDSM 53217         L        16.47    27.11    19.84    537.86    1.37
SDSM 53217 P-07    R        27.28    26.44    20.10    531.44    1.32
SDSM 53217-3       R        42.96    21.86    22.17    484.64    0.99
SDSM 53217A        L        44.07    22.70    21.46    487.14    1.06
SDSM 63217-20      L        32.18    23.04    26.53    611.25    0.87
SDSM 53217-15      L        32.92    24.88    25.46    633.44    0.98
SDSM 53217P-04     L        38.88    29.60    21.30    630.48    1.39
SDSM 53217-40      R        47.11    25.64    26.13    669.97    0.98
SDSM 53217-14      P         40.6    23.93    24.12    577.19    0.99
SDSM 53217-19      L        40.28    22.91    21.90    501.73    1.05
SDSM 53217-06      L        47.78    25.78    24.55    632.90    1.05
SDSM 53217-11      L        44.53    26.64    24.43    650.82    1.09
SDSM 53217         L        36.81    32.51    24.35    791.62    1.34
SDSM 53217-5       R        32.84    24.45    24.00    586.80    1.02
SDSM 53217-800     L        29.21    26.93    22.00    592.46    1.22
SDSM 53217         R        35.33    22.61    24.53    554.62    0.92
SDSM 53217         L        39.52    23.52    20.05    471.58    1.17
SDSM 53217-57      L        39.45    27.17    25.66    697.18    1.06
SDSM 531217ZK      R        24.75    24.38    21.88    533.43    1.11
SDSM 631217AA      L         44.2    20.10    21.38    429.74    0.94
SDSM 6748          L        45.03    23.36    23.42    547.09    1.00
SDSM 53217B        P        45.88    24.74    25.31    626.17    0.98
SDSM 53217         L        27.22    22.90    21.01    481.13    1.09
SDSM 53217 P-10    L        38.04    27.93    20.83    581.78    1.34
SDSM 53217 P-9     L        27.26    27.22    20.59    560.46    1.32
SDSM 53217         L        16.47    27.11    19.84    537.86    1.37
SDSM 53217 P-07    R        27.28    26.44    20.10    531.44    1.32
SDSM 53217-3       R        42.96    21.86    22.17    484.64    0.99
SDSM 53217-40      R        47.11    25.64    26.13    669.97    0.98
SDSM 53217-14      R         40.6    23.93    24.12    577.19    0.99
SDSM 53217-19      L        40.28    22.91    21.90    501.73    1.05
SDSM 53217         R        35.33    22.61    24.53    554.62    0.92
SDSM 531217ZK      R        24.75    24.38    21.88    533.43    1.11
SDSM 5330          R        23.28    18.75    21.46    402.38    0.87
SDSM 579A          R        47.41    23.15    22.39    518.33    1.03
SDSM 6746          L        20.04    30.11    23.44    705.78    1.28
SDSM 5711          L        22.99    23.21    24.67    572.59    0.94
SDSM 5711A         L        37.48    27.03    21.75    587.90    1.24
SDSM 5711B         R        32.47    21.85    23.26    508.23    0.94
SDSM 5711C         R        54.28    28.43    28.76    817.65    0.99
SDSM 5711D         L        53.89    27.81    21.44    596.25    1.30
SDSM 5711E         L        45.98    26.48    23.51    622.54    1.13
SDSM 727           L        40.65    19.86    15.15    300.88    1.31
SDSM 577K          L        27.08    15.76    16.19    255.15    0.97
SDSM 577L          R        25.87    17.37    19.67    341.67    0.86
SDSM 577B          L        40.45    17.67    14.49    256.04    1.22
SDSM 577I          L        35.51    16.15    16.66    269.06    0.97
SDSM 577A          L        33.66    16.76    18.83    315.59    0.89
SDSM 577J          L        31.88    16.24    17.98    292.00    0.90
SDSM 577N          R        23.34    17.33    19.19    332.56    0.90
SDSM 577Q          L        24.03    14.92    14.26    212.76    1.05
SDSM 577K1         L        27.42    18.12    18.27    331.05    0.99
SDSM 577M          L        28.02    17.68    18.74    331.32    0.94
SDSM 577T          R        27.25    15.49    14.65    226.93    1.06
SDSM 577O          L        41.14    20.79    18.23    379.00    1.14
SDSM 577G          R        40.66    20.36    17.08    347.75    1.19
SDSM 577           R        29.09     N/A      N/A       N/A      N/A
SDSM 577R          R        37.18    19.02    17.43    331.52    1.09
SDSM 6026 2-46     L        31.75    17.96    18.45    331.36    0.97
SDSM 6026 2-54     R        33.34    15.29    13.15    201.06    1.16
SDSM 6026 2-85     R        34.69     N/A     20.26      N/A      N/A
SDSM 6026 2-39A    L        10.78    14.23    17.28    245.89    0.82
SDSM 6026 2-39B    L        11.77    16.57    15.39    255.01    1.08
SDSM 6026 2-50     R        26.33    17.40    15.80    274.92    1.10
SDSM 6855          L        36.84    17.61    17.62    310.29    1.00
SDSM 6855A         R        23.71    21.09    16.54    348.83    1.28
SDSM 577F          R        34.65    18.06    17.92    323.64    1.01
SDSM 577FU         R        40.06    19.39    15.60    302.48    1.24
SDSM 577E          L        40.48    18.61    15.09    280.82    1.23
SDSM 577P03        L        19.73    19.63    16.19    317.81    1.21
SDSM 577Q1         L        23.86    15.51    16.64    258.09    0.93
SDSM 577S          R         18.2    16.00    19.02    304.32    0.84
SDSM 53217-16      L        48.17    25.80    25.39    655.06    1.02
SDSM 53217         L        49.91    25.75    19.97    514.23    1.29
SDSM 53217         L        30.77    22.69    19.14    434.29    1.19
SDSM 53217A        L        44.07    22.70    21.46    487.14    1.06
SDSM 53217-20      L        32.18    23.04    26.53    611.25    0.67
SDSM 53217-15      L        32.92    24.88    25.46    633.44    0.98
SDSM 53217P-04     L        38.88    29.60    21.30    630.48    1.39
SDSM 53217-06      L        47.78    25.78    24.55    632.90    1.05
SDSM 53217-11      L        44.53    26.64    24.43    650.82    1.09
SDSM 53217         R        36.81    32.51    24.35    791.62    1.34
SDSM 53217-5       R        32.84    24.45    24.00    586.80    1.02
SDSM 53217-80D     L        29.21    26.93    22.00    592.46    1.22
SDSM 53217         L        33.52    23.52    20.05    471.58    1.17
SDSM 53217-57      L        39.45    27.17    25.66    697.18    1.06
SDSM531217AA       L         44.2    20.10    21.38    429.74    0.94

