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A comparison of rDza dPal sprul's sPyi don and Tsong kha pa's Legs bshad gser phreng.

The Abhisamayalamkara (Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan, The Ornament of Realization) is arguably the most important and widely studied Prajnaparamita text in the Tibetan tradition. The significance of the text is illustrated by the enormous number of its Indian and Tibetan commentaries, which are still used in all major Tibetan monastic universities (bshad grwa). Twenty-one Indian commentaries are extant in the Tibetan tradition, and hundreds of Tibetan commentaries have been added since. In Tibetan bshad grwa the Prajnaparamita sutras themselves are rarely studied, and the Abhisamayalamkara is understood to be the most important source of studying the Prajnaparamita and its systematic path to the final fruition, dharmakdya. The Abhisamayalamkara is regarded as such an eminent text that its commentaries feature in the curriculum of every Tibetan monastic university to this day. The Abhisamayalamkara and its commentaries have greatly influenced the exegesis and interpretation of the meaning of the Mahayana sutras since the time of Arya Vimuktisena, i.e. since the 6th century. Indian as well as Tibetan pandits have taken the Abhisamayalamkara as the blueprint upon which to assert essential characteristics of Mahayana buddhism, because they suggest that the Abhisamayalamkara contains a detailed and complete description of the path to enlightenment.

However, due to the complexity of the text and its terminology no complete translation of any Tibetan Abhisamaycilamkara-commentary has ever been published in a Western language. I thus compared two of the most eminent and widely used Tibetan Abhisamayalamkara commentaries, Tsong kha pa's (1357-1419) monumental Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan 'grel pa dang bcas pa'i rgya cher bshad pa'i legs bshad gser gyi phreng ba (Golden Garland of Excellent Words) and Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi spyi don

* This article is a synopsis of my PhD thesis, Die tibetische Rezeption des Abhisamayalamkara am Beispiel der ersten drei Kapitel in der Kommentierung von rDza dPal spruls sPyi don. Bonn: Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universitat, 2008.

(Overview of the Abhisamaycilamkcira) of the rNying ma teacher rDza dPal sprul O rgyan 'Jigs med Chos kyi dBang po (1808-1887). (3) Three Abhisamaycilamkcira-commentaries by rDza dPal sprul are known: Aside from the sPyi don, he also composed a 'Bru 'grel (4) and a short bsGom rim. (5)

Due to the difference in scholastic tradition, background and time period of the two authors, one would expect to discover significant differences in the two commentaries regarding their philosophical positions. (6) However, this is not the case. We have compared the Legs 'shad gser phreug with the sPyi don word for word and found the similarities so striking that one cannot speak of the sPyi don as an autonomous text. It is essentially a synopsis of the Legs 'shad gser phreug.

Tsong kha pa's Legs 'shad gser phreug

The Legs 'shad gser phreug is an extensive commentary (755 folios), which is largely based on the major Indian commentaries, especially on Arya Vimuktisena and Haribhadra's Vrtti, (7) but Tsong kha pa also quotes to a lesser extent from Asahga, Vasubandhu, Bhadanta Vimuktisena, Dharmakirti, Dharmamitra, gantaraksita, Prajnakaramati, Ratnakarasanti, Jnanagarbha, Bhavaviveka, Vasubandhu, and others. In the second chapter, Tsong kha pa gives a detailed overview of Haribhadra's Vrtti and continues to reference it throughout. Tsong kha pa regularly discusses in detail the diverse philosophical views on specific subjects that are referenced in the 70 topics of the Abhisamaycilamkcira. That turns his commentary into a complex and detailed standard reference. However, at the same time the thoroughness leads to an enormous wealth of details that are not necessarily relevant for later readers. On several occasions Tsong kha pa leaves controversies unresolved with undecisive remarks such as "further research required." (8) For example, he discusses at length if Haribhadra might be right in stating that Asahga wrote a commentary on the Prajnaparamita without arriving at a conclusion and leaving the question undecided. (9)

According to the biography by Blo bzang tshul khrims, Tsong kha pa began writing the Legs 'shad gser phreug before his 29th year in the Tshal gung thang monastery and completed the text 1387, i.e. in his 31st year. (10) Thus the Legs 'shad gser phreug is one of Tsong kha pa's early works. This is especially relevant as Tsong kha pa took an ambiguous stance on controversial philosophical topics. For instance did he not negate the eight kinds of consciousness in his early works. In his later writings, as in his Legs bshad saying po and in his preeminent work on the Madhyamakcivatcira, gGongs pa rab gsal, i.e. in the context of Candrakirti's refutation of Yogacara, he thoroughly rejected this notion. (11)

Some dGe lugs pa scholars therefore call the early works of Tsong kha pa (including the Legs bshad gser phreug) incomplete or premature, since they do not necessarily state what later came to be claimed as orthodox dGe lugs philosophy. Although Tsong kha pa's interpretation of the Prajnapraramita, Abhisamayalamkara and Haribhadras Vrtti obviously had enormous influence on the interpretation of the Abhisamayalamkara in dGe lugs pa monasteries in India, Tibet, China, Mongolia, Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan, the Legs bshad gser phreug itself is not among the principal textbooks in the dGe lugs pa bshad grwa of Central Tibet, possibly because it does not fully embody the positions and terminology of the later dGe lugs pa scholars. (12) It is worth keeping this background in mind when we turn to the analysis of rDza deal sprul's commentaries.

rDza dPal sprul

deal sprul counts as one of the few great masters of the rNying ma tradition whose example and writings are respected and frequently referred to by the followers of other schools. He was instrumental in developing and spreading the ris med movement, and he is also largely responsible for the popularity and dissemination of numerous texts such as the Bodhisattvacaryavatara (sPyod jug, Entering the Way of the Bodhisattva) and the Abhisamayalamkara in the more recent history of the rNying ma school. The sPyi don has been part of the curriculum in Tibetan bshad grwa for more than 150 years and is respected as an authentic commentary in the rNying ma school.

Commentaries in the rNying ma tradition

The Abhisamayalamkaara commentaries of deal sprul's student mKhan po brTson 'grus contain valuable hints on the reception of deal sprul's Abhisamaycilamkcira commentaries. In his Preliminary Remarks (sNgon 'gro), (13) mKhan po brTson 'grus attempts to give an overview of the most important Abhisamayalamkara-commentaries in the "early tradition" (saga 'gyur ba), i.e. the rNying ma pa. He lists:

1) The mChan 'grel (Annotated Commentary) to Haribhadra's Vrtti by the Great Omniscient Mahapandita gZhan phan Chos kyi sNang ba. (14) brTson 'grus states that this commentary is also based on other Indian commentaries and that the tradition of exegesis has been upheld up to present days by the rDzogs Chen mKhan pos. brTson 'grus further lists: (15)

2) bDud rtsi'i eying khu (Quintessence of Nectar) by the second throne holder of sMin gling, Padma 'Gyur med rGya mtsho (16), an overview (spyi don) of Haribhadra's Vrtti, which accords with the commentary by the great Sa skya pandita Rong ston.

3) sPyi don (Overview), 'Bru 'grel (Word-by-word-commentary) (17) and bsGom rim (Stages of Meditation) by the Dharma Lord deal sprul Rin poche, which harmoniously follows Legs bshad gser phreng (Golden Garland of Excellent Words) by rJe btsan Tsong kha pa.

4) The Venerable 'Jam pa'i dbyangs Mi pham (18) composed mDo sdud pa'i 'grel (Commentary to the Synopsis of the Sutras), which is based on the tradition of the Old Translation, a commentary on the relation of the Abhisamayalamkara to the Synopsis (sDud pa rgyan sbyar) and mNgon rtogs rgyan gyi mchan 'grel (The Annotated Commentary to the Ornament of Realization).

5) The commentaries of his successor, the eminent scholar Bod sprul pa, (19) are now are now distributed by his own students.

brTson ' grus calls on the lineage of the rNying ma tradition to strengthen the credibility of the transmission by stretching it all the way back to its Indian forefathers and by calling on an unbroken lineage of transmission since the time of mKhan po Santaraksita, Padmasambhava and Dharma king Khri srong 1De btsan. It is, of course, standard for many classical Tibetan texts to invoke the unbroken lineage of transmission, yet rarely does such an attempt unveil the obvious lack of it quite that clearly. The earliest rNying ma author in this list has been born in the 17th century. While other schools can trace their lineage of transmission back to the 10th century, just that unbroken lineage of transmitting Abhisamaycilamkcira teachings cannot be proven for the rNying ma school. Padma 'Gyur med rGya mtsho's sPyi don is modelled after Sa skya pandita Rong ston, and Mi pham's commentary that is listed here certainly belongs to the more sketchy and weaker works of Mi pham so that there is reasonable doubt that it can even be considered a proper commentary by Mi pham rather than notes that have posthumously been published by his students.

rDza dPal sprul's commentary

We therefore chose rDza dPal sprul's commentaries as it clearly is one of the most widely used rNying ma commentaries on the Abhisamayalamkara. Another reason for this choice was the dissemination of the Abhisamayalamkara in the West. At least to my knowledge the few bshad grwa in the West (20) that experimented with putting the Abhisamayalamkara on the curriculum all chose dPal sprul's sPyi don as a textbook, presumably because its size and clarity makes the topic comparatively easily accessible.

How dPal sprul's sPyi don relates to Tsong kha pa's Legs bshad gser ph reng

How did deal sprul adapt Tsong kha pa's commentary? About eighty percent of the sPyi don consist of literal quotations, the rest mostly of abbreviations of explanations that Tsong kha pa treats more extensively. Though dPal sprul's sPyi don is a synopsis of the Legs bshad gser phreng, it is nonetheless considerably different in its style and language through its specific choice of excerpts. While Tsong kha pa repeatedly writes in verses, for instance when paying homage or at the end of chapters, and while his language is overall much more poetic and metaphorical, dPal sprul omits these elements almost entirely.

