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A comparative study of the 'Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita.'

It is a well-known fact that manuscripts of the Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita (PV) exist in both a revised and unrevised form. The former are those of the revised text that has been divided on the basis of Maitreya's Abhisamayalamkara (AA) and Haribhadra's Abhisamayalamkaraloka (AAA),(1) while the latter correspond to the original text of the PV, which is no longer extant in its complete form. Our manuscript from Central Asia is of the unrevised text of the PV.

The purpose of the following comparative study of the revised and unrevised PV is to elucidate the manner in which the original PV underwent changes - that is to say, the policies adopted and process undergone in revising the text. Furthermore, by examining this manuscript and clarifying its relation to other texts, we shall be able to ascertain an aspect of the style of the original PV that has been regarded as lost.

It is common knowledge that the PV is quoted in Indian Buddhist texts, as well as in their Tibetan translations, simply as the [Maha-]prajnaparamita.(2) In addition, we do not find quotations deriving from the Astadasasahasrika (AD) and PV in the same text, and it is not in fact possible to distinguish clearly manuscripts of the unrevised PV from those of the AD. We may conclude from these facts that the PV did not develop from the AD, and that both the AD and PV are variant texts deriving from the same source. We could, therefore, assume the existence of an Urtext of both the AD and the PV.

First, in order to facilitate our comparative study of the Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese versions, we shall list all the texts of the "AD-PV line,"(3) which represent variants deriving from the same source, and indicate the page or folio numbers and lines relevant to our Central Asian fragment.

1) AD: Astadasasahasrika Prajnaparamita, chapters 70 to 82, corresponding to the 6th, 7th and 8th Abhisamayas. Ed. E. Conze, Serie Orientale Roma 46 (Roma: IsMEO, 1974), p. 5, 1. 33-p. 8, 1. 22.

2) PV: Aryapancavimsatisahasrikayam Bhagavatyam Prajnaparamitayam Abhisamayalamkara-nusarena samsodhitayam, Anupurvabhisamaya-dhikara.h. Ed. Sh. Watanabe, Toyo Daigaku Diagakuin Kiyo, no. 25 (Tokyo, 1989), p. 167, 1. 1-p. 172, 1. 21.

3) Ta: 'Phags pa shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa khri brgyad stong pa. Tibetan Tripitaka (Peking Edition), vol. 20, no. 732, ch. 70; Phi ff. 50a8-53b1.

4) Tk: Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa stong nyi su lnga pa. Ibid., vol. 19, no. 731, ch. 59; Di ff. 75b3-80a8.

5) Tt: Shes rab kyi pha rol tu phyin pa stong nyi su lnga pa. Ibid., vol. 89, no. 5188, ch. 63; Ca ff. 224a5-229a3.

6) T220(2): Ta pan-jo po-lo-mi-to ching. Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo, vol. 7, no. 220-2, ch. 73; pp. 35665-358b15.

7) T220(3): Ta pan-jo po-lo-mi-to ching. Ibid., vol. 7, no. 220-3, ch. 28; pp. 710624-712a13.

8) T221: Fang-kuang pan-jo ching. Ibid., vol. 8, no. 221, ch. 76; p. 121a11-c2.

9) T222: Kuang-tsan ching. Ibid., vol. 8, no. 222; omits this chapter.

10) T223: Mo-ho pan-jo po-lo-mi ching. Ibid., vol. 8, no. 223, chs. 75-76; pp. 385c5-386b6.

Eight of the texts in the above list have affiliations with the unrevised PV, namely, the Sanskrit text of the AD (no. 1), the two Tibetan versions Ta and Tk (nos. 3 and 4), and the five Chinese versions (nos. 6-10). The remaining two texts - namely, the Sanskrit text of the PV (no. 2) and the Tibetan Tt found in the Tanjur (no. 5) - are of the same type as the revised PV.

Our fragment corresponds to part of chapter six of the revised PV. We shall, accordingly, first survey the structure of this chapter on the basis of the classification added in the revised PV itself and deriving from the AA and AAA.

Chapter Six: Anupurvabhisamaya (Gradual Intuition)

O. samanyenanupurvabhisamaya (Gradual Intuition in General)

The Six Perfections

1. danaparamita (The Perfection of Giving)

2. silaparamita (The Perfection of Morality)

3. ksantiparamita (The Recollection of Patience)

4. viryaparamita (The Perfection of Energy)

5. dhyanaparamita (The Perfection of Meditation)

6. prajnaparamita (The Perfection of Wisdom)

The Six Recollections

7. buddhanusmrti (The Recollection of the Buddha)

8. dharmanusmrti (The Recollection of the Dharma)

9. sanghanusmrti (The Recollection of the Samgha)

10. silanusmrti (The Recollection of Morality)

11. tyaganusmrti (The Recollection of Renunciation)

12. devatanusmrti (The Recollection of Deities)

13. sarvadharmabhavasvabhava (The Nonexistence of Own-being in Dharmas)

This chapter may be said to first explain the nonexistence of all beings, after which it goes on to describe the six perfections, the recollections (anusmrti), and progressive understanding by means of the knowledge that all beings have nonexistence as their own-being. Our manuscript corresponds to the latter half of the chapter, from section 7, buddhanusmrti to section 13, sarvadharmabhavasvabhava.(4)

An examination of this part of the revised Sanskrit text and the manuscript of the original PV, etc., enables us to point out the following techniques employed in revising the text.