                  Protoloph-
                   Metaloph       Pra-        Post-     Hypocone
   Spec. Num         conn       fossette    fossette      open

SDSM 07887 AP     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6748         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 5330         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6746         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 727          connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 579A         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577K         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577F         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577L         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577B         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577I         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577A         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577J         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577N         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577FU        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577E         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577Q         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577P03       connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577K1        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577Q1        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577M         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577S         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577T         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577O         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577G         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577             N/A          N/A          N/A        N/A
SDSM 577R         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 5711         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 5711A        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 5711B        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 5711C        connected      closed      closed       N/A
SDSM 5711D           N/A          N/A          N/A         +
SDSM 5711E           N/A         closed      closed       N/A
SDSM 6026 2-46    connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6026 2-54    connected      closed      closed       N/A
SDSM 6026 2-85    connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6026 2-39A   connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6026 2-39B   connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6026 2-50    connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6855         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6855A        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217B       connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-16     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217 P-10   connected    connected    connected      +
SDSM 53217 P-9    connected    connected    connected      +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        -
SDSM 53217 P-07   connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-3      connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217A       connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 63217-20     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-15     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217P-04    connected    connected    connected      +
SDSM 53217-40     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-14     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-19     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-06     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-11     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-5      connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-800    connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-57     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 531217ZK     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 631217AA     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6748         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217B       connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217 P-10   connected    connected    connected      +
SDSM 53217 P-9    connected    connected    connected      +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        -
SDSM 53217 P-07   connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-3      connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-40     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-14     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-19     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 531217ZK     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 5330         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 579A         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6746         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 5711         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 5711A        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 5711B        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 5711C        connected      closed      closed       N/A
SDSM 5711D           N/A          N/A          N/A         +
SDSM 5711E           N/A         closed      closed       N/A
SDSM 727          connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577K         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577L         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577B         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577I         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577A         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577J         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577N         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577Q         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577K1        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577M         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577T         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577O         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577G         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577             N/A          N/A          N/A        N/A
SDSM 577R         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6026 2-46    connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6026 2-54    connected      closed      closed       N/A
SDSM 6026 2-85    connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6026 2-39A   connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6026 2-39B   connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6026 2-50    connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6855         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 6855A        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577F         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577FU        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577E         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577P03       connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577Q1        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 577S         connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-16     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217A       connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-20     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-15     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217P-04    connected    connected    connected      +
SDSM 53217-06     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-11     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-5      connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-80D    connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217        connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM 53217-57     connected      closed      closed        +
SDSM531217AA      connected      closed      closed        +