As is the tradition, Tsong kha pa starts his commentary with a detailed and poetic homage (21) and decision to compose the treatise in twenty-one verses. After the initial homage to the "victorious and very compassionate Maitreya" he prostrates to the three jewels, to the mother Prajnaparamita, to Maitreya as Buddha's regent, to Asanga as the messenger of the Abhisamayalamkara, to the "renowned Haribhadra" and to the Tibetan translators, scholars, regents and ministers who translated the words of the Buddha or supported the translations to make them available to the Tibetans, thus terminating "the darkness of ignorance". He then goes on to pay homage to his root teacher and his four tutors. As part of the typical introduction, Tsong kha pa ensures the reader of his own humbleness and the repeated requests of others to compose this text before lamenting "the thick fog of ignorance in samsara" with its fixation on a substantially existing self (jig tshogs lta ba) and the klesas, which cause suffering.

It is striking that all these elements are absent in the sPyi don. Contrary to tradition, the sPyi don has no homage whatsoever. Instead dPal sprul starts out immediately with the first titles and subtitles of his systematic outline, which he largely adapted from Tsong kha pa albeit in shortened form. The first sentence that dPal sprul copies from Tsong kha pa reads: (22)
   The precious collection of Prajnaparamita-Sutras is the most
   profound of all nectar-like teachings of the sacred Dharma, which
   has been taught to fortunate disciples by our teacher, the supreme
   refuge, protector and mighty friend of all beings who wander in the
   three realms, as a skilful means to conquer the countless suffering
   of conditioned existence. This is the one path which has been
   travelled by all victorious buddhas.


The only minor alteration by dPal sprul here is the omission of the connecting particle yang.

The Legs bshad gser phreng usually comments on each of the 70 points of the Abhisamayalamkara under two headings, a general (spyi) and a specific explanation (bye brag). The specific explanations usually contain more detailed explanations on the root text and on the Indian commentaries, especially Haribhadra's Vrtti. dPal sprul rarely copies passages from the bye brag explanations of the Legs bshad gser phreng. As seems fit for a sPyi don, he usually focuses on the spyi passages. (Passages from Tsong kha pa's explanation of the root text are more frequently found in dPal sprul's 'Bru 'grel.) The sections in which Tsong kha pa quotes philosophical debates at length are usually either left out by dPal sprul, or he only quotes a few of the more eminent scholars such as Vimuktisena and Haribhadra, or he restrains himself by only mentioning the conclusion.

For example, in the first chapter Tsong kha pa lists five works by Nagarjuna on logic (rigs tshogs), each with its title and a short description of the content. He discusses that some scholars count six works as part of Nagarjuna's rigs tshogs and refutes that notion. dPal sprul, however, sums up that whole passage in a single sentence, simply mentioning that Nagarjuna wrote five treatises on logic.

This passage clearly illustrates one of the principles that guide deal sprul's selection. He rarely engages in the debate on details such as categorizing scriptures and rather focuses on presenting the conclusion of the debate whereas Tsong kha pa's text seems driven by an implicit agenda, namely the refutation of other scholars' positions, especially Bu ston's and Dol po pa's. Tsong kha pa's tone is derogatory at times, for instance when he writes that whoever accepts six treatises as Nagarjuna's rigs tshogs is "confused" ('khrul par khong du chud par bya). dPal sprul leaves out such passages or simply presents the conclusion without referencing the debate. The only minor addition deal sprul makes in this passage is to include the honorary zhabs when referring to Nagarjuna.

In general, deal sprul's style is more factual and functional. He rarely copies Tsong kha pa's wry and polemic sideswipes at other scholars. Throughout his commentary it is striking that there is not a single passage where deal sprul comments on Tsong kha pa's choice of words or his interpretation. He even copies Tsong kha pa's indecisive remarks such as that certain topics of debate needed to be further investigated without any additions on his part. A concealed distance to Tsong kha pa's positions could merely be implied by his hesitation to copy passages such as on the Vijnanavadin. (23) It is highly improbable that deal sprul would agree with Tsong kha pa on matters such as these, but only his meager synopsis of the discussion, which unfolds over more than four pages in the Legs bshad gser phreng, lets us assume that deal sprul might have disagreed.

Many of the passages in which Tsong kha pa discusses earlier commentaries are missing altogether in the sPyi don. deal sprul rarely quotes Haribhadra as his source, even where he copies shorter quotes from Tsong kha pa's work. While Tsong kha pa's Legs bshad gser phreng is at least partly a commentary on Haribhadra's Vrtti, deal sprul is more likely to copy passages on the Abhisamayalamkara itself. Thus he turns his overview back into a commentary on the root text rather than a comprehensive encyclopedia of the reception of the Abhisamayalamkara.

"Copyright" issues

In the Western academic tradition we require reliable and thorough references to all sources and the distinct identification of quotations. Following that approach, deal sprul stands convicted of plagiarism. But in the Tibetan tradition, of course, the idea of a copyright was absent until about 1960, (24) and therefore no one would accuse deal sprul of any such thing. In the Tibetan philosophical literature, it increases an author's credibility to quote previous masters. The philosophical textbooks at the monastic universities are full of examples where its authors adopt whole passages without giving credit to the original authors. Tsong kha pa's Legs bshad gser phreng itself is a good example. He regularly quotes Vasubandhu's and Haribhadra's commentaries as well as the Prajnaparamita commentary of his own teacher, Nya dbon Kun dga 'deal ba, without reliably identifying the passages as quotations.

Tsong kha pa's sources

For his philosophical studies Tsong kha pa kept a detailed record of the teachings he received (gsau yig), yet he does not include his transmission lineage for the Prajnaparamita.

According to the colophon of the Legs bshad gser phreug, Tsong kha pa owes his understanding of the Prajnaparamita mainly to two teachers: the Sa skya scholar Don grub Rin chen and Red mda' ba bZhon nu Blo gros. Don grub Rin chen was Tsong kha pas first tutor in A mdo and taught him the Abhisamayalamkara as well as the Mahayanasutralamkara and the Abhisamayalamkara and the Abhidharmasamuccaya. (25) In later years Red mda' ba bZhon nu Blo gros gave in-depth teachings on the Praji0paramita literature to Tsong kha pa, and Tsong kha pa based his understanding of the Prajnaparamita on these teachings as he states in the Legs bshad gser phreng. (26) Thus, Tsong kha pa's interpretation of the Prajnaparamita was strongly influenced by the views of the Sa skya tradition of his time.

As we know from Tsong kha pa's biography, he also studied the Prajnaparamita with Nya dbon Kun dga' dPal. (27) Nya dbon Kun dga' dPal was a student of both Dol po pa and Bu ston. (28) In Yid kyi muu sel he quotes extensively the most eminent Indian Abhisamayalamkara commentaries, and it seems likely that Tsong kha pa adapted both the structure and several quotations. Tsong kha pa strongly rejected Dol po pa's philosophy and thus it might come as a surprise that he was associated with Dol po pa's student Nya dbon and that the Legs bshad gser phreug bears a striking resemblance to Nya dbon's commentary in certain parts. (29)

Yet this is of course partly due to the fact that the later rigid sectarian tendencies did not exist yet at Tsong kha pa's time and it was nothing unusual for Tsong kha pa to study under scholars of various traditions or accept them as students. Also, Nya dbon's commentary is largely based on Haribhadra's explanations. While Dol po pa strongly rejected Haribhadra's positions, especially as regards him calling Asafiga's tradition "mere mentalism", Nya dbon often agrees with Haribhadra's explanations and rarely quotes Dol po pa's explanations as positions of the "Great Madhyamaka". It can be shown throughout the Legs bshad gser phreug that Tsong kha pa is also influenced by Nya dbon's teacher Bu ston, but he mainly tends to call upon Bu ston where he disagrees with him and intends to refute him.

Looking even further back in search of source materials for Tsong kha pa's Legs bshad gser phreug, it can be argued that the structure of both Legs bshad gser phreug and Nya dbon's commentary show great similarities with the Abhisamayalamkara commentary mNgou par rtogs pa'i rgyau gyi 'grel bshad theg pa chew po la jug pa by gNyal zhig 'Jam dpa'i rdo rje, though none of them mentions this author's name. (30) If gNyal zhig himself relied on the commentaries of previous writers remains to be researched and would require a detailed comparison with the commentaries by authors such as rNgog and Ar byang chub Ye shes. Tsong kha pa himself rarely names his sources in the Legs bshad gser phreug and as already mentioned it has long been customary in the Tibetan tradition to freely incorporate whole passages of previous authors without necessarily marking them as quotes. As Sparham noted: (31)
   Expanding on and explaining in details the Abhi's seventy topics in
   conjunction with the Panca, Arya Vimuktisena's Vrtti marks the
   beginning of a scholasticism where, by and large, each later writer
   incorporates the work of ealier writers into a generally accepted
   orthodoxy, building up and increasing in dimension a massive
   edifice of metaphysical belief.


We have to consider that these commentaries have been written for seasoned students at traditional monastic universities. Most likely Tsong kha pa could assume that his readers would be familiar with the major Abhisamayalamkara-commentaries by authors such as Haribhadra and Bu ston, i.e. that they would recognize references to these works.

dPal sprul's treatment of sources

There is nothing particularly unusual when scholars compose synopses of eminent extensive works. In the Tibetan philosophical literature it increases an author's credibility to repeat statements that have already been transmitted by eminent authorities before him. However, I know of no other standard reference that models itself that closely on another eminent work without referencing the source.

Tsong kha pa's student rGyal tshab Dar ma Rin chen, for example, composed his Abhisamayalamkara commentary rNam bshad suyiug po'i rgyau at the personal request of Tsong kha pa to essentialize and update cruical points of Tsong kha pa's voluminous Legs bshad gser phreug. Tsong kha pa deemed the abbreviation and revision of his commentary as appropriate. (32) But a crucial difference lies in the fact that rGyal tshab Dar ma Rin chen explicitly states that he modeled his commentary after Tsong kha pa's at the latter's request. dPal sprul, however, does not give the slightest hint at his main source anywhere in sPyi don or 'Bru 'grel. (33) dPal sprul ends the first chapter of the sPyi don with the rhetorical question: (34)
   Which commentaries will I thus follow in my explanation which I
   here compose? In my explanation I mainly follow Arya [Vimuktisena]
   and Hari[bhadra], and I will also take good parts of other
   commentaries where it is appropriate.