1) The insertion of a set interrogative phrase calling for a reason - i.e., tat kasya hetoh (and why?) - and the addition of explanatory sentences before and/or after this phrase.

2) The expansion of the list of dharmas.

3) Additions and omissions. We find the addition of divisional indicators, based on the AA and AAA, only in the text of the revised PV; revisions of the PV may have occurred when it was recast in order that it might accord with the divisions of the AA.(5)

4) Formal adjustments to set phrases relating to the categorized dharmas.

We may, accordingly, cite the following passages as exemplifying the above techniques used in revising the text.

1.1 The set phrase on nonexistence (abhava)

tha hi tesa dharmanam svabhavo nasti yasya svabhavo nasti so abhavo *asmrti ama- (PV MS, recto 1. 8)

[ta]tha hi team dharmanam svabhavo nasti yasya sva-bhavo nasti. sah abhavah.* a[bhava]smrty ama[- nasikaro hi dharmanusmrti.] (AD, p. 6, 11. 18-20)

[ta]tha hi tesam dharmanam svabhavo nasti yesam sva-bhavo nasti te 'bhavah / tat kasya hetor asmrtir ama[- nasikara dharmanusmrtih/] (PV, p. 12, 11. 16-17)

'di ltar chos de dag la ngo bo nyid med de / gang la ngo bo nyid med pa de ni dngos po reed pa'i phyir ro //* [de bas na chos rjes su dran pa ni] dran par bya ba ma yin shing yid la bya ba ma yin no / (Ta, Phi 51a3)

de ni 'di ltar chos de dag la ngo bo nyid med do / gang la ngo bo nyid med pa de ni dngos po med pa'o / dngos po med pas ni dngos po med pa dran par mi nus te [ de ci'i phyir zhe ha/de ni 'di ltar dran pa med cing yid la bya ba reed pa [ni chos rjes su dran pa'o] (Tk, Di 76b1-2)

de ni 'di ltar chos de nag la ngo bo nyid med do / gang la ngo bo nyid med pa de ni dngos po med pa'o / dngos po med pas ni dngos po med pa dran par mi nus te / de ci'i phyir zhe na / de ni 'di ltar dran pa reed cing rjes su dran pa reed pa [ni chos rjes su dran pa'o] (Tt, Ca 225a4-5)

In reply to Subhuti's question on how the bodhisattva-mahasattva should develop the "recollection of dharmas (dharmanusmrti)," Sakyamuni expounds the concept of the non-own-beingness of dharmas from the standpoint of the recollection of dharmas. This is a passage typical of the PV line of texts.(6)

In both the AD and the PV MS the exposition consists of three stages: [1] [Because] these dharmas have no own-being. [2] What has no own-being is nonexistent. [3) Because the recollection of dharmas is a nonrecollection [and nonattention]. In neither case is there, however, the phrase tat kasya hetoh, asking the reason for the nonexistence (abhava) of that which is without own-being. The Tibetan Ta is identical to the AD and PV MS except for the addition of the word "therefore (de bas na)" (= tasmat) between [2] and [3].

By way of contrast, the revised PV contains the set phrase tat kasya hetoh, while the two Tibetan versions Tk and Tt insert the following explanatory comment before this phrase: "It is impossible to recollect the nonexistent by means of the nonexistent. And why? In this manner.... (dngos po med pas ni dngos po med pa dran par mi nus te/ de ci' i phyir zhe ha/de ni 'di ltar)." (It will also be noted that in [3] the Tt has rjes su dran pa reed pa [ananusmrti] instead of yid la bya ba med pa [amanasikara].)

Ordinarily speaking, to recollect dharmas means to be attentive to and recall dharmas. But the later compilers of the Prajnaparamita-sutra feared that the paradoxical expression "the recollection of dharmas is a nonrecollection and nonattention (asmrty-amanasikaro hi dharmanusrmrti[h])" would be misunderstood, and they accordingly added the above explanatory comment in accordance with their own understanding of this passage. This passage may be assumed to have evolved in this manner.

The corresponding passages in the Chinese translations are as follows:

[UNKNOWN TEXT OMITTED]

A glance at the above translations reveals that the more recent the date of translation, the longer the translation becomes. Firstly, apart from some differences in terminology, T221, the oldest translation, and T223, the second-oldest, basically consist of three stages and tally with the PV MS and AD, which omit the interrogative phrase tat kasya hetoh. A variant reading of T223, however, contains the corresponding phrase, namely, ho wei ku, thus evidencing a closer resemblance to the PV. The T220(3) differs from the T220(2) in that it adds the words marked with a double underline in stage [2], and its exposition consists in fact of four stages. In addition, the T220(2) and T220(3) also contain the words "nonrecollection and nonattention (pu-k'o-nien pu-k'o-ssu-wei)" (underscored with a wavy line), corresponding to the explanatory comment added to the Tibetan versions Tk and Tt. In conclusion it may be said that the T220(3) represents the most developed version of the AD-PV line of texts.