                  Hypoconal   Nature of   Protocone   Protocone
   Spec. Num       groove     Protocone    Length       Width

SDSM 07887 AP         +        closed         4.69        3.23
SDSM 6748             +         open          5.93        4.20
SDSM 5330             -         open          6.15        4.11
SDSM 6746             -         open          6.89        6.41
SDSM 727              +        closed         6.32        2.75
SDSM 579A             +         open          7.28        4.04
SDSM 577K             +        spurred        4.41        3.12
SDSM 577F             +         open          7.18        3.83
SDSM 577L             +        closed         6.26        4.32
SDSM 577B             +        spurred        7.49        3.16
SDSM 577I             +        closed         5.47        2.72
SDSM 577A             +        closed         6.69        3.41
SDSM 577J             +        closed         5.91        3.66
SDSM 577N             +        closed         5.99        3.11
SDSM 577FU            +        closed         8.05        3.10
SDSM 577E             +        spurred        8.04        3.13
SDSM 577Q             +        closed         6.82        3.25
SDSM 577P03           +         open          6.16        4.57
SDSM 577K1            +        closed         6.85        4.00
SDSM 577Q1            +         open          5.70        3.09
SDSM 577M             +        closed         5.74        4.39
SDSM 577S             +         open          6.15        4.30
SDSM 577T             +        closed         7.74        3.62
SDSM 577O             +          N/A           N/A         N/A
SDSM 577G             +        closed         4.99        2.79
SDSM 577             N/A         N/A           N/A         N/A
SDSM 577R             +        closed         7.31        3.33
SDSM 5711             +         open          7.14        3.97
SDSM 5711A            +         open          5.32        4.16
SDSM 5711B            +         open          8.51        5.44
SDSM 5711C           N/A        open         10.55        4.99
SDSM 5711D            +          N/A           N/A         N/A
SDSM 5711E           N/A        open          9.47        4.14
SDSM 6026 2-46        +         dosed         6.48        3.74
SDSM 6026 2-54       N/A       closed         5.98        2.69
SDSM 6026 2-85        +        closed         5.98        3.69
SDSM 6026 2-39A       +         open          6.76        4.57
SDSM 6026 2-39B       +         open          6.24        3.96
SDSM 6026 2-50        +        spurred        5.12        3.35
SDSM 6855             +         open          7.31        3.39
SDSM 6855A            +         open          4.85        4.00
SDSM 53217B           +        spurred        9.01        4.39
SDSM 53217-16         +        closed        11.51        4.34
SDSM 53217            +        closed         8.92        4.31
SDSM 53217            +        closed         8.78        3.49
SDSM 53217            +         doted         7.24        3.57
SDSM 53217 P-10       +         open          4.99        4.32
SDSM 53217 P-9        +         open          6.72        4.46
SDSM 53217            +        closed         6.16        3.73
SDSM 53217 P-07       +        closed         7.17        3.75
SDSM 53217-3          +        closed         9.65        3.75
SDSM 53217A           +        closed         8.32        2.89
SDSM 63217-20         +        closed         8.53        5.02
SDSM 53217-15         +        closed         7.50        3.82
SDSM 53217P-04        +        closed         7.06        4.61
SDSM 53217-40         +        closed         8.67        3.88
SDSM 53217-14         +        closed         3.50        3.91
SDSM 53217-19         +        closed         8.12        4.03
SDSM 53217-06         +        closed         8.89        4.74
SDSM 53217-11         +        closed         9.66        3.54
SDSM 53217            +        closed         7.52        4.11
SDSM 53217-5          +        closed         7.04        4.87
SDSM 53217-800        +        closed         6.56        4.38
SDSM 53217            +        closed         8.26        3.93
SDSM 53217            +        closed         7.33        3.38
SDSM 53217-57         +        spurred        7.20        3.06