This passage ressembles Tsong kha pa's introduction to his second chapter: (35)
   On which of the many explanations on the Alamkara am I going to
   base my explanation? I will base it on Hari[bhadra's] Vrtti.


Thus dPal sprul fails to acknowledge his actual main source. As mentioned, the detailed word-by-word-comparison shows that about eighty percent of dPal sprul's is an adaptation of the Legs bshad gser phreug. Though we focused on the sPyi don for the detailed comparison, the reading of his 'Bru 'grel and bsGom rim suggest a similar relation. They are both based on the Legs bshad gser phreug to a similar extent.

The reception of dPal sprul's commentaries in the rNying ma school

rDza dPal sprul's student brTson 'grus explains this fact in the following way: (36)
   As regards [the fact that] these three works [by dPal sprul] rely
   on rJe btsun Tsong kha pa's commentary, the great rDzogs chen mKhan
   pos used to say that they are a pure explanation of the Old
   Translation School, because they are [actually] the commentary of
   Omniscient Klong Chen pa.


Even contemporary rNying ma mKhan pos teach it to be justified that dPal sprul quotes extensively from Tsong kha pa without declaring that fact, since Tsong kha pa merely copied from Klong chen pa and thus dPal sprul is only returning to the rNying ma pas what rightly belongs to them. (37) Renowned modern day mKhan pos such as mKhan po rNam grol and mKhan po Padma Shes rab of the rNying ma monastery rNam grol gling teach that Klong chen pa had composed a commentary on the Abhisamaycilamkcira entitled Rin chew them skas (Jewel Ladder), which unfortunately has been lost. (38) The rNying ma pa scholars appeal to the fact that since numerous works by Klong chen pa have been lost, the possibility cannot be excluded that dPal sprul modeled his commentary after Klong chen pa's. Of course, this hypothesis can neither be proven nor disproven, yet one is left to wonder why neither Tsong kha pa nor dPal sprul ever referenced such a commentary by Klong chen pa had they known of its existence.

It is somewhat unusual that neither dPal spruls sPyi don nor 'Bru 'grel feature the typical homage at the beginning and the colophon at the end. Of dPal sprul's three Abhisamayalamkara commentaries, only the bsGom rim starts with an homage to the buddha and ends with a colophon. ('Bru 'grel starts with a short homage to the buddha, but this is obviously the homage of the first chapter and not the homage for the entire text as one would expect. The second chapter then starts with an homage to the dharma.)

In the colophon of his bsGom rim rDza dPal sprul indeed refers to Tsong kha pa as the main source of his commentary, but fails to do so in the other two commentaries. Since neither sPyi don nor 'Bru 'grel have a colophon, which could give hints about the context of their composition, and since Tsong kha pa is not quoted or referred to at all, we can only attempt to presume dPal sprul's motives.

The absence of a colophon raises the question whether dPal sprul even passed off sPyi don and 'Bru 'grel as his own writings. Though we know from his students that he used them in his teachings, he does not sign as the author. The absence of homage and colophon could also suggest that the texts are fragmentary, but we do not find any further evidence to support that claim.

dPal sprul has often composed texts and synopses for his own studies or as supporting texts for his students. Not all of these were necessarily intended for publication. Examining rDza dPal spruls collected works, commentaries without homage and colophon are not uncommon. Also, part of his work got published posthumously, and we can safely assume that dPal sprul had not intended publications on a large scale in a number of cases. In all probability homage and colophon are absent because dPal sprul did not regard sPyi don and 'Bru 'grel as autonomous commentaries, but as synopses of the Legs bshad gser phreug. Since dPal sprul has not left us any hints to that regard, this is our working hypothesis.

Overall dPal sprul wrote the sPyi don apparently either as a summary of Tsong kha pa's main points for his own studies or he extracted the crucial points into a more neatly arranged and compelling text book for his students. mKhan po Padma Shes rab suggests that dPal sprul wrote sPyi don and 'Bru 'grel for the rDza Ser shul dGon pa, a monastery in which both dGe lugs pa teachings and rNying ma practices were upheld and in which dPal sprul possibly taught on several occasions. (39) Indeed, the throne holder, Lha rams pa'i dGe bshes Thub bstan rGyal mtshan, seems to have been a student of dPal sprul, (40) but proof that dPal sprul actually taught him the Abhisamayalamkara is missing. Gareth Sparham proposes that dPal sprul studied the Legs bshad gser phreng at gSer thag monastery in Khams together with dGe lugs pa monks, buthe too does not give any proof for this proposition. (41)

Finally, dPal spruls choice of taking the Legs bshad gser phreng as the basis can also be seen against the backdrop of the ris med movement. At dPal sprul's time the Abhisamayalamkara did not play a large role outside of the dGe lugs pa bshad grwa. dPal sprul might have chosen Tsong kha pa's Legs bshad gser phreng as the medium to study and teach the Prajnaparamita, because the Legs bshad gser phreng was conceivingly the commentary that he and his students were most familiar with. As we have seen, Tsong kha pa wrote the Legs bshad gser phreng several years before his later polemic attacks on the Yogacara school. It was one of his early works, written before he formed his more decisive views on controversial issues such as buddha nature. Though the Legs bshad gser phreng is popular in the monastic universities of the sGo mang and the greater dGe lugs monasteries in the north east of Tibet, it was not that popular and even critized by the dGe lugs scholars in central Tibet at the time of dPal sprul. (42) Plausibly dPal sprul chose the Legs bshad gser phreng not only for its content and example of scholarship, but for diplomatic reasons during a politically charged period: as an apt text in the spirit of the ris med movement.

Appendix

A comparison (1) of the first chapter of Tsong kha pa's Legs bshad gserphreng (2) with dPal sprul's sPyi don (3)

Tsong kha pa's Legs bshad gser phreng

Ishes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan 'grel pa dang bcas pa'i rgya cher bshad pa'i legs bshad gser gyi phreng ba zhes bya ba bzhugs so||

rgyal ba ma pham pa thugs rje chen po dang ldan pa la gus pas phyag 'tshal lo||

pad dkar mig dang ri joms gser gyi mngal|| nya yi tog dang ga ga'dzin pa sogs|| cher rlom mams' kyi lam las cher 'phags pa|| rgyal ba' i lugs bzang ring du rgyal gyur cig|
rab dkar lhag bsam dag pa' i gser gzhi zhe snang rdul gyis dben pa' i
steng|| gting mtha' bral ba'i stong nyid rgya mtsho brtson pa'i mgyogs
'gros bsrubs las bskrun||
rgya chen spyod pa'i rlobs chen legs 'khrigs bstu bzhi'i chu gter ska
rags can||
phun tshogs dpal gyis mngon par mtho ba'i skyabs gsum lhun po gtsug
gis mchod||


dpag yas yon tan nor bus bltams|| skal ldan klu dbang mams kyis bstan|| sras bzhi'i chu gter bzhi bskrun pa|| rgyal yum ma dros mtsho chen gyi|| gzhung lugs 'dab brgya'i phreng ba tsher du dngar|| rnam dpyod lo 'dab cha shes yongs su rdzogs|| legs bshad 'od stong zer gyis kha phye ba'i|| bdag blo pad dkar tshal de ring du skyongs|| rnam da legs lam lam gyi mchog gyur rgyal dang de sras slob ma' i yum|| yum don ches zab zab mo'i mdo sder sbas ba'i tsal gyis gsungs pa gang|| gang gi tshig don don bzhin gsal bar nyid kyis ji bzhin rtogs pa de|| de ltar legs ston ston pa'i rgyal tshab rgyal sras mi pham mgon de rgyal||
gang la Men na yum don rgyamtsho yi||
'jug ngogs che der bde blag skrun pa'i gru||
rgyal yum rgyan ' di gang gi thugs rje yis||
'gro la snang mdzad thogs med de la'dud||


rab gsal ches myur spobs pas bsgrubs pa' i rigs pa' i glog phreng drug tu 'khyug|| mi shes tshe gdung kun nas bsil byed legs bshad chu yi ljid kyis non|| stong nyid nga ro rab tu brjid pa'i 'brug sgra'i dpal gyis nyer mdzes pa|| seng bzang zhes grags chu 'dzin gang de thub bstan nam mkha' i rgyan du gyur||
ke la sha yi mdangs 'phrog pa'i||
sa 'dzin dkar pos phyogs rnams kun||
bar mtshams med par dkrigs na yang||
mi shes smag rum 'thibs pa 'dir||


rgyal ba' i bka' dang de don 'byed la dbang du gyur pa' i mkhas pa' i gsung|| sgra don ji bzhin legs par bsgyur nas 'gro ba rnams la thar pa'i lam|| gsal bar mdzad pas gangs ri'i khrod'di lha dang bcas pa'i 'jig rten gyi|| cod pan thod kyis bkur ba'i zhing du brtson pa du mas bsgrubs pa gang||
sprul pa'i lo paN rnams dang ni||
sa skyong blon por bcas pa la||
dus rnams kun tu bdag gi yid||
rab dang sgo nas skyabs su mchi||


don zab rgyal ba' i gsung gi grur zhugs de|| grub mtha' rgya mcho'i pha rol son gyur cing|| rnam grol rin chen gling du lus can rnams|| kun nas bkri mdzad chos rje'i zhabs la 'dud||
blo gsal rgyu skar bye ba' i dbus na brrid||
phyin las od dkar phyogs bcu kun du gsal||
legs bshad bdud rtsi'i zer gyis bdag blo'i mtsho||
mdzes pa skyed mdzad yongs 'dzin rnam bzhi rgyal||


nges don sbrang rtsi' i bcud kyis stobs rgyas shing|| gsung rab padmo'i mtsho chen nang zhugs nas|| gzhung don dar dir sgrisgs pa' i bung ba su|| yongs ' du' i shing bzhin ' di na zla yis dben||
de slad rjod byed sgrigs dang brjod bya la||
rang la yid brtan cung zad med gyur kyang||
gzhan gyi zer zlos 'ba' zhig rjes 'brang ba'i||
gzhung rtsom sgru brnyan de dag ngal sos dang||


zab Ming don bzang bdun cu'i rin chen phreng|| steb legs tsheg gi srid bu la brgyus shing|| lung rigs gzi 'od brgya yis bstar ba yi|| blo gsal mgrin pa' i rgyan gzig bdag gis spel||
ngo mtshar legs bshad gser gyi phreng ba 'dis||
phrag dog tsher mas blo mig dkrugs pa yi||
blun po rnams la dga' ba mi skyed mod||
rnam dpyod lus mdzes brtson pa'i gos kyis spud||


rgyal yum rgyan gyis mdzes pa skyed'dod pa'i|| blo gsal gzur gnas gang gis 'di mthong na|| de yi mod la bzhin gyi dkyil 'khor na|| 'dzum pa'i mdangs kyis lham med'gyurbas nges||