In the above we have been able to shed light on the process whereby the original text was gradually augmented with the addition of an interrogative phrase of reason and explanatory comments. Another example of the absence of the phrase tat kasya hetoh is found in the PV MS, recto 1.2.

1.2 Repeated revisions

samgho anusmartavya yava sarvvakaramjnata anupra-punisyati anusmrti amanasikarena (PV MS, recto 1. 11)

samghanusmrtih. (xxx)srapnoty[?] asmrty-amanasika-rena. (AD, p. 6, 11. 29-30)

samgho 'bhavasvabhavato 'nusmartavyo yo so bhaga-vatah sravakasamghas catvarah purusayugah / astau mahapurusapudgalas tat kasya hetos tatha hi tesam svabhavo nasti yesam svabhavo nasti te 'bhava abhavasvabhavapratibhavitas caivocyante catvarah purusayuga astau mahapurusapudgalah / tat kasya hetoh / asmrtir amanasikara samghanusmrtih sa iha samghanusmrtyam siksitvabhavasvabhavayogena ya-vat sarvakarajnatam anuprapsyati (PV, p. 12, 1. 24-p. 13, 1.2)

dge 'dun rjes su dran par bya ste / bcom ldan 'das nyan thos kyi dge 'dun skyes bu zung bshi dang / skyes bu gang zag brgyad pa gang yin pa de dag gi ngo bo nyid reed de / skyes bu zung bshi dang / skyes bu gang zag brgyad po de dag ni ngo bo nyid med cing dngos po med pa'i ngo bo nyid kyis phye ba yin te / de ni dngos po med pa nyid du yid la byas te / rnam pa thams cad mkhyen pa nyid thob pa nas (Ta, Phi 51a7-8)

dge 'dun rjes su dran pa sgom ste / bcom ldan 'das kyi nyan thos kyi dge 'dun / tshul khrims dang /ting nge 'dzin dang / shes rab dang / rnam par grol ba dang / rnam par grol ba'i ye shes mthong ba phun sum tshogs pa'i skyes zung bshi dang / skyes bu gang zag brgyad po de dag dngos po med pa'i ngo bo nyid du yid la byed do // de ci'i phyir zhe na / ... / de ci'i phyir zhe na / de ni 'di ltar dran pa med cing yid la bya ba med pa ni dge 'dun rjes su dran pa'o // rab 'byor de ltar byang chub sems dpa' sems dpa' chen po dge 'dun rjes su dran med pa de la bslabs sing / dngos po med pa'i ngo bo nyid kyi tshul gyis rnam pa thams cad mkhyen pa nyid kyi bar du yongs su rdzogs par byed do / (Tk, Di 76b6-77a2) (Tt, Ca 225b 1-4)

This passage constitutes part of the section on the "recollection of the sangha (samghdnusmrti)," among the six recollections. In the preceding line of the PV MS (1. 10) Sakyamuni asks, "Subhuti, how should the bodhisattva[-mahasattva develop the recollection of the sangha]?" and this is followed by an explanation of the method for practicing the recollection of the sangha. According to the PV MS, "the sangha is to be recollected [as being nonexistent], and by neither recollecting nor being attentive to the sangha one will attain to 'knowledge of all forms (sarvakarajnata)'." Among the AD-PV line of texts, this corresponds most closely to the AD.

The PV, on the other hand, is marked by considerable accretions. Following the statement that "the sangha has nonexistence as its own-being," it goes on to explain that the sangha of the Blessed One's disciples consists of the so-called "four pairs and eight categories of men," all of whom are without own-being, and that "the recollection of the sangha is to be learnt by the method of having nonexistence as own-being" (italicized passages). This exposition contains two interrogative phrases of reason, and in the case of the first, in particular, it is preceded by an explanatory comment on the sangha and then followed by a stereo-typed explication of non-own-beingness typical of the pV.(7)

Among the Tibetan versions, the Ta is in this instance closer in content to the PV than to the AD, stating as it does that the sangha of the disciples of the Blessed One consisting of the four pairs and eight categories of men is without own-being and has nonexistence as its own-being. The Tk and Tt, on the other hand, both affiliated to the PV, are virtually identical and have, in addition to the elaboration found in the Ta and PV, the additional comment that "the disciples of the Blessed One are endowed with [the five aggregates of the Dharma consisting of] morality, meditation, wisdom, liberation, and the knowledge-and-vision of liberation" (marked with underlined italics), thereby raising the status of the disciples on the basis of Abhidharma doctrine and suggesting repeated revisions of the text in later times.

The corresponding Chinese translations are as follows:

[UNKNOWN TEXT OMITTED]

Apart from the phrase "from the initial generation of the intent (ts'ung ch'u fa i)" not found in any of the other translations, T221 is the most succinct in its treatment of the recollection of the sangha and contains no accretions. T223, on the other hand, adds a short phrase corresponding to the reference to the four pairs and eight categories of men in the PV (fen-pieh yu fo ti-tzu chung), but there is as yet no evidence of the exposition of non-own-beingness corresponding to the underlined section in the PV.