SDSM 531217ZK         +        closed         8.35        4.95
SDSM 631217AA         +         open          7.22        4.60
SDSM 6748             +         open          5.93        4.20
SDSM 53217B           +        spurred        9.01        4.39
SDSM 53217            +        closed         8.92        4.31
SDSM 53217 P-10       +         open          4.99        4.32
SDSM 53217 P-9        +         open          6.72        4.46
SDSM 53217            +        closed         6.16        3.73
SDSM 53217 P-07       +         dosed         7.17        3.75
SDSM 53217-3          +        closed         9.65        3.75
SDSM 53217-40         +         dosed         8.67        3.88
SDSM 53217-14         +        closed         8.50        3.91
SDSM 53217-19         +        closed         8.12        4.03
SDSM 53217            +        closed         8.26        3.93
SDSM 531217ZK         +        closed         8.35        4.95
SDSM 5330             -         open          6.15        4.11
SDSM 579A             +         open          7.28        4.04
SDSM 6746             -         open          6.89        6.41
SDSM 5711             +         open          7.14        3.97
SDSM 5711A            +         open          5.32        4.16
SDSM 5711B            +         open          8.51        5.44
SDSM 5711C           N/A        open         10.55        4.99
SDSM 5711D            +          N/A           N/A         N/A
SDSM 5711E           N/A        open          9.47        4.14
SDSM 727              +        closed         6.32        2.75
SDSM 577K             +        spurred        4.41        3.12
SDSM 577L             +        closed         6.26        4.32
SDSM 577B             +        Spurred        7.49        3.16
SDSM 577I             +        closed         5.47        2.72
SDSM 577A             +        closed         6.69        3.41
SDSM 577J             +        closed         5.91        3.66
SDSM 577N             +        closed         5.99        3.11
SDSM 577Q             +        closed         6.82        3.25
SDSM 577K1            +         dosed         6.85        4.00
SDSM 577M             +        closed         5.74        4.39
SDSM 577T             +        closed         7.74        3.62
SDSM 577O             +          N/A           N/A         N/A
SDSM 577G             +        closed         4.99        2.79
SDSM 577             N/A         N/A           N/A         N/A
SDSM 577R             +        closed         7.31        3.33
SDSM 6026 2-46        +        closed         6.48        3.74
SDSM 6026 2-54       N/A       closed         5.98        2.69
SDSM 6026 2-85        +        closed         5.98        3.69
SDSM 6026 2-39A       +         open          6.76        4.57
SDSM 6026 2-39B       +         open          6.24        3.96
SDSM 6026 2-50        +        spurred        5.12        3.35
SDSM 6855             +         open          7.31        3.39
SDSM 6855A            +         open          4.85        4.00
SDSM 577F             +         open          7.18        3.83
SDSM 577FU            +        closed         8.05        3.10
SDSM 577E             +        spurred        8.04        3.13
SDSM 577P03           +         open          6.16        4.57
SDSM 577Q1            +         open          5.70        3.09
SDSM 577S             +         open          6.15        4.30
SDSM 53217-16         +        closed        11.51        4.34
SDSM 53217            +        closed         8.78        3.49
SDSM 53217            +        closed         7.24        3.57
SDSM 53217A           +        closed         8.32        2.89
SDSM 53217-20         +        closed         6.53        5.02
SDSM 53217-15         +        closed         7.50        3.82
SDSM 53217P-04        +        closed         7.06        4.61
SDSM 53217-06         +        closed         8.89        4.74
SDSM 53217-11         +        closed         9.66        3.54
SDSM 53217            +        closed         7.52        4.11
SDSM 53217-5          +        closed         7.04        4.87
SDSM 53217-80D        +        closed         6.56        4.38
SDSM 53217            +        closed         7.33        3.38
SDSM 53217-57         +        spurred        7.20        3.06
SDSM531217AA          +         open          7.22        4.60