'dir 'jig tshogs la lta ba' i ri bo nyi shu mtho la brling bas ngos kun nas bskor cing| ma rig pa'i mun pa stug po can| lta ba ngan pa sna tshogs pa'i 'khri shing gis thar pa'i lam bsgribs la| phra rgyas kyi dug gi ljon shing sdug bsngal gyi 'bras bu yid du mi 'ong ba ster bas dkrigs pa| sred pa' i chu klung gi ' obs chen pos yongs su 'khyud pa' i 'khor ba' i 'brog dgon pa chen po las lus can mtha' dag bsngal de nyid kyis sku nyams su bstar ba'i 'bras bu mchog la 'god par bzhed pa'i thugs rje chen po dang ldan pa| 'gro ba rnams kyi skyabs dang mgon dang dpung gnyen gyi mchog tu gyur pa'i bdag cag gi ston pa des srid pa'i sdug bsngal brgya phrag gzhom pa'i thabs su skal ba dang ldan pa'i gdul bya rnams la dam pa'i chos kyi bdud rtsi ji snyed cig stsal ba rnams kyi nang nas ches shin tu zab pa dang ldan pa ni rgyal ba kun gyi bgrod pa gcig pa'i lam shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i mdo sde rin po che nyid yin la| 'di'i dgongs pa 'grel ba'i bstan bcos la yang du ma zhig yod kyang gtso bor gyur pa ni shing rta'i srol 'byed chen po bzhi zhes snga ma rnams la grags so de yang bdag nyid chen po klu sgrub kyis bsgrub bya bden dngos dang sgrub byed rtog ge'i rigs pa 'gog pa gnyis kyi dbang du mdzad nas| dang po la rang gzhin gyis sde pa thun mong du 'gog pa dbu ma'i rtsa ba| de'i rab byed dang po rkyen brtag pa las 'phros pa rtsod pa bzlog pa| rab byed bdun pa skye gnas 'jig pa brtag pa las 'phros pa rtsod pa bzlog pa| rab byed bdun pa skye gnas 'jig pa brtag pa las 'phros pa stong nyid bdun cu pa| rab ste bye grag tu 'gog pa rigs pa drug cu pa ste bzhil sgrub byed rtog ge' i tshig don bcu drug 'gog pa zhib mo rnam 'thag ste lnga'o|| 'di la kha cig tha snyed grub pa'am rin chen phreng ba'am ga las 'jigs med bstan nas rigs tshogs drug gi grangs nges 'dod pa dangl gzhan dag stong nyid bdun cu pa lus su byas nas rtsa she 'phros su byed pa ni 'khrul par khong du chud par bya'o| |slob dpon chen po phyogs kyi glang pos mdtad pa yum bsdus pa'i gtso bo'i don so gnyis su bsdus nas ston pa brgyad stong pa'i don bsdus te so gnyis ni| de nyid las|
rten dang dbang du bya ba dang||las ni sgom pa dang bcas dangll
rab dbye rtags dang ltung ba dang||phan yon bcas par yang dag
brjod||ees pa ltar rab dbye la stong nyid bcu drug


|sgom pa la rnam gyeng gi rtog pa bcu'i gnyen por bcu| rten dbang du bya ba las brtags||tung bal phan yon dang drug rnams so||de la rten ni ston pa'o| dbang du bya ba ni byang sems dang nyan thos kyi 'khor ro||las ni yum la ji ltar spyod pa'o||rtags ni bdud las dang phyir mi lngog gi rtags so ltung ba ni sher phyin spangs nas ngan song du skye ba'o||phan yon ni stong gsum rin po che sna bdun gyis bkang nas byin pa bas sher phyin 'dri ba sogs bsod nams che ba'o||man ngag rjes 'byang du 'bru mnan pa gthan rnams 'dra ba la ltung ba'i don bdud las la bshad pa ni snga ma dang mi mthun Ming stong nyid bcu drug la rang gi mtshan nyid stong pa nyid kyi steng du dngos po med pa stong pa nyid dang dngos po med ba'i ngo bo nyid stong pa nyid bgrang rgyu yin pa la dang po dor nas mi dmigs pa stong pa nyid bgrangs pa ni asa ba dang 'gal|||yum rgyas 'bring gnyis dan g khri brgyad stong pa'i rgya cher bshad pa gthung 'grel gnod 'joms kyis ni sgo gsum dang rnam grangs bcu gcig gi sgo nas yum 'grel bar byed do||de la sgo gsum ni gleng gzhis skabs phye ba'i rjes la sha' ri'i bu 'di la zhes pa nas brtson par bya ba'i bar gyis mgo smos pas go ba rnams lal gang gis gang gi phyir| gang la| ji ltar bslab tshul bzhi ston pa bsdus te bstan pa'i sgo||de nas rnam mkhyen rdzogs kyi bar gyis rnam par spros na go wa rnams la rnam mkhyen las brtsams de rnam par mi rtog pa'i sher phyin bzung nas don dam pa'i tshul du ston pa'bring du bstan pa'i sgo| de nas yongs su rdtogs kyi bar gyis drang dgos pa'am chag la 'chel ba rnams kyi don du lam shes las brtsams de rnam par rtog pa dang bcas pa dang rnam par mi rtog pa' i sher phyin bzung nas kun rdzob dang don dam pa'i tshul du bstan pa rgyas par bshad pa'i sgo'o||rnam grangs bcu gcig ni dang po sha ri'i bu la bka' stsal nas bshad pa'i rnam grangs gzig gol |de nas rab 'byor gyis rgyas par bshad pa ni gnyis pa'o||de nas brgya byin dangl rab 'byor dangl byams pa dangl rab 'byor dangl brgya byin dangl rab 'byor dangl byams pa dangl rab 'byor dangl de nas kun dga' bo la bka' rtsal nas yongs su gtad pa'o||rnam grangs bcu gcig ni dang po sha ri' i bu la bka' stsal nas bshad pa' i rnam grangs gzig go| !de nas rab 'byor gyis rgyas par bshad pa ni gnyis pa'o||de nas brgya byin dang| rab 'byor dang| byams pa dangl rab 'byor dangl brgya byin dang| rab 'byor dang| byams pa dangl rab 'byor dangl de nas kun dga' bo la bka' stsa| nas yongs su gtad pa'o||de ltar gnod 'joms 'di sngon gyi yi ge rnying pa rnams las kha che mche ba'i sdes mdzad par grags la| phyis gyi mkhas pa kha cig dbyig gnyen gyi gzhung 'grel yin te| de nas gzhan du lung grangs pa rnams der snang ba dang| 'di yi slad du yang| 'di yi gzhung 'grel gnod' joms bya bar 'dod| ces 'byung ba'i phyir zhes gzhed cingl mkhas pa gzhan dag 'dir nyan thos kyi skyes bu chen po'i rnam rtogs brgyad rnam 'gre| du kha 'phangs la de btsun pa'i rnam 'grel na yod pas dyig gnyen gyi ma yin zhes zer ro|| 'on kyang da lta yum gsum gzhung 'grel gnod 'joms zhes pa bam po nyer dgur byas pa lotstsha ba chen po ye shes sdes bsgyur ba dangl 'bum rkyang pa' i gzhung 'grel gnod 'joms zhes pa 'gyur byang med pa snga ma las nyis 'gyur gyis glegs bam rgyas pa gcig dang gnyis snang Ming sriga ma la dkar chag 'phang thang mar bam po nyer bdun zhes 'byung yang nyer dgur kho rang las 'byung ngo||phyi ma 'di 'phang thang gi dkar chag tu btsan po khri srong Ide btsun gyis mdzad pa'phags pa shes rab kyi pha rol du phyin pa 'bum gyi rgya cher'grel zhes 'byung bas rgyal pos mdtad pa yin no||gang yang man ngag rjes 'brang du gzhung 'grel las log pa'i gzhan rnams kyi bshad pa gtung bya ma yin pa nyid do||gang gi phyir slob dpon ni mdo sde lnga brgya bshad pa'i phyir 'phags pa mgon po byams pas bka' stsal pa de bas na ji ltar phyin ci log tu bshad pa mdtadl bla ma'i man ngag las| gzhung 'grel gnod 'joms gsal por bya bar 'dod||ces bya ba bshad pa'i 'phags pa thogs med kyi zhal snga nas nyid kyi man ngag la skyabs su byed pa yin no zhes dangl 'di'| slad dul bla ma'i lung gis bdag la phan pa'i phyir| |'di yi gzhung ' grel gnod 'joms bya bar 'dod| ces pa rnams phal cher sgrig par nus na yang brtsam par dam bca'i rkang pa 'di gnyis gnod 'joms gnyis ka la khyad med pa dang| man ngag rjes 'brang du yang nyi khri'i gzhung 'grel zhes grags kyi yum gsum gzhung 'grel zhes pa mi snang ba dang| nyan thos kyi skyes bu chen po'i rnam rtog brgyad rnam 'grel du kha'phangs pa dangl nyan thos kyi skyes bu chen po'i rnam rtog brgyad rnam 'grel du kha 'phangs pa dang||nga brgya pa tha ma'i 'grel par bstan pa'i gnas tshad la rang nyid kyi ' dod pa bkod nas| sha' an ti rakshi ta'i bsam pa ni zhes zhi ba 'tsho' i bshad yams mdzad pa'i phyir mche ba'i stes brtsams pa yin nam snyam ste| blo gsal Ming yid gzhugs pa dag gis dpyud par bya'o||gang ltar yang 'dis sems tsam du bkral zhes gsung pa ni ches mi 'thud par go ste| rgyas par 'og tu bstan par bya'o||rgyal ba ma pham pas yum gyi lus dngos brgyad don bdun cur dri| rte rnal 'byor pas nyams su len pa'i rim pa dang sbyar nas mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan mdzad do||de ltar na bzhi po 'dis dgongs 'grel gzhan la ma |tos par yum gyi dgongs pa re 'grel bas shing rta'i srol 'byed do zhes 'chad do||de ltar grags kyang brgyad stong don bsdus kyi brjod bya'i gtso bo stong nyid bcu drug rnam g.yeng gi rtog pa bcu'i gnyen por sgrub ba la gdams pa'i mdo'i 'grel tshul dang|
shes rab pha rol phyin par ni||bstan pa gsum la yang dag brtenll
brtags pa dang ni gzhan dbang dang||yongs su grub pa kho na'o||
med ces bya la sogs tshig gis||brags pa thams cad 'gog pa ste||