Once we come to T220(3), translated by Hsuan-tsang, however, there are signs of excessive elaboration. In particular, the latter half of the passage in question (enclosed in square brackets) may be considered to have been added at the time of the compilation of T220(3): that is, as follows. The bodhisattva-mahasattva, who courses in perfect wisdom, trains the recollection of the sangha just as the nonexistence. The bodhisattva-mahasattva, who just trains the recollection of the sangha, will understand gradual activity, training and progress. The bodhisattva-mahasattva, who just thus understands gradual activity, training and profess, fulfills the progressive stages from beginning with the four fields of mindfulness (catvari smrtyupasthanani) to the knowledge of all forms (sarvakarajnata). And according to the fulfillment, the bodhisattva-mahasattva is fully awake to the 'knowledge of the all-knowing one (sarvajnajnana)'.

The term 'knowledge of the all-knowing one (i-ch'ieh-chih-chih)' is based on the doctrine of the three kinds of knowledge that developed in the T221 (the sra-vaka's 'knowledge of everything [i-ch'ieh-chih],' the bodhisattva's 'knowledge of the aspect of the path [tao-hsiang-chih],' and the Buddha's 'knowledge of all forms [i-ch'ieh-hsiang-chih]').(8) Although the T223 contains no reference to this knowledge, the T221 mentions 'sa-yun-jo' (sarvajnata = i-ch'ieh-chih). Hsuan-tsang's translation, on the other hand, has i-ch'ieh-hsiang-chih, corresponding to sarvakarajnata / rnam pa thams cad mkhyen pa nyid in the PV MS and the three Tibetan translations, and it further adds the still more developed term i-ch'ieh-chih-chih (sarvajnajnana). Generally speaking, the T220(3) resembles the PV in content, but in this instance it is even more detailed than the PV. But its elaboration is of the same stereotyped content as that found in its sections on the other recollections, and it is possible that in this case the accretion is merely the result of a "formal adjustment."

The text with the most marked additions is T220(2), again translated by Hsuan-tsang. For example, where T220(3) has "the assembly of the Buddha's disciples is endowed with various merits," T220(2) adds that the Buddha's disciples are endowed with morality and the other five aggregates of the Dharma. This tallies with the aforementioned Tibetan translations of the PV (Tk and Tt), and represents an example of composite textual revision. In this manner, with the passage of time, considerable use was made of the interrogative phrase of reason tat kasya hetoh, preceded or followed by various explanatory comments.

2. Et cetera (pyalam)

smrtyupasthanesu siksitavya pyalam yava mahakarunayam siksitavya so bodhimarga ... (PV MS, verso, 1. 7) x x x mahakaru)nayam siksitavyam. sa ca bodhimarge

[siksamana] (AD, p. 7, II. 30-31) smytyupasthanasamyakprahanarddhipadendriyabalabo-dhyangmargesu siksitavyam / aryasatyapramana-dhyanarapyavimoksasamadhisamapattidharanimu-khesu siksitavyam / s

u siksitavyam / abhavasvabhavayogena / dasasu paramaitasu dasasu bodhisattvabhumisu siksitavyam / mahakarunayam siksitavyam / sa evam bodhimarge [siksamano] (PV, p. 14, II. 14-19)

dran pa nye bar gzhag pa bshi la bslab par bya'o // de bzhin du sbyar te / snying rje chen po'i bar la bslab par bya'o // de de ltar byang chub kyi lain la [slob na] (Ta, Phi 52b1-2)

dran pa nye bar gzhag pa rnams la bslab par bya'o / /yang dag par spong ba dang//rdsu 'phrul gyi rkang pa dang / dbang po dang / stobs dang / byang chub kyi yan lag dang / lam la bslab par bya'o // 'phags pa'i bden pa dang / bsam gtan dang / tshad med pa dang / gzugs med pa'i snyoms par 'jugs pa dang / rnam par thar pa brgyad dang / mthar gyis gnas pa'i snyoms par 'jug pa dgu dang / stong pa nyid dang / mishan mamed pa dang / smon pa reed pa'i ting nge 'dzin dang / mngon par shes pa dang / ling nge 'dzin dang / gzungs kyi sgo dang / de bzhin gshegs pa'i stobs bcu dang / mi 'jigs pa dang / so so yang dag par rig pa dang / byams pa chen po dang / shying rje chen po dang (Tk, Di 78b1-4)

dran pa nye bar gzhag pa rnams la bslab par bya'o // yang dag par spong ba dang / ... / ting nge 'dzin la snyoms par 'jug pa dang / gzungs kyi sgo rnams la bslab par bya'o // stong pa nyid dang / mtshan ma med pa dang / smon pa reed pa'i ting nge 'dzin dang / dngos po med pa'i ngo bo nyid kyi tshul gyis de bzhin gshegs pa'i stobs dang / rai 'jigs pa dang / so so yang dag par rig pa dang / sangs rgyas kyi chos ma 'dres pa bcu brgyad la bslab par bya' o // pha rol tu phyin pa bcu po rnams la bslab par bya'o // shying rje chen po la bslab par bya'o (Tt, Ca 227a5-227b1)

This line of the PV MS may be interpreted as follows: "The fields of mindfulness should be learnt, and as far as great compassion should be learnt. He who [learns] the path to enlightenment [in this manner] ..." Unfortunately, the corresponding expanded portion of doctrinal categories in the AD is damaged (x x x), but it is to be surmised that it did not differ greatly from the PV MA. The Tibetan translation of the AD (Ta) tallies so closely with the PV MS that it could be almost described as a translation of it. But it is difficult to find correspondences in the remaining texts affiliated to the PV, and, judging from the context, it is to be assumed that the lists of doctrinal categories found in the PV and its Tibetan translations (italicized passages) correspond to the abbreviated expression pyalam yava of the PV MS (corresponding to de bzhin du sbyar te in the Tibetan Ta).