                  Protocone     Pli        Pli        Pli
   Spec. Num         LAV        cab       prtlph      prf

SDSM 07887 AP         1.45       0          0          0
SDSM 6748             1.41       0          0          3
SDSM 5330             1.50       0          0          0
SDSM 6746             1.07       0          0          1
SDSM 727              2.30       1          1          3
SDSM 579A             1.80       1          1          0
SDSM 577K             1.41       0          0          3
SDSM 577F             1.87       1          0          6
SDSM 577L             1.45       1          0          2
SDSM 577B             2.37       1          0          2
SDSM 577I             2.01       1          0          3
SDSM 577A             1.96       1          1          4
SDSM 577J             1.61       1          0          5
SDSM 577N             1.93       1          1          3
SDSM 577FU            2.60       1          0          5
SDSM 577E             2.57       2          0          6
SDSM 577Q             2.10       1          0          3
SDSM 577P03           1.35       1          0          2
SDSM 577K1            1.71       1          0          3
SDSM 577Q1            1.84       0          0          2
SDSM 577M             1.31       1          1          4
SDSM 577S             1.43       0          0          2
SDSM 577T             2.14       0          0          2
SDSM 577O              N/A      N/A        N/A        N/A
SDSM 577G             1.79      N/A        N/A        N/A
SDSM 577               N/A      N/A        N/A        N/A
SDSM 577R             2.20       0          0          3
SDSM 5711             1.60       2          0          3
SDSM 5711A            1.28       0          1          1
SDSM 5711B            1.56       1          0          1
SDSM 5711C            2.11       1          0          1
SDSM 5711D             N/A      N/A        N/A        N/A
SDSM 5711E            2.29       1          0         N/A
SDSM 6026 2-46        1.73       1          2          3
SDSM 6026 2-54        2.22       1          1          1
SDSM 6026 2-85        1.62       1          1          2
SDSM 6026 2-39A       1.48       0          0          1
SDSM 6026 2-39B       1.58       0          0          2
SDSM 6026 2-50        1.53       1          1          3
SDSM 6855             2.16       1          0          3
SDSM 6855A            1.21       1          2          3
SDSM 53217B           2.05       2          0          5
SDSM 53217-16         2.65       2          3          a
SDSM 53217            2.07       1          0          3
SDSM 53217            2.52       1          1          7
SDSM 53217            2.03       2          1          7
SDSM 53217 P-10       1.16       1          1          2
SDSM 53217 P-9        1.51       1          0          3
SDSM 53217            1.65       1          0          4
SDSM 53217 P-07       1.91       1          1          2
SDSM 53217-3          2.57       1          1          3
SDSM 53217A           2.88       2          4          8
SDSM 63217-20         1.70       2          0          2
SDSM 53217-15         1.96       2          5          7
SDSM 53217P-04        1.53       2          4          5
SDSM 53217-40         2.23       2          1          5
SDSM 53217-14         2.17       0          0          2
SDSM 53217-19         2.01       1          1          3
SDSM 53217-06         1.88       1          1          4
SDSM 53217-11         2.73       2          2          5
SDSM 53217            1.83       3          5          6
SDSM 53217-5          1.45       2          3          7
SDSM 53217-800        1.50       1          5          4
SDSM 53217            2.10       1          0          2
SDSM 53217            2.17       1          1         10
SDSM 53217-57         2.35       1          3          7
SDSM 531217ZK         1.69       1          0          2
SDSM 631217AA         1.57       1          4          5
SDSM 6748             1.41       0          0          3
SDSM 53217B           2.05       2          0          5
SDSM 53217            2.07       1          0          3
SDSM 53217 P-10       1.16       1          1          2
SDSM 53217 P-9        1.51       1          0          3
SDSM 53217            1.65       1          0          4
SDSM 53217 P-07       1.91       1          1          2
SDSM 53217-3          2.57       1          1          3
SDSM 53217-40         2.23       2          1          5
SDSM 53217-14         2.17       0          0          2
SDSM 53217-19         2.01       1          1          3
SDSM 53217            2.10       1          0          2
SDSM 531217ZK         1.69       1          0          2
SDSM 5330             1.50       0          0          0
SDSM 579A             1.80       1          1          0
SDSM 6746             1.07       0          0          1
SDSM 5711             1.80       2          0          3
SDSM 5711A            1.28       0          1          1
SDSM 5711B            1.56       1          0          1
SDSM 5711C            2.11       1          0          1
SDSM 5711D             N/A      N/A        N/A        N/A
SDSM 5711E            2.29       1          0         N/A
SDSM 727              2.30       1          1          3
SDSM 577K             1.41       0          0          3
SDSM 577L             1.45       1          0          2
SDSM 577B             2.37       1          0          2
SDSM 577I             2.01       1          0          3
SDSM 577A             1.96       1          1          4
SDSM 577J             1.61       1          0          5
SDSM 577N             1.93       1          1          3
SDSM 577Q             2.10       1          0          3
SDSM 577K1            1.71       1          0          3
SDSM 577M             1.31       1          1          4
SDSM 577T             2.14       0          0          2
SDSM 577O              N/A      N/A        N/A        N/A
SDSM 577G             1.79      N/A        N/A        N/A
SDSM 577               N/A      N/A        N/A        N/A
SDSM 577R             2.20       0          0          3
SDSM 6026 2-46        1.73       1          2          3
SDSM 6026 2-54        2.22       1          1          1
SDSM 6026 2-85        1.62       1          1          2
SDSM 6026 2-39A       1.48       0          0          1
SDSM 6026 2-39B       1.58       0          0          2
SDSM 6026 2-50        1.53       1          1          3
SDSM 6855             2.16       1          0          3
SDSM 6855A            1.21       1          2          3
SDSM 577F             1.87       1          0          6
SDSM 577FU            2.60       1          0          5
SDSM 577E             2.57       2          0          6
SDSM 577P03           1.35       1          0          2
SDSM 577Q1            1.84       0          0          2
SDSM 577S             1.43       0          0          2
SDSM 53217-16         2.65       2          3          8
SDSM 53217            2.52       1          1          7
SDSM 53217            2.03       2          1          7
SDSM 53217A           2.68       2          4          8
SDSM 53217-20         1.70       2          0          2
SDSM 53217-15         1.96       2          5          7
SDSM 53217P-04        1.53       2          4          5
SDSM 53217-06         1.88       1          1          4
SDSM 53217-11         2.73       2          2          5
SDSM 53217            1.83       3          5          6
SDSM 53217-5          1.45       2          3          7
SDSM 53217-80D        1.50       1          5          4
SDSM 53217            2.17       1          1         10
SDSM 53217-57         2.35       1          3          7
SDSM531217AA          1.57       1          4          5