sgyu ma la sogs dpe mams kyis||gzhan gyis dbang ni yang dag bstan|| rnam par byang ba gzhi yis ni||yongs su grub pa rab tu bsgrugs|| shes rab pha rol phyin par ni||sangs rgyas kyis ni gzhan bstan med|| ces ngo bo nyid gsum gyis mdo 'grel tshul rnams rim pa ltar dbus mtha' dang theg pa chen po bsdus pa ji lta ba bzhin snang basl byams chos las logs su srol Nod pa min zhing| gzhung 'grel ni stong nyid bcu drug dang skye 'gag kun byang med pa'i skabs su rtsa she'i lung drangs nas klu sgrub zhabs kyi rigs pa ji lta ba bzhin tu 'chad 'dod par 'dug pas| klu sgrub kyi rigs tshogs las bshad srol zur du byed pa ma yin no||de'i phyir slob dpon chos kyi bshes gnyen bzhed pa ltar yum gyi brjod bya la snying po'i don dam pa'i bden pa dangl rgya che ba mngon rtogs kyi rim pa gnyis las| dang po rigs tshogs dang| gnyis pa rgyan gyis bkra| ba yin zhes pa ltar raml yang na dngos bstan stong nyid kyi don rigs tshogs dang| shugs bstan stong nyid bshad pa na gdul bya'i rgyud la mngon rtogs skyes pa'i rim pa rnams rgyan gyis bkral bas| rje btsun dang klu sgrub zhabs gnyis kyi sher phyin 'grel tshul gnyis su byung ngo| zhes bya bar yang gnas so||de dag las mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan ni 'dir gang bshad par bya ba'i chos so| 'o na 'di'i rtsa ba'i mdo mams gang zhe na| de la spyor shar phyogs la yum drug sras bcu gcig ste sras yum bcu bdun zhes snga ma mams kyis brda byas pa la'bum nyi khri khri brgyad stong pal shes rab khri pa| brgyad stong pa| sdud pa mams yum yin zhing| sher phyin bdun brgya pa| lnga brgya pa| sum brgya pa| tshul brgya lnga bcu pa| lnga bcu pa| sgo nyer lnga pa| rab rtsal rnam gnon gyis zhus pa| kau shi kal yi ge gcig ma| shi ge nyung ngu| sher snying ste bcu gcig ni sras so||sras yum gyi khyad par ni brjod bya mngon rtogs brgyad du ma phye bar de'i don tsam ston pa dad phye nas ston pa'o zhes zer ro||de la ga cig nyi ma'i snying po| zla ba'i snying po| kun tu bzang po| lag na rdo rje| rdo rje rgya| mtshan rnams kyang sher phyin yin pas sras yum gyi don dang| grangs gnyis ka nor zhes smra ba ni legs bar smras pa yin la| khyad par du sdud pa khri brgyad stong pa dang so sor bgrang ba ni glegs bam tsam yang ma mthong bar ston pa yin te||khri brgyad stong ba la le'u gya bdun yod pa'i gya bzhi pa ni sdud pa yin pa'i phyir ro||de'i phyir khri brgyad stong pa'bring gi 'bring du byas nas sdud bsdus pa'i bsdus par byas pa yang nor ro||des na rgyan 'dis bstan pa'i mngon rtogs kyi rim pa rnams dang sbyar rung yod pa'i mdo mams ni 'di'i asa ba'i mdo yin la| de yang dang por mdo dang bstan bcos sbyar ba'i sro| ni 'phags bas btod par mngon pas des ni zyi khri la le'u brgyad du byas shing de skabs brgyad dang bsgribs nas sbyar ro||de nas bstun pas nyi khri dang sbyor ro| da lta 'dis mdzad par grags pa'i nyi khri rnam 'grel zhes pa gcig snang ste 'og tu brtag par bya'o||de rjes slob dpon gyis bsdus don 'grel pa nyi khri le'u brgyad ma mdzad nas sbyor ro||de nas sha'anti pas nyi khri'i 'grel pa dag ldan mdzad nas sbyar ba ste nyi khri nas sbyar pa bzhi dang| kha che dha rma shri'is mdzad par grags pa'i stong phrag brgya pa'i bshad pas 'bum dang sbor ro||yum bsdus pa dang sbyor ba rgyan gyi snang ba||snying po mchog| gnad kyi zla'od de gsum dang| sdud pa dang sbyar ba la dka' 'grel rtogs sla dang sdud pa'i dka' 'grel| sher phyin mdzod kyi lde mig ste gsum dang| smri tis mdzad par grags pa 'bum nyi khri khri brgyad stong pa ste yum gsum don brgyad kyis mthun par bstan pa ste| de ltar mdo dang bsbyar ba'i 'grel pa bcu gnyis dang bstun na 'di'i asa ba'i mdo bzhi' am lnga ru gsal lo| de lta bu'i yum gyi rgyan 'di'i rjes su 'brang ba'i 'grel pa la yang mdo dang sbyar ba beu gnyis ma sbyar ba dgu ste nyer gcig gol dang po ni bshad zin to||gnyis pa ni 'grel pa don gsal| de'i 'grel bshad tshig gsa| dang| rtogs dka'i snang ba dang gnyisl bsdus don gsum las| sher'byung gis mdzad pa ni don gsal gyi yin zhing| ngo bo dang gzhon nu dpa| gyis mdzad pa ni asa ba rang gi bsdus don no| grags pa'i cha dang shes rab sgron me'i phreng ba gnyis thub pa'i dgongs rgyan rnams so|| phyi ma 'di thub pa'i gsung rab spyi'i dgongs 'grel du brtsams pa'i bstan bcos rang dga' ba yin gyi| rgyan gyi gzhon 'grel du brtsams par mi snang yang| le'u phyi ma gsum las gtso cher mngon rtogs rgyan gyi don rnams ston pas bgrangs so||'dir yang gang zag la sogs pa'ga' zung mdo dang sbyar yang| |phal mi tshe basl mdo sbyor gyi nang du ma bgrangs shing| sngar bshad pa'i mdzod kyi |de mig la mdo tshig dngos su drangs pa mi snang yang sdud pa'i don tshan rnams so sor bead nas mngon rtogs dang sbyar bas mdo sbyor la bgrangs so||'grel pa 'di dag thams cad kyang da lta rgya gar mar grags modl 'on kyang kha che'i slob dpon dharma shri'is mdzad par grags pa'i 'bum 'grel 'di| rgya gar ma ma yin par mngon tel 'dis gleng gzhi dang mchod brjod sbyar nas de yangl gleng gzhi rgyas par bka' stsal sdud par byed pa mchod brjod tshig ler byas pa mdzad ces pa'o| zhe shes byed du drangs pa'di bstan bcos rin chen sgron me las 'byung zhing| de yang mkhas pa mams la ba reg thos pa dags brtsams par grags pa'i phyir ro||gzhan yang yum chen mo la bam po sum brgya zhes sam grangs kyi bshad pa dang gdams ngag gi skabs su yangl mkhas pa paNDita'i lugs kyis sgro 'dogs phyi ru gcod| lta rtog phyi ru byed de| yul dbyad pas de 'dzin gyi 'khrul pa ldog par'dod| ku su lu pa'i lugs kyis sgro 'dogs nang du gcod| lta rtog nang du byed de| rang ngo rang gis shes rtogs pa gcig rang la sgye dgos zhes pa dang| sbyor lam gyi skabs su yang nyan thos kyi nges 'byed kyi ting nge 'dzin gyis rnam rtog spong ba de mi 'thad de| med na spang mi dgos| yod na spang mi nus rnam rtog gi rang bzhin shes nas rnam rtog ye shes su 'char ba zhig dgos zhes| rgya gar mkhas pa'i gsung la mi 'byung ba'i bod tshig du ma snang ba'i phyir ngo||des na'di dang sdud pa'i lde mig gnyis dharma shri'is mdzad par grags kyang| lo tstsha ba'am bod gzhan zhig gis byas snyam mo||yum gsum don brgyad kyis mthun par bstan pa'di yang nus pa chung zhing| mdo dang sbyor tshu| la skyon chags pa'ga' zung 'dug pas mkhas pa chen po smri ti dznya' na ki rti'i yin min dpyad dgos so| sdud 'grel rtogs sla la| su n.ya shri'i ni 'grel chen dang sgra 'gros mthun pas slob dpon gyis mdzad zer la| 'bum phrag gsum pa dang bdag nyid chen po nil 'di mngon rtogs rkyang par 'dod pas ma yin no zhes 'chad par grags kyangl zla 'od du seng ge bzang po'i sdud 'grel las zhes 'di la dgag pa 'byung pas yin nam snyam mo| don bsdus sgron me yang nus pa chung zhing bdo tshig du ma snang bas jo bo'i slob ma gzig gis sam gzhan bod gcig gis byas par sems so||
shing rta'i srol 'byed bzhi dang mdo yi grangs||
rgyan gyis rtsa ba'i mdo mams gang yin dang||
rgya 'grel mams kyi dag dang ma dag rnams||
legs par dpyad pa' tshul 'di thos sam bkod||