As for the four Chinese translations, if we focus on the abbreviated expression pyalam yava of the PV MS, we find that T221, although employing a different expression, summarizes the various doctrinal categories with the statement that "one should learn the thirty-seven factors [of enlightenment] and great compassion and great pity" [UNKNOWN TEXT OMITTED] (121b16). There is, however, no corresponding passage in T223 (386a20) [UNKNOWN TEXT OMITTED]. The corresponding passage in T220(3) [UNKNOWN TEXT OMITTED]. (711c19-21) is considerably shorter than that of T220(2) [UNKNOWN TEXT OMITTED] (357c25-358a4) and is close to that of the PV MS, while T220(2) gives the most detailed list of doctrinal categories, and these find correspondences only in the PV.

It may be noted here that there are numerous instances in which the abbreviated expression yava sarvvakaramjnata of the PV MS is expressly expanded.(9) Hsuan-tsang's translations, in particular, show evidence of having added for stylistic reasons categories that were originally missing and of having listed all the dharmas of a particular category when they had been abbreviated, although it is not clear whether these features were characteristics of the Sanskrit text employed by Hstian-tsang or whether they are the results of Hsuan-tsang's own embellishments. Be that as it may, a distinctive feature of Hsuan-tsang's translations is that among the various versions of the Prajnaparamita-sutra, with its many repetitions, they preserve a reasonably consistent style.

3.1 The recollection of dharmas (dharmanusmrti)

tavya yatra anopi smrti nasti ka pu[na]rvvadam. smrtikarmo? *katham ca Subhuti bodhisa ... (PV MS, recto, 1. 10) *kathan ca Subhu)te bodhisattvena (AD, p. 6, 1. 24)

(bhavayi)tavya yatranv api smrtikarma nasti kah punar-vadah smrtivigamah // iti dharmanusmrtih // *katham ca Subhute bodhisa(ttvena) (PV, p. 12, 11. 21-23)

[bsgom par ]bya ste / de la ni dran pa'i chos phra rab tsam yang med na / dran pa dang bral ba lta ci smos / *rab 'byor byang chub [sems dpa'... ] ji ltar [bsgom zhe na] (Ta, 51a5-6)

dran pa'i las rdul tsam yang yod pa'am / dran pa dang bral bar 'gyur ba lta ci zhig smos / *rab 'byor ji ltar na byang chub (Tk, 7664-5)

dran pa'i ias rdul tsam yang yod pa'am / dran pa dang bral bar 'gyur ba lta ci zhig smos zhes bya ba ni chos rjes su dran pa yin no / */ rab 'byor ji ltar na byang chub (Tt, 225a7-8)

This passage coincides with a division in the text, with the first half belonging to the section on the recollection of dharmas and the second half belonging to the section on the recollection of the sangha. The second half, from katham (marked with an asterisk) onwards, represents the opening words of the section on the recollection of the sangha, and it poses no particular problems since it is found in all versions of the text. Here we shall consider the pveceding first half of this passage, representing the conclusion to the section on the recollection of dharmas, for it merits our attention, in that it clearly demonstrates the process of elaboration undergone in the PV line of texts. We shall first translate the different versions of the passage linking the two sections on the recollection of dharmas and the recollection of the sangha.

AD "[... is to be cultivated.] *Subhuti, how [should] a bodhisattva[-mahasattva cultivate the recollection of the samgha?]"

PV MS "[... is to be....] There is no mindfulness there whatsoever, let alone any act of mindfulness. *Subhuti, how [should] a bodhisattva[-mahasattva cultivate the recollection of the samgha?]"

PV "[... is to be cultivated]. There is no act of mindfulness [there] whatsoever, let alone any cessation of mindfulness. The above is the recollection of dharmas. *Subhuti, how [should] a bodhisattva[-mahasattva cultivate the recollection of the samgha?]"

Ta "[... is to be cultivated]. There is no dharma of recollection there whatsoever, let alone any cessation of mindfulness. *Subhuti, how [should] a bodhisattva[-mahasattva cultivate the recollection of the samgha?]"

Tk "[There is no thought of existence there, nor even any thought of nonexistence.] There is no act of mindfulness whatsoever, let alone any cessation of mindfulness. *Subhuti, how [should] a bodhisattva[-mahasattva cultivate the recollection of the samgha?]"

Tt "[There is no thought of existence there, nor even any thought of nonexistence.] There is no act of mindfulness whatsoever, let alone any cessation of mindfulness. The above is the recollection of dharmas. *Subhuti, how [should] a bodhisattva[-mahasattva cultivate the recollection of the samgha?]"