                    Pli        Pli        Total
   Spec. Num        psf        hyst     plications

SDSM 07887 AP        1          0           1
SDSM 6748            4          1           8
SDSM 5330            0          0           0
SDSM 6746            1          0           2
SDSM 727             3          2          10
SDSM 579A            1          0           3
SDSM 577K            2          0           5
SDSM 577F            2          2          11
SDSM 577L            2          1           6
SDSM 577B            4          2           9
SDSM 577I            3          2           9
SDSM 577A            3          0           9
SDSM 577J            1          0           8
SDSM 577N            1          0           7
SDSM 577FU           3          0           9
SDSM 577E            4          1          13
SDSM 577Q            2          1           7
SDSM 577P03          1          0           4
SDSM 577K1           2          1           7
SDSM 577Q1           1          0           3
SDSM 577M            2          0           8
SDSM 577S            2          0           4
SDSM 577T            1          0           3
SDSM 577O           N/A        N/A         N/A
SDSM 577G           N/A        N/A         N/A
SDSM 577            N/A        N/A         N/A
SDSM 577R            2          0           5
SDSM 5711            1          0           6
SDSM 5711A           1          1           4
SDSM 5711B           1          0           3
SDSM 5711C           1          1           4
SDSM 5711D          N/A        N/A         N/A
SDSM 5711E          N/A        N/A          1
SDSM 6026 2-46       4          1          11
SDSM 6026 2-54       4          0           7
SDSM 6026 2-85       2          1           7
SDSM 6026 2-39A      0          1           2
SDSM 6026 2-39B      1          1           4
SDSM 6026 2-50       1          2           8
SDSM 6855            2          2           8
SDSM 6855A           2          0           6
SDSM 53217B          2          3          12
SDSM 53217-16        5          3          21
SDSM 53217           1          1           6
SDSM 53217           5          1          15
SDSM 53217           6          1          17
SDSM 53217 P-10      1          2           7
SDSM 53217 P-9       2          0           6
SDSM 53217           3          1           9
SDSM 53217 P-07      3          0           7
SDSM 53217-3         4          1          10
SDSM 53217A          4          2          20
SDSM 63217-20        1          0           5
SDSM 53217-15        7          1          22
SDSM 53217P-04       4          1          16
SDSM 53217-40        2         12          12
SDSM 53217-14        3          1           6
SDSM 53217-19        4          0           9
SDSM 53217-06        4          1          11
SDSM 53217-11        5          5          19
SDSM 53217           6          1          21
SDSM 53217-5         6          1          19
SDSM 53217-800       6          1          17
SDSM 53217           2          0           5
SDSM 53217           3          1          16
SDSM 53217-57        5          1          17
SDSM 531217ZK        2          2           7
SDSM 631217AA        2          1          13
SDSM 6748            4          1           8
SDSM 53217B          2          3          12
SDSM 53217           1          1           6
SDSM 53217 P-10      1          2           7
SDSM 53217 P-9       2          0           6
SDSM 53217           3          1           9
SDSM 53217 P-07      3          0           7
SDSM 53217-3         1          1          10
SDSM 53217-40        2          2          12
SDSM 53217-14        3          1           6
SDSM 53217-19        4          0           9
SDSM 53217           2          0           5
SDSM 531217ZK        2          2           7
SDSM 5330            0          0           0
SDSM 579A            1          0           3
SDSM 6746            1          0           2
SDSM 5711            1          0           6
SDSM 5711A           1          1           4
SDSM 5711B           1          0           3
SDSM 5711C           1          1           4
SDSM 5711D          N/A        N/A         N/A
SDSM 5711E          N/A        N/A          1
SDSM 727             3          2          10
SDSM 577K            2          0           5
SDSM 577L            2          1           6
SDSM 577B            4          2           9
SDSM 577I            3          2           9
SDSM 577A            3          0           9
SDSM 577J            2          0           8
SDSM 577N            2          0           7
SDSM 577Q            2          1           7
SDSM 577K1           2          1           7
SDSM 577M            2          0           8
SDSM 577T            1          0           3
SDSM 577O           N/A        N/A         N/A
SDSM 577G           N/A        N/A         N/A
SDSM 577            N/A        N/A         N/A
SDSM 577R            2          0           5
SDSM 6026 2-46       4          1          11
SDSM 6026 2-54       4          0           7
SDSM 6026 2-85       2          1           7
SDSM 6026 2-39A      0          1           2
SDSM 6026 2-39B      1          1           4
SDSM 6026 2-50       1          2           8
SDSM 6855            2          2           8
SDSM 6855A           2          0           8
SDSM 577F            2          2          11
SDSM 577FU           3          0           9
SDSM 577E            4          1          13
SDSM 577P03          1          0           4
SDSM 577Q1           1          0           3
SDSM 577S            2          0           4
SDSM 53217-16        5          3          21
SDSM 53217           5          1          15
SDSM 53217           6          1          17
SDSM 53217A          4          2          20
SDSM 53217-20        1          0           5
SDSM 53217-15        7          1          22
SDSM 53217P-04       4          1          16
SDSM 53217-06        4          1          11
SDSM 53217-11        5          5          19
SDSM 53217           6          1          21
SDSM 53217-5         6          1          19
SDSM 53217-80D       6          1          17
SDSM 53217           3          1          16
SDSM 53217-57        5          1          17
SDSM531217AA         2          1          13