sher phyin gyi man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon rtogs rgyan 'grel dang bcas pa' i rgya cher bshad pa legs bshad gser gyi phreng ba zhes bya ba mang du thos pa blo bzang grags pa' i dpal gyis sbyar ba las gzhung bshad thabs kyi sngon du 'gro ba'i skabs so||

dPal sprul's sPyi don

|shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi spyi don bzhugs so||

shes rab kyi pha ro| tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan 'di 'chad pa lal bshad bya gzhung gi rang bzhin ngos bzung ba dang| gzhung don gtan la dbab pa gnyis| le'u dang po| bshad bya gzhung gi rang bzhin ngos bzung ba| dang po bshad bya'i gzhung ngos bzung ba ni| 'dir khams gsum na rgyu ba'i 'gro ba rnams kyi skyabs dang| mgon dang| dpung gnyen gyi mchog tu gyur pa'i bdag cag gi ston pa des| srid pa'i sdug bsngal brgya phrag gzhom pa'i thabs su ska| ba dang ldan pa'i gdul bya rnams la| dam pa'i chos kyi bdud rtsi ji snyed cig stsal ba rnams kyi nang nas ches shin tu zab pa dang ldan pa ni| rgyal ba kun gyi bgrod pa gcig pa'i lam shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i mdo sde rin po che nyid yin la| 'di'i dgongs pa 'grel ba'i bstan bcos la du ma zhig yod kyangl gtso bor gyur pa ni shing rta'i srol 'byed chen po bzhi zhes snga ma rnams la grags so| de yang bdag nyid chen po klu sgrub zhabs kyis ni| bsgrub bya bden dngos dang| sgrub byed rtog ge'i rig pa 'gogs pa gnyis kyi dbang du mdzad nas| dbu ma rig pa'i tshogs lnga la sogs pa mdzad de| zab mo dbu ma'i lta ba'i shing rta'i srol chen po 'byed par mdzadl slob dpon chen po phyogs kyi glang pos ni yum bsdus pa'i gtso bo'i don so gnyis su bsdus nas 'chad de| de yang| rten dang dbang du bya ba dang| |las ni sgom pa dang bcas dang||rab dbye rtags dang hung ba dang| |phan yon bcas par yang dag brjod||ces pa ltar las| rab dbye la stong nyid bcu drug dang| sgom pa la rnam g.yeng gi rtog pa bcu'i gnyen po bcur phye bas so gnyis so||yum rgyas 'bring gnyis dang khri brgyad stong gi rgya cher bshad pa yum gzhung 'grel gnod joms las ni sgo gsum rnam grangs bcu gcig gi sgo nas yum don 'grel bar byed do||sgo gsum nil mgo smos pas go ba rnams la bsdus te bstan pa'i sgo| spros nas go wa rnams la 'bring du bstan pa'i sgol tshig la 'chel ba rnams kyi don du rgyas par bstan pa'i sgo dang suml rnam grangs bcu gcig ni| 1. dang po sha ri'i bu la bka' stsal pa| 2. de nas rab 'byor gyis bshad pa| 3. de nas brgya byin dang| 4. rab 'byor dang| 5. byams pa dang| 6. rab 'byor dang| 7. brgya byin dang| 8. rab 'byor dang| 9. byams pa dang| 10. rab 'byor dang| 11. de nas kun dga' bo la bka' rtsa| nas yongs su gtad pa'o| rgyal ba ma pham pas yum gyi lus dngos brgyad dang don bdun cur dril te rnal 'byor pa'i nyams su len pa'i rim pa dang sbyar nas mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan mdzad do||de ltar na bzhi bo 'dis dgongs 'grel gzhan la ma ltos par yum gyi dgongs pa re 'grel bas shing rta'i srol 'byed do zhes 'chad kyang| brgyad stong don bsdus su ni rnam g.yeng gi rtog pa bcu'i gnyen por sgrub pa la gdams pa'i mdo'i 'grel tshul dang| ngo bo nyid gsum gyis mdo 'grel tshul rnams dbus mtha' dang theg bsdus ji lta ba bzhin snang basl byams chos las logs su srol btod pa min la| gzhung 'grel ni| stong nyid bcu drug dangl skye 'gags kun byang med pa'i skabs su rtsa she'i lung drangs nas klu sgrubs zhabs kyi rig pa ji lta ba bzhin tu 'chad 'dod par 'dug pas rig tshogs las bshad srol zur du byed pa ma yin no||de'i phyir slob dpon chos kyi bshes gnyen bzhed pa ltar yum gyi brjod bya la snying po'i don dam pa'i bden pa dang| rgya che ba mngon rtogs kyi rim pa gnyis gyil dang po rig tshogs dang| gnyis pa rgyan gyis bkra| ba yin zhes pa ltar raml yang na dngos bstan stong nyid kyi don rig tshogs dang| shugs bstan stong nyid bshad pa na gdul bya'i rgyud la mngon rtogs skye tshul gyi rim pa rnams rgyan gyis bkral bas| rje btsun dang klu sgrub zhabs gnyis kyi sher phyin 'grel tshul gnyis su byung ngo zhes bya bar yang gnas so||de dag las mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan ni 'dir gang bshad par bya ba'i chos so| |de lta bu'i yum gyi rgyan de'i rjes su 'brang ba'i 'grel pa la yang mdo dang sbyar ba'i 'grel ba bcu gnyisl ma sbyar ba dgu ste rgya'grel nyer gcig yod la| mdo sbyar mams kyis gang la sbyar ba rtsa ba'i mdo ni| yum rgyys pa'bum| 'bring po nyi khril bsdus pa brgyad stong pa gsuml sdud pa dang bzhi po la ci rigs par sbyar ba yin la| gzhan du sdud pa dang sbyar pas khri brgyad stong par don gyis sbyar bar 'gyur ba yin lal shes rab khri pa dang yang sbyar du yod par mngon no|

'grel byed de dag las 'dir gang gi rjes su 'brang nas 'chad ce na| gtso bor'phags seng gnyis kyi rjes su 'brangs nas 'chad la| 'grel bshad gzhan las kyang legs pa'i cha ci rigs pa blangs te 'chad par byed do||

Notes

(1) Similarities have been marked in bold by the author.

(2) Legs bshad gser phreng. Sarnath: Tibetan Monastery Press, 1970.

(3) Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi spyi don. In: Sher phyin mngon rtogs rgyan rtsa 'grel. Reprint. Khreng tu'u: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1997.

(4) The original reads mass. Since this is obviously a mistake, I corrected it.

Selected Bibliography Indic Texts

Abhisamayalamkara, by Maitreya. Kajiyoshi, K. Genshi (Ed.). Hannya-kyo no kenkyu, (Ed. and japan. translation from the Sanskrit). T6ky6: Sankib6, 1944, pp. 275-320.

--. Abhisamayalamkara prajnaparamita-upadesa-sastra, by Maitreya. Stcherbatsky, Theodore and Obermiller, Eugene (Ed.). Fasciculus I. Introduction, Sanscrit Text and Tibetan Translation. Leningrad: Bibliotheca Buddhica, 23, 1929. Reprint Osnabruck: Biblio Verlag, 1970.

--. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan zhes bya ba (Byams pa mgon po). 1) Q 5184, mdo 'grel (sherphyin), ka (1),1-15a8, TT88,1.1.1-8.2.8; 2) G 3183, sherphyin, ka (1), 1-22.1, edierte Ausgabe, Tianjin: Zhongguo-minzu-tushuguan-zhengli Tianjin-guji-chubanshe, 1988; 3) N 3175, mdo 'grel (sher phyin), ka (1), 114a7, Mibu 1967: 86; 4) Toh 3786, sher phyin, ka (1), lbl-13a7; 5) sDe dge bsTan'gyur: v 80-95,1-25.7, Delhi: Karmapa'i Chodhey, Gyalwae Sungrab Partun Khang, 1985; 6) Cone bsTan'gyur, shes phyin, ka (1), lbl-13a6; 7) In: Thangru, Rinpoche Khenchen. The Ornament of Clear Realization: A Commentary on the Prajnaparamita of Maitreya. Crestone and Auckland: Namo Buddha Publications and Zhysil Ch6kyi Ghatsal Charitable Trust Publications, 2004.

Abhisamayalamkaraloka Prajnaparamita-vyakhya, by Haribhadra. The Work of Haribhadra. Wogihara, Unrai (Ed.). Tokyo: The Toyo Bunko, 1932-5. NachdruckTokyo: Sankibo. 1973.

--. Abhisamayalamkaraloka. In: The Commentaries on the Prajnaparamitas, Vol. 1, The Abhisamayalamkaraloka. Tucci, Guiseppe (Ed.). Gaekwad's Oriental Series, 62. Baroda: Oriental Institute, 1932

--. Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita with Haribhadra's Commentary Called Aloka. Vaidya, P[arasur5m] L[akrman] (Ed.). Buddhist Sanskrit Texts, 4. Darbhanga: MithilaInstitute, 1960.

--. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa brgyad stong pa'i bshad pa mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi snang ba (Seng ge bzang po). Q 5189, TT 90. Abhisamayalamkara-vrtti, by Haribhadra. A Study on the Abhisamay-alamkarakarika-sastra-vrtti. Amano, Hirofusa (Ed.) (Sanskrit-Rekonstruktion). Tokyo: Japan Science Press, 1975.

--. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi 'grel pa don gsal (Seng ge bzang po). Q5191, TT 90. Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamitopadesa-sastra-abhisamayalamkara-vrtti, by Arya Vimuktisena. L'Abhisamayalamaykara-vrtti di A rya-Vimuktisena, Primo Abhisamaya. [Sanskrit Edition of the first chapter by Corrado Pensa.] Serie Orientale Roma, 28. Roma: Is.M.E.O., 1967.

--. 'Phags pa shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa stong phrag nyi shu lnga pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi 'grel pa ('Phags pa rnam grol sde). Q 5185, sher phyin, ka, TT 88.

Tibetan Texts

Bu ston rin chen grub. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan shes bya ba'i 'grel ba'i rgya cher bshad pa lung gi snye ma. Toh 5173, vol. 18, 1-363. Reprint. Varanasi: Pleasure of Elegant Sayings, 1979.

rDza dpal sprul o rgyan 'jigs med chos kyi dbang po. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi spyi don. 1) In: Sherphyin mngon rtogs rgyan rtsa 'grel. Reprint. Khreng tu'u: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1997; 2) In: The Collected Works of dPal-sprul 0rgyan- jigs-med-chos-kyi-dbang po. Reproduced from Dudjom Rinpoche's xylograph collection by Sonam T. Kazi, vol. 3, Gangtok 1971, pp. 1-489.

--. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi 'bru 'grel. Nachdruck. 1) In: Sher phyin mngon rtogs rgyan rtsa 'grel. Khreng tu'u: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang,1997; 2) In: The Collected Works of dPal-sprul 0-rgyan-jigs-med-chos-kyi-dbangpo. Reproduced from Dudjom Rinpoche's xylograph collection by Sonam T. Kazi, vol. 3, Gangtok 1971, pp. 491-659.

--. Sher phyin rgyan gyi spyi don bsgom rim nyung ngu. 1) Bylakuppe: Ngagyur NyingmaInstitute 1996; 2) In: The Collected Works of dPal-sprul 0-rgyan-'jigs-med-chos-kyi-dbang-po. Reproduced from Dudjom Rinpoche's xylograph collection by Sonam T. Kazi, vol. 3, Gangtok 1971, pp.695-734.

--. dPal sprul o rgyan jigs med chos kyi dbang po'i gsung 'bum. 1) Peking: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2003; 2) The Collected Works of dPalsprul 0-rgyan- jigs-med-chos-kyi-dbang-po thig sngon 'gro'i khrid yig. Peking: Si khroa mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1988. Reproduced from Dudjom Rinpoche's xylograph collection by Soaam T. Kazi, 6 vols, Gangtok 1971.

mDo sgrub bstan pa'i nyi ma. m7shungs bral rgyal ba'i myu gu o rgyan jigs med chos kyi dbang po'i rtogs brjod tsam gleng ba bdud rtsi'i zil thig. In: gSung'bum, vol. 4, S. 101-136. Gaagtok: Dodrup Sangye, 1972.

rGyal tshab dar ma rin chen. Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi 'grel pa don gsal ba'i rnam bshad snyingpo'i rgyan. 1) In: gSung'bum, vol. ka, Lhasa Edition, o.D.; 2) Samath: Pleasure of Elegant Sayings Press, 1980.

mKhan chen kun bzang dpal ldan. O rgyan jigs med chos kyi dbang po'i rnam thar dad pa'i gsos sman bdud rtsi'i bum bcud. In: gSung 'buet, vol. 2, pp. 353484. Bhutan: Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, 1986.

mKhas grub dge legs dpal bzang, rJe btsun bla ma tsong kha pa chen po'i ngo mtshar rmad du byung ba'i rnam par thar pa dad pa'i jug ngogs. 1) [Zi ling]: mTsho sngon mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1995. 2) Lhasa gSung 'bum, vol. ka, pp. 2-144. New Delhi: Ngawang Gelek Demo, 1977.

mKhas grub bstan pa dar rgyas. Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi tshig don gsal bar byed pa'i rtza t'ika chen mo. ACIP SO 189.

Mi pham 'jam dbyangs rnam rgyal rgya mtsho. dBu ma la jug pa'o 'grel ba zla ba'i Mal lung dri med shel 'phreng. In: gSung 'buet, vol. 1, sDe dge dgoa chen, pp. 497-816.

--. mNgon rtogs rgyan gyi mchan 'grel. Vol. pa, Potala Library, 174ff. http:/ /www.tbrc.org/kb/tbrc-detail.xq,jsessionid=5ElFO63OBCDE9F64265EF00 5B14C7E89?RID=W4892&wylie=n.

--. Sher phyin spyi don. Varanasi: 24th Nyingmapa Students' Welfare Committee, 1998.

rNgog blo ldan shes rab. mNgon par rtogs pa'i rgyan 'grel rin chen sngon me. In: bKa' gdams gsung 'bum phyogs sgrig thengs dang po'i dkar chag/dPal brtsegs bod yig dpe raying zhib jug khang nas bsgrigs. Vol. 1. Khreng tu'u: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2006.

Nya dbon kun dga' dpal. bsTan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan 'grel pa dang bcas pa'i rgyas 'grel bshad sbyar yid kyi mun sel. A detailed commentary on the Abhisamayalamkara and the Prajnaparamita literature. Repro duced from the late 19th century Bkra-sis-'khyil blocks. 2 vols. New Delhi: Ngawang Sopa, 1978.

gNyal zhig 'jam dpal rdo rje. Phar phyin gyi 'grel pa. In: bKa' gdams gsung 'bum phyogs sgrig thengs dang po'i dkar chag/dPal brtsegs bod yig dpe raying zhib jug khang nas bsgrigs, vol. 12. Khreng tu'u: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 2006.

Padma badzra. Sher phyin spyi don. Varanasi: Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, 1998.

Rong ston shes bya kun rig. Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan ces bya ba'i 'grel pa'i rnam bshad tshig don rab tu gsal ba (Tshig don rab tu gsal ba). In Rong ston shes bya kun rig's Study of the Abhisamayalamkara. New Delhi: Ngawang Topge, 1972.

Thub bstan brtson 'grus phun tshogs. Shing rta'i srol 'byed bshad mdo 'grel tshul sogs sher phyin 'chad pa'i sngon 'gro. Bylakuppe: Ngagyur Nyingma Institute, 1996.

--. bsTan bcos chen po mngon rtogs rgyan gyi lus ream bzhag gi 'grel pa jigs med chos kyi dbang po'i zhal lung. Bylakuppe: Ngagyur Nyingma Institute 1996.

Thub bstan nyi ma (Alak Zenkar). rTsom pa po rdza dpal sprul rin po che'i ream Char mdor bsdus. In: Sher phyin mngon rtogs rgyan rtsa 'grel. Khreng tu'u: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1997.

Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa. dPal gsang ba 'dus pa'i bshad pa'i rgyud ye shes rdo rje kun las btus pa'i rgya cher bshad pa rgyud bshad thabs kyi man ngag gsal bar bstan pa. In: Lhasa gSung 'bum, vol. ca, pp. 450-586. New Delhi: Ngawang Gelek Demo, 1977.

--. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan 'grel pa Bang bcas pa'i rgya cher bshad pa'i legs bshad gser gyi phreng ba. Samath: Tibetan Monastery Press, 1970.

--. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan 'grel pa Bang bcas pa'i rgya cher bshad pa (sic) legs bshad gser gyi phreng ba. Nachdruck von Blockdruck sKu 'bum. [Zi ling]: mTsho sngon mi rigs dpe krun khang, 1986.

--. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan 'grel pa Bang bcas pa'i rgya cher bshad pa'i legs bshad gser gyi phreng ba. In: Lhasa gSung 'bum, vol. tsa. New Delhi: Ngawang GelekDemo, 1977.

--. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan 'grel pa Bang bcas pa'i rgya cher bshad pa'i legs bshad gser phreng, stod cha. ACID S 5412-1.

German, English and French Literature

Bastian, Edward Winslow. Mahayana Buddhist Religious Practice and the Perfection of Wisdom According to the Abhisamayalamkara and the Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita. The Interpretation of the First Two Topics by Haribhadra, Rgyal-tshab dar ma rin chen, and Rje btsun chos kyi rgyal mtshan. PhD Dissertation. Madison: The University of Wisconsin, 1980.

Haas, Michaela. Die tibetische Rezeption des Abhisamayalamkara am Beispiel der ersten drei Kapitel in der Kommentierung von rDza dPal spruls sPyi don. Bonn: Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universift, 2008.

Hopkins, Jeffrey. Emptiness in the Mind-Only School of Buddhism. Dynamic Responses to Dzong ka ba's The Essence of Eloquence. Vol. 1. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 1999.

--. Meditation on Emptiness. London: Wisdom, 1983.

--. Reflections on Reality. The Three Natures and Non-Natures in the MindOnly School. Dynamic Responses to Dzong kha ba's The Essence of Eloquence. Vol. 2. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 2002.

Jamyang Dorje, Nyoshul Khenpo. A Marvelous Garland of Rare Gems. Richard Barron (Chokyi Nyima) (Ub.). Junction City: Padma Publishing, 2005.

Kaschewsky, Rudolf. Das Leben des lamaistischen Heiligen Tsong kha pa Blo bzang grags pa. Dargestellt and erldutert anhand seiner Vita "Quellort allen Gluckes". Band 1 von 2. Asiatische Forschungen, Band 32. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1971.

Pettit, John Whitney. Mipham's Beacon of Certainty. Illuminating the View of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1999.

Ringu Tulku. The Ri-me Philosophy of Jamg5n Kongtrul the Great. A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of Tibet. Boston: Shambhala, 2006.

Ruegg, David Seyfort. La theorie du tathagatagarbha et du gorra. Etudes sur la soteriologie et la gnoseologie du bouddhisme. Paris: Ecole Franraise d'Extreme-Orient, 1969.