In the passage in question, our Central Asian fragment begins with the statement that "[the recollection of dharmas is to be cultivated.] There is no mindfulness (smrti) there whatsoever, let alone any act of mindfulness (smrti-karma)." In the AD this portion is completely missing, and this would suggest that the PV MS added a concluding statement to the text of the AD. But in the Ta, which ought to represent a translation of the AD, not only do we find words corresponding to the first half of the passage in question in the PV MS, but the form they take - namely, "there is no dharma of mindfulness (dran pa'i chos) there whatsoever, let alone any cessation of mindfulness" - bears a resemblance rather to the PV or PV MS.

The PV itself, with its statement that "there is no act of mindfulness there whatsoever, let alone any cessalion of mindfulness (smrti-vigama)," adopts an emphatic negative to negate 'mindfulness,' thus differing somewhat from the PV MS with its negation of 'mindfulness' and the 'act of mindfulness,' but this does not alter the fact that it is still 'mindfulness' that is being negated. But in the context of the extant PV there does not appear to be any impelling need to refer to the 'cessation of mindfulness,' and it may be regarded as a purely formal adjustment. In addition, the PV inserts the divisional indicator "the above is the recollection of dharmas," thus providing further evidence of later revision of the text.

Among the Tibetan translations, the Tt tallies completely with the PV except for the initial sentence enclosed in square brackets, while the Tk lacks the divisional indicator of the Tt and preserves a slightly older form than that of the PV and Tt.

The corresponding passages in the Chinese translations are as follows:

[UNKNOWN TEXT OMITTED]

Among the Chinese translations, T221 lacks the first half of this passage, while T223 tallies with the PV MS with the difference that the former has "recollection of dharmas (nien-fa [dharmanusmrti])" where the latter has "act of mindfulness (smrti-karma)," As for T220(2) and T220(3), the former introduces the concept of non-own-beingness as constituting the basis of nonrecognition, and whereas the concept mediating between non-own-beingness and the negation of the recollection of dharmas is smrti in T223, in T220(2) and T220(3) it is dharma. It is maintained, in other words, that "(if everything is without own-being) dharmas (/mindfulness) cannot be recognized, let alone the recollection of dharmas," and hence the import of the argument of T220(2) and T220(3) is identical to that of T223. A clear distinction should perhaps, however, be made between these Chinese translations and the Tibetan Ta and Tk, with their reference to the "cessation of mindfulness." Furthermore, in view of the fact that a divisional indicator has been inserted only in the PV and Tt, these two texts may be regarded as representing the final stage of development. Hence, on the basis of a textual comparison of this section alone, it is possible to postulate the following sequence of textual revision: AD, T221 [right arrow] PV MS, T223, T220(3), T220(2) [right arrow] Ta, Tk [right arrow] PV, Tt.

3.2 The recollection of the samgha (samghdnusmrti) karmo nasti katham ca Subhuti bodhisatvena maha-satvena silanusmrti manasikarttavya iha [[center dot]]u... (PV MS, recto, 1. 12)

kathan ca Subhute bodhisattvena mahasattvena sila)-nusmrtir bhavayitavya? iha Subhute (AD, p. 6, 11. 32-33)

[yatranv api smrti]karma nasti kah punarvadah smr-tivigamah // iti samghanusmrtih // katham ca Subhute bodhisattvena mahasattvena silanusmrtir bhavayitavya / iha Subhute (PV, p. 13, 11. 4-7)

[de la ni dran pa'i chos phra rub tsam yang] med do // rub 'byor byang chub sems dpa' sems dpa' chen pos tshul khrims rjes su dran pa ji ltar bsgom zhe na / rub ['byor] (Ta, 51b1-2)

[dran pa'i] las rdul tsam yang yod pa 'am / dran pa dang bral bar 'gyur ba lta ci zhig smos / rub 'byor ji ltar na byang chub sems dpa' sems dpa' chen po tshul khrims rjes su dran pa sgom pa yin zhe na / rub ['byor] (Tk, 77a3-4)

[dran pa'i] las rdul tsam yang yod pa'am / dran pa dang bral bar 'gyur ba lta ci zhig smos / rub 'byor ji ltar na byang chub sems dpa' sems dpa' chen po tshul khrims rjes su dran pa sgom pa yin zhe na / rub ['byor] (Tk, 77a3-4)

[dran pa'i] las rdul tsam yang yod pa'am / dran pa dane bral bar 'gyur ba lta ci zhig smos zhes bya ba ni dge 'dun rjes su dran pa yin no // rab 'byor ji ltar na byang chub sems dpa' sems dpa' then po tshul khrims rjes su dran pa sgom pa yin zhe na / rub ['byor] (Tt, 22565-6)

This passage corresponds to the concluding portion of the section on the "recollection of the sangha (samghanusrmrti)" quoted in 1.2 above and to the opening portion of the following section on the "recollection of morality (silanusmrti)." The first half of the PV - namely, "there is no act [of mindfulness (smrti-karma) there whatsoever], let alone any cessation of mindfulness (smrti-vigama)" - is, however, missing from the AD, while if we compare the PV and PV MS, we find that the divisional indicator and the immediately preceding words of the PV - namely, "... let alone any cessation of mindfulness. The above is the recollection of the sangha" (marked with underlined italics) - is not found in the PV MS. (The Tk and Tt, the two Tibetan translations corresponding to the PV, tally with the PV except for the omission of the divisional indicator in the Tk.)