                                        Comments
   Spec. Num                       (Measumments in mm)

SDSM 07887 AP     "Merrychippus."
SDSM 6748         Neohipparion.
SDSM 5330         Equidae.
SDSM 6746         Pliohippus
SDSM 727          Pseudehipparion.
SDSM 579A         Nannippus.
SDSM 577K         Nannippus.
SDSM 577F         Nannippus.
SDSM 577L         Nannippus.
SDSM 577B         Nannippus.
SDSM 577I         Nannippus.
SDSM 577A         Nannippus.
SDSM 577J         Nannippus.
SDSM 577N         Nannippus.
SDSM 577FU        Nannippus.
SDSM 577E         Nannippus.
SDSM 577Q         Nannippus.
SDSM 577P03       Nannippus.
SDSM 577K1        Nannippus.
SDSM 577Q1        Nannippus.
SDSM 577M         Nannippus.
SDSM 577S         Nannippus.
SDSM 577T         Nannippus.
SDSM 577O         Nannippus. Unworn.
SDSM 577G         Nannippus. Light wear.
SDSM 577          Nannippus. Broken tooth.
SDSM 577R         Nennippus, weathered tooth.
SDSM 5711         Pliohippus
SDSM 5711A        Pliohippus
SDSM 5711B        Pliohippus
SDSM 5711C        Pliohippus
SDSM 5711D        Pliohippus. Unworn
SDSM 5711E        Pliohippus. Weathered.
SDSM 6026 2-46    Nannippus.
SDSM 6026 2-54    Nannippus.
SDSM 6026 2-85    Nannippus.
SDSM 6026 2-39A   Nannippus. Glued to next tooth.
SDSM 6026 2-39B   Nannippus. Glued to next tooth.
SDSM 6026 2-50    Nannippus.
SDSM 6855         Griphippus.
SDSM 6855A        Griphippus.
SDSM 53217B       Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-16     Neohipparion. Protocone has 'w' shape on buccle side.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217 P-10   Neohipparion. Fossettes connected
SDSM 53217 P-9    Neohipparion. Fossettes connected
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217 P-07   Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-3      Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217A       Neohipparion.
SDSM 63217-20     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-15     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217P-04    Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-40     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-14     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-19     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-06     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-11     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-5      Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-800    Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion. Weathered.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-57     Neohipparion.
SDSM 531217ZK     Neohipparion.
SDSM 631217AA     Neohipparion.
SDSM 6748         Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217B       Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217 P-10   Neohipparion. Fossetles connected.
SDSM 53217 P-9    Neohipparion. Fossetles connected.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217 P-07   Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-3      Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-40     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-14     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-19     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion. Weathered.
SDSM 531217ZK     Neohipparion.
SDSM 5330         Equidae.
SDSM 579A         Neohipparion.
SDSM 6746         Pliohippus.
SDSM 5711         Pliohippus.
SDSM 5711A        Pliohippus.
SDSM 5711B        Pliohippus.
SDSM 5711C        Pliohippus.
SDSM 5711D        Pliohippus. Unworn.
SDSM 5711E        Pliohippus. Weathered.
SDSM 727          Pseudehipparion.
SDSM 577K         Nannippus.
SDSM 577L         Nannippus.
SDSM 577B         Nannippus.
SDSM 577I         Nannippus.
SDSM 577A         Nannippus.
SDSM 577J         Nannippus.
SDSM 577N         Nannippus.
SDSM 577Q         Nannippus.
SDSM 577K1        Nannippus.
SDSM 577M         Nannippus.
SDSM 577T         Nannippus.
SDSM 577O         Nannippus. Unworn.
SDSM 577G         Nannippus. Liqht wear.
SDSM 577          Nannippus. Broken tooth.
SDSM 577R         Nannippus. Weathered tooth.
SDSM 6026 2-46    Nannippus.
SDSM 6026 2-54    Nannippus.
SDSM 6026 2-85    Nannippus.
SDSM 6026 2-39A   Nannippus. Glued to next tooth.
SDSM 6026 2-39B   Nannippus. Glued to next tooth.
SDSM 6026 2-50    Nannippus.
SDSM 6855         Griphippus.
SDSM 6855A        Griphippus.
SDSM 577F         Nannippus.
SDSM 577FU        Nannippus.
SDSM 577E         Nannippus.
SDSM 577P03       Nannippus.
SDSM 577Q1        Nannippus.
SDSM 577S         Nannippus.
SDSM 53217-16     Neohipparion. Protocone has 'w' shape on buccle side.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217A       Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-20     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-15     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217P-04    Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-06     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-11     Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-5      Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-80D    Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217        Neohipparion.
SDSM 53217-57     Neohipparion.
SDSM531217AA      Neohipparion.