Samten, Jampa. "Notes on the Late Twelfth or Early Thirteenth Century Commentary on the Abhisamayalamkara: A Preliminary Report of a Critical Edition." Tibetan Studies. Proceedings of the 7th Seminar of the International Association of Tibetan Studies 2, Graz 1995, Wien (1997): 831-841.

Smith, Ellis Gene. Among Tibetan Texts. History and Literature of the Himalayan Plateau. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2001.

Sparham, Gareth. "A Note on Gnyal zhig 'Jam pa'i rdo rje, the Author of a Handwritten Sher Phyin Commentary from about 1200." Tibet Journal 21.1 (1996):19-29.

--. (Ub.) Abhisamayalamkara with Vrtti and Aloka. Volume One: First Abhisamaya. Fremont: Jain Publishing, 2006.

--. (Ub.) Abhisamayalamkara with Vrtti and Aloka. Volume Two: Second Abhisamaya. Fremont: Jain Publishing, 2008.

--. "Background Material for the First of the Seventy Topics on Maitreyanatha's Abhisamayalamkara. " Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 10.2 (1987): 139-58.

--. (Ub.) Ocean of Eloquence. Tsong kha pa's Commentary on the Yogacara Doctrine of Mind. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.

Thurman, Robert A.F. (Ed.). The Life and Teachings of Tsong Khapa. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1982.

Tsondru, Khenchen Dzogchen. A Preliminary to the Explanation of the Prajnaparamita-Founders of Traditions, Explanatory Sutras, Ways of Commenting, etc. Wu Tai Shan Clan, 2004. http://www.lotsawahouse.org/ id3.html

--. The Words of Jikme Chokyi Wangpo. A Commentary Presenting the Subject Matter of the Great Treatise, the Abhisamayalankara. Wu Tai Shan Clan, 2004. http://www.lotsawahouse.ore/id62.html

Notes

(1.) rDza dpal sprul o rgyan 'jigs med chos kyi dbang po. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi spyi don. In: Sherphyin mngon rtogs rgyan rtsa 'grel. Khreng tu'u: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang,1997. [PS]

(2.) Tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa. Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan 'grel pa dang bcas pa'i rgya cher bshad pa'i legs bshad gser gyi phreng ba. Samath: Tibetan Monastery Press, 1970. [LSP]

(3.) 245 folios in vol. 3 of the six volume printed volume found in the Potala collection.

(4.) Shes rab kyi pha rol to phyin pa'i man ngag gi bstan bcos mngon par rtogs pa'i rgyan gyi 'bru 'grel. In: Sher phyin mngon rtogs rgyan rtsa 'grel. Khreng tu'u: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1997.

(5.) Sher phyin rgyan gyi spyi don bsgom rim nyung ngu. In: The Collected Works of dPal-sprul O-rgyan-jigs-med-chos-kyi-dbang po.Reproduced from Dudjom Rinpoche's xylogmph collection by Sonam T Kazi, vol. 3, Gangtok 1971, pp. 695-734.

(6.) Typical examples for later attacks of rNying ma scholars on Tsong kha pa are Mi pham's Beacon of Certainty (Pettit, John Whitney. Mipham's Beacon of Certainty. Illuminating the View of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 1999) or Mi pham's commentary on Candrakirti's Madhyamakavatara, in which he attacks Tsong kha pa's views, particularly his explanations on sunyata.

(7.) The first two chapters of both works have now been translated into English by Sparham, Gareth. Abhisamayalamkara with Vrtti andAloka. Volume One and Two. Fremont: Jain Publishing, 2006 and 2008.

(8.) LSP, p. 24.

(9.) Ibid.

(10.) Kaschewsky, Rudolf. Das Leben des lamaistischen Heiligen Tsong kha pa Blo bzang grags pa. Dargestellt and erlhutert anhand seiner Vita Quellort allen Ghickes". Vol 1. Asiatische Forschungen, Vol. 32. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, 1971, p. 93, p. 95 and p. 258, footnote 46.

(11.) Sparham, Gareth (Transl.). Ocean of Eloquence. Tsong khapa's Commentary on the Yogacara Doctrine of Mind. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993, p.14.

(12.) See also Hopkins, Jeffrey. Emptiness in the Mind-Only School of Buddhism. Dynamic Responses to Dzong ka bas The Essence of Eloquence. Vol. 1. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 1999, p. 11.

(13.) Thub bstan brtson 'grus phun tshogs. Shing rta'i srol 'byed bshad mdo 'grel tshul sogs sher phyin 'chad pa'i sngon 'gro. Bylakuppe: Ngagyur Nyingma Institute, 1996. [TN]

(14.) The author is probably not the similarly named 'Brug pa dKar brgyud abbot, but mKhan po gZhan dga' (1871-1927), the abbot of the Sri SihghabShad grwa at rDzogs chen and founder of numerous bshad grwa in rNying ma as well as Sa skya monasteries. See Jamyang Dorje, Nyoshul Khenpo. A Marvelous Garland of Rare Gems. Richard Barron (Chokyi Nyima) (Ub.). Junction City: PadmaPublishing, 2005, p. 492.

(15.) TN, p.13.

(16.) 1686-1718, son of gTer mDag Gling pa.

(17.) 'Bru 'grel ist often used synonymously with tshig 'grel. However, while a tshig 'grel usually comments word by word, 'bru commonly relates to the most important passages and not necessarily to each word.

(18.) 1846-1912. Jamyang Dorje, p. 415 has an extensive biography of this rNying ma scholar.

(19.) Bod sPrul mDo sNgags bsTan pa'i Nyi ma (1900-1959). For his biography see Jamyang Dorje, pp. 479. bsTan pa'i Nyi ma wrote several commentaries on the Prajnaparamita and the Abhisamayalamkara, such as mNgon rtogs rgyan gyi tshig don ream bshad (Exegesis of the literary meaning of the Abhisamayalamkara), Sher phyin gyi zin bris (Notes on the Prajnaparamita) and Sher phyin tshig don ream bshad ma pham zhal lung (The Words of the Unconquerable).

(20.) Nitartha Shedra in Canada, Mangala Shri Bhuti Shedra in Colorado, USA, and the Rigpa Shedra in France and Ireland. All three shedras taught the Abhisamayalamkara while relying on deal sprul's sPyi don. (The Nitartha Shedra also relied on the commentaries of the seventh Karma pa Chos grags rGya mtsho, the eighth Karma pa Mi bskyod rDo rj e and Sakya mChog ldans, the Rigpa Shedra used dPal sprul's bsGom rim in addition to the sPyi don).

(21.) LSP, p. 1.

(22.) LSP, p. 5 and PS, p. 2.

(23.) PS, p. 151 and LSP, p. 411.

(24.) See also Ringu Tulku. The Ri-me Philosophy of Jamgon Kongtrul the Great. A Study of the Buddhist Lineages of Tibet. Boston: Shambhala, 2006, p. xvi.

(25.) According to Geshe Ngawang Dargey, Tsong kha pa studied the Abhisamayalamkara first with Yon tan rGya mtsho in the Chodra Chenpo Dewachen monastery in Nyetang, where he reportedly learned the root text and all commentaries by heart within 18 days. See Thurman, RobertA.F. (Ed.). The Life and Teachings of Tsong Kha pa. Dharamsala: Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, 1982, pp. 7. Possibly Tsong kha pa also used the commentary of 'Jam skya. According to Blo bzang Tshul khrims, Tsong kha pa had studied the Prajnaparamita already for two years in 'Bri gung with bSod nams rGyal mchan. See Kaschewsky, p. 81.

(26.) Sparham, Ocean, p. 17.

(27.) mKhas grub rje, rNam thar, p. llb. Quoted after Ruegg, David Seyfort. La theorie du tathagatagarbha et du gorra. Etudes sur la soteriologie et la gnoseologie du bouddhisme. Paris: Ecole Franraise d'Extreme-Orient, 1969. p.139. See also Kaschewsky, p. 83.

(28.) See Ruegg, p. 139.

(29.) Ruegg confirmed a similarly tight, but more critical relationship between Tsong kha pa's Legs bshad snying po and Nya dbon's Hd kyi mun sel, especially as regards passages on the tathagatagarbha. Tsong kha pa "a repris 1' expose de son maitre Nya dbon Kun dga' deal tout en critiquant ses positions doctrinales." Ibid., p. 8.

(30.) Sparham, Note on Gnyal zhig", p. 26.

(31.) Sparham, Gareth. "Background Material for the First of the Seventy Topics on Maitreyanatha's Abhisamayalamkara." Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 10.2 (1987):139-58, p.141.

(32.) Bastian, Edward Winslow. Mahayana Buddhist Religious Practice and the Perfection of Wisdom According to the Abhisamayalamkara and the Pancavimsatisdhasrika Prajnaparamita. The Interpretation of the First Two Topics by Haribhadra, Rgyal-tshab dar ma rin chen, and Rje btsun chos kyi rgyal mtshan. PhD Dissertation. Madison: The University of Wisconsin, 1980, p. viii.

(33.) Jamyang Dorje states that deal sprul was familiar with Dar ma Rin chen's commentary and used it even for his lectures when teaching dGe lugs pa students. See Garland, p. 228.

(34.) PS, p. 5.

(35.) LSP, p.13.

(36.) TN, p. 14.

(37.) For example, sLob dpon Ras chung pa confirmed in an interview with the author that this view is taught up to this day in the Indian rNam grol gling bShad grwa.

(38.) Klong chen pa's own index, the Treasure Chamber, lists a commentary called Jewel Ladder as a general commentary on the five works of Maitreya and also an Abhisamayalamkara commentary: The View of the Ornament, a clear analysis on the main body of the Ornament of Realization. See Jamyang Dorje, p. 227. All these works have to be regarded as lost.

(39.) Interview with mKhan po Padma Shes rab's student mKhan po dGa' dbang by the author.

(40.) Jamyang Dorje, p.227;http://www.tbrc.org/kb/ tbrctail.xq; jsessionid= C7E3800CEOEIBB 107EAE713BAE139260?RID=P270.

(41.) Interview with Gareth Sparham by the author.

(42.) Ibid.
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Date:Mar 22, 2008
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