[UNKNOWN TEXT OMITTED]

The Tibetan Ta, on the other hand, omits the phrase "let alone any cessation of mindfulness" found in the previous example and adopts an intermediate form, namely, "there is no dharma of mindfulness (smrti-dharma) there whatsoever." It is to be surmised that the "dharma of mindfulness" of the Ta changed to the "act of mindfulness" in the PV MS and further separated into the "act of mindfulness" and "cessation of mindfulness" in the PV. This would suggest a four-stage process of textual revision and elaboration, namely, from the AD to the Ta, from the Ta to the PV MS, and from the PV MS to the PV. Let us now translate the four different conclusions to the section on the recollection of the sangha.

AD "Subhuti, in this manner the bodhisattva-mahasattva should cultivate the recollection of the samgha."

Ta "Subhuti, in this manner the bodhisattva-mahasattva should cultivate the recollection of the samgha. There is no dharma of mindfulness there whatsoever."

PV MS "Subhuti, in this manner the bodhisattva-mahasattva should attend to the recollection of the samgha. There is no act of mindfulness there whatsoever."

PV "Subhuti, in this manner the bodhisattva-mahasattva should cultivate the recollection of the samgha. There is no act of mindfulness there whatsoever, let alone any cessation of mindfulness."

This format will lead to more or less the same result as in our first example. The corresponding Chinese translations adopt the same form as the conclusion to the foregoing recollection of dharmas.

T221 thus tallies with the AD, while T223, T220(2) and T220(3) resemble one another. Although there is a difference as to whether it is 'mindfulness' (T223) or 'sangha' (T220[2], T220[3]) that is first negated, in both cases this is followed by "let alone any recollection of the sangha," and the final result is the same negation of the recollection of the sangha. Although their context differs somewhat, they may be said to be close to the PV MS.

Next, as regards the mode of expression, there are minor differences between these three Chinese translations and the PV MS and Ta, but since this emphatic form of negation also appears in the PV, Tk and Tt, these texts may be said to represent a similar stage of textual revision. But as regards the object of this negation, one may perceive a similarity between Ta (smrti-dharma) and T223 (nien). This accords approximately with our previous conclusion.

It is also possible to draw a similar conclusion from the passage bridging the concluding portion of the section on the "recollection of abandonment (tyaga-nusmrti)" and the opening portion of the section on the "recollection of the gods (devatanusmrti)."(10)

1 See Sh. Watanabe, "Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita, VII: Ekaksanabhisamayadhikarah (1)," Toyo Daigaku Daigakuin Kiyo 27 (1991), esp. pp. 131-36.

2 We consider that both the AD and the PV were originally subsumed under the title Prajnaparamita. As the number of Prajnaparamita texts multiplied in India, it became necessary to give them separate designations for the sake of identification. This was accomplished at a later date by naming them according to the number of lines that they contained, and so we have rather mundane titles such as Satasahasrika (100,000), Pancavimsatisahasrika (25,000) and Astadasasahasrika (18,000). But this method of designation was not employed in China. For example, one Chinese version of the PV, translated by Moksala, was entitled the Fang-kuang (T221) on the basis of the title of its first chapter, while another version was called the Kuang-tsan (T222), on the same principle, as was also the Tao-hsing (T224), a translation of the AD. The appellations Ta-p'in (T223) and Hsiao-p'in (T227) for Kumarajiva's translations are designations merely for the sake of distinction, and the proper title of both is Maha-prajna-paramita (-sutra).

3 Japanese scholars have generally regarded the AD and PV as belonging to the same line of texts, which they have referred to as the "Fang-kuang line" or "Ta-p'in line" after the Chinese titles. Since the Sanskrit texts and Tibetan translations of the AD and PV belong to the same category, we consider this classification to be very appropriate. But being based on the Chinese versions corresponding to the PV, the terms "Fang-kuang line" and "Ta-p'in line" may give the misleading impression that this grouping excludes the AD and its Tibetan and Chinese translations. In the present case, we therefore advocate the use of the designation "AD-PV line" for this group.

4 See Sh. Watanabe, "Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita, VI:Anupurvabhisamayadhikarah," Toyo Daigaku Daigakuin Kiyo 25 (1989): 180-81.

5 See Nancy R. Lethcoe, "Some Notes on the Relationship between the Abhisamayalamkara, the Revised Pancavimsatisahasrika, and the Chinese Translations of the Unrevised Pancavimsatisahasrika," JAOS 96 (1976): 511.

6 We have discussed the subject matter of this passage typical of the theory of non-own-beingness in our paper "'Hannya-kyo' ni okeru abhava no yoho abhava (Abhava in the Prajnaparamita Sutras)," Indogaku Bukkyogaku Kenkyu 37.2 (1989): 121-25.

7. See n. 6.

8 See Kajiyoshi Koun, Daijo Bukkyo no seiritsu-shiteki kenkyu (A study of the history of the development of Mahayana Buddhism) (Tokyo: Sankibo Busshorin, 1980), 635-51.