Key: Appendices depict measurements of upper check teeth (in mm) of
specimens from the Ashfall Fossil Beds (Appendix A) and Mission Pit
(Appendix B) samples. + and - indicate presence or absence of
characteristics (e.g. open hypocone). Numbers expressed without
decimal value indicate presence and number of plications. N/A
indicates a feature which was broken and not available for
measurement. Mesostyle Crwn hght, Mesostyle Crown Height; L x W,
Length times Width; L/W, Length divided by Width;
Protoloph-Metaloph conn, Protoloph-Metaloph connected; Pli cab,
Pli-caballin; Pli prtlph, Pli-protoloph; Pli prf, Pli-prefossette;
Pli psf, Pli-postfossette; Pli hyst, Pli- hypostyle.


Literature Cited

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Diffendal, R. F. 1995. Geology of the Ogallala/High plains regional aquifer system in Nebraska. Conservation and Survey Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Guidebook 10, p. 61-75.

Diffendal, R. F. Jr., R. K. Pabian, and J. R. Thomasson. 1996. Geologic history of Ash Hollow Park, Nebraska. Conservation and Survey Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Educational Circular 5, 33 pp.

Hammer, O., D. A. T. Harper, and P. D. Ryan. 2001. PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4(1): 9pp.

Harsken, J.C. and M. Green. 1971. Thin Elk Formation, Lower Pliocene, South Dakota. South Dakota Geological Survey Report of Investigations No. 100, 7 pp.

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Nicholas A. Famoso (1) and Darrin Pagnac (2)

(1) University of Nebraska State Museum, W436 Nebraska Hall, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0514

(2) South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 E. Saint Joseph Street, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701

Correspondence: Nicholas Famoso, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, 1272 University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403; sdhardrocker05@hotmail.com
Table 1. Total Number of Skulls Identified for Each
Genus at Ashfall Fossil Beds.

Genus             Total

Pseudhipparion     46
Neohipparion        3
Cormohipparion     14
Phohippus          13
Protohippus         5
Calippus            0

Table 2. Total Number of Upper Teeth Identified for
Each Genus at the Mission Pit.

Genus            Total

Pseudhipparion    173
Neohipparion       54
Cormohipparion     61
Phohippus          75
Protohippus        10
Calippus           11

Table 3. Population Values.

Genus            Ashfall   Mission Pit

Pseudhipparion   56.790      45.052
Neohipparion      3.704      14.063
Cormohipparion   17.284      15.885
Pliohippus       16.049      19.531
Protohippus       6.173       2.604
Calippus          0.000       2.865

Table 4. Results of Spearman-Kendal Test for total
Population Including Calippus.

            Values   p (uncorrected)   Permutation p

D            8.00         0.08             0.10
[r.sub.s]    0.77         0.10             0.10
tau          0.60         0.09             0.13

Table 5. Results of Spearman-Kendal Test for total
Population Excluding Calippus.

            Values   p (uncorrected)   Permutation p

D            4.00         0.11             0.13
[r.sub.s]    0.80         0.08             0.13
tau          0.60         0.14             0.23

Figure 3. Distribution of Hipparionnini and Equid
Genera at Ashfall Fossil Beds.

A. Distribution of Hipparionini Genera at Ashfall Fossil Beds

Pseudhipparion     73%
Cormohipparion     22%
Neohipparion        5%

B. Distribution of Equid Genera at Ashfall Fossil Beds.

Pliohippus         16%
Pseudhipparion     57%
Neohipparion        4%
Protohippus        17%
Cormohipparion      6%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 5. Distribution of Hipparionnini and Equid
Genera at Ashfall Fossil Beds.

A. Distribution of Hipparionini Genera at the Mission Pit

Pseudhipparion     60%
Cormohipparion     21%
Neohipparion       19%

B. Distribution of Equid Genera at the Mission Pit

Pliohippus         20%
Pseudhipparion     44%
Neohipparion       14%
Cormohipparion     16%
Protohippus         3%
Calippus            3%

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Author:Famoso, Nicholas A.; Pagnac, Darrin
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Date:Nov 1, 2011
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