9 Cf. PV MS, recto 1. 11; PV, p. 12, 1. 25-p. 13, 1. 1; T221, p. 121a27 (simpler than the AD and PV MS); T223, p. 386a1 (also simpler than the AD and PV MS); T220(2), p. 357a9-20 (close to the PV).

10 Cf. PV MS, verso 1. 1; AD, p. 7, 11. 12-13; PV, p. 13, 11. 26-27; Tk, Di f. 7768; Tt, Ca f. 226b3; Ta, Phi f. 52a1-2; T221, p. 121b7; T223, p. 386a12-13; T220(2), p. 357c1-2; T220(3), p. 711b23-25.

CONCLUSIONS

Manuscripts of the PV line

The first mention of the unrevised PV in Chinese records is the reference to Chu Shih-hsing [UNKNOWN TEXT OMITTED] having obtained the Sanskrit manuscript of T221 in Khotan in A.D. 260.(11) Approximately four hundred years then elapse until Hsuan-tsang's translation of the T220 in 660-63, and there is evidence of notable developments and modifications in texts affiliated to the PV during this period. Our manuscript (PV MS) is a manuscript of an old type belonging to the line of the unrevised PV, and it preserves a slightly more developed form than the T221, also originating from Khotan. As has been pointed out on more than one occasion in the above, it bears a closer resemblance to the Tibetan translation of the AD (Ta) than to the Tibetan translation of the unrevised PV (Tk), while, among the Chinese translations, it is closest to the T223 and closer to the T220(3) than to the T220(2). Hence, although our manuscript is closely related to the AD line, it clearly differs from the AD originating from Gilgit, and in view of the existence of passages tallying with the PV, we have identified it as an old manuscript of the PV. It is likely that several versions of the Prajnaparamita-sutra similar to this type of old manuscript were circulating at the time in Khotan.

Modes of Textual Revision

Following a comparison of our manuscript with the various texts of the AD-PV line, it has been possible to shed light on the process whereby the texts affiliated to the PV underwent revision. The modes of textual revision adopted were as follows:

1) The adjustment of format on the basis of traditional doctrinal categories. In other words, the phrase "all dharmas" is replaced by detailed lists of various categories of dharmas, giving the impression that the Prajnaparamita-sutra wished to present itself as an exposition of Mahayana Abhidharma.

2) The explanatory elaboration of earlier texts. The phrase "and why?" is added to a statement in the original text, and by explaining the reason in reply to this interpolated question the surrounding context is consequently coordinated and expanded.

3) Standardization and formal adjustments towards this end within each text. The various texts of the AD-PV line represent different stages of textual development. As the Prajnaparamita-sutra with its many repetitions evolved, there arose various irregularities, and the compiler(s) or translator(s) of each text made internal adjustments so as to remove these irregularities, resulting in repetitions of similar patterns.

4) The insertion of divisional indicators in the revised PV. This is a modification found only in the revised PV, in which divisional indicators are added to the unrevised PV and the surrounding context is coordinated.

In our foregoing discussions we have been able to gain a glimpse of these four modes of textual revision, and as a result we have come to hold the following views in regard to the Urtext of the PV.

Conclusion Based on the Differences between the Various AD-PV Texts

To date, comparative studies of texts affiliated to the PV have presupposed the existence of a stereotypical PV. But the discrepancies between these texts as discussed in our present study are sufficiently diverse to cause one to abandon this assumption, and these discrepancies are so great that the texts in question cannot be regarded as different translations of a single base text. Furthermore, it is impossible to differentiate clearly between texts affiliated to the PV and those affiliated to the AD. We have accordingly proposed that all these texts be referred to collectively as the AD-PV line, and we have examined them on the basis of this line of thinking.

The conclusion that we have reached is that there exists no standard text of the AD or PV and that these texts ought to be regarded as "a group of affiliated sutras that developed independently of one another." They do, of course, have points in common in regard to the content of the thought to which they give expression, and recognizing common points in this respect, we have suggested the need for constructing an Urtext.

Therefore, this Urtext is not a text existent in the normal meaning; it represents nothing more than a provisional concept to assist, when considering the evolution of the many texts of the Prajnaparamita-sutra presently extant, in clarifying the current of development and elucidating the process of historical inevitability that produced the extant texts. By postulating a single source, it becomes possible to explain systematically the variations in the philosophical development of Prajnaparamita literature as a whole. Our Urtext is a factitious and hypothetical text born of such requirements.

This means, in particular, that, in this sense, the extant AD and the unrevised PV have a common Urtext. This Urtext evolved into what came to be historically known as the Prajnaparamita, which was then quoted in various treatises. The extant texts of the AD-PV line represent variations born of this Urtext, and the old manuscript examined in the above and regarded as being affiliated to the PV is one such early example.

11 "Fang-kuang ching hou-chi (Postscript to the Fang-kuang ching)," Ch'u san-tsang chi chi (Collection of notes concerning the translation of the Tripitaka), Taisho Shinshu Daizokyo, vol. 55, p. 47a.
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Author:Watanabe, Shogo
Publication:The Journal of the American Oriental Society
Date:Jul 1, 1994
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