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A comparative study of nasal ergonomics of two ethical groups.

INTRODUCTION: Anthropometry is a method of estimating the length, breadth, height, depth, thickness or circumference of segments of human body [Jamison P et al, 1939]. Anthropometric studies have been found useful in craniofacial surgery, otolaryngology [Farkas 1996],

This Farkas 1996 is for otolaryngology or orthodontics. The author should clear this. Farkas is before and or after Orthodontics and in reconstruction of face from skull in medico legal cases. Facial measurements are affected by various parameters including age, sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic factors and environment. According to categorization of various facial indices was introduced by Broca in 1875.

Ergonomics is defined as a design of working system in which human being interact with machines. It is the science of fitting the workspace to the worker not the worker to workspace. By virtue of this ergonomic study the design industry can also benefit and provide better and more comfortable mask, spectacles, nasal specula, etc.

The present study was undertaken to observe the midline nasal ergonomics of [Meena and Jat] above 18 years of age and difference in nasal parameters of Meena and Jat.

MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study was conducted on the subjects from the two ethnic communities Meena and Jat of Rajasthan. A random sample of people above 18 years of age was chosen for examination [50 Meena and 50 Jat] landmark were selected as given below.

1. Nasion

2. Sub-nasale

3. Pronasale

4. Alare

NASION: a point in the midline of naso-frontal suture and nasal route was felt by palpating index finger tip.

SUB-NASALE: it is point on the junction between the apex of the angle formed by the lower border of the nasal septum and the surface of upper lip.

PRONASALE: The most prominent point on the nasal tip indentified in lateral view.

ALARE: on the living end point of the nasal breadth, the mutual in most distant points of the ala of the nose where medial movements of both limbs of spreading caliper were arrested.

The following projective measurements (shortest distance between two points were taken with the help of co-ordinate caliper.

Nasal breadth (NB)

Nasal length (NL)

Nasal height (NH)

Nasal depth (ND)

For measurement of deviation the subject was kept in rest position with vertical orientation of facial midline. The geometric protector was used to measure the deviation of nasal bridge from midline and deviation of columella from perpendicular.

The following nasal indices were calculated for each community

Nasal index = NBx100/NH

Nasal elevation Index = NDx100/NB

OBSERVATION: The present study reveals characteristic ethnic marker of each community examined and brings forth some striking features.

The nasal index and nasal elevation index were both found to differ most significantly [P<.001] showing a more leptorrhine and elevated nose in Jat males than Meena males. The present observation shows that both nasal index and nasal elevation is equally good indicator of ethnicity.

Table 1 illustrates the division of the sample studied in two categories around the mean ,highlighting how depending on the SD and mean of the sample, strikingly different range for the groups concerned for eg. in the very narrow or hyperleptorrhin category for NIX we find Jat subjects with a range of [72.21to 71.31]in contrast with Meena subjects with range [78.79 to 80.12] in the very same category. Hence, categorization magnifies and illustrates that the two groups are different. Again a subject with a value of (75.71) for nasal increase would, according to table 3 be classified wide nosed if he is a Jat but narrow nosed if a Meena subject.

A significant finding emerging from analysis of nasal bridge and columella deviation illustrated in table 4 is the greater degree of deviation of nasal bridge to the right side in Jat males.


HYPERLEPTORRHIN: having a very long narrow nose,

LEPTORRHIN: long narrow nose

MESORRHIN: having a moderately broad and high-bridged nose,

CHAMAERRHIN: broad nose,

HYPERCHAMAERRHIN: very broad nose.

DISCUSSIONS: Gloria Staka et al in 2011 studied the Nasal Index of Kosouo Albamian population, value of Nasal Index for Male Kosovo Albamian was 67.06 and for female it was calculated as 63.87.

Oladipo G. S. Eroje M.A. et al in 2009 observed the value of nasal index of Andoni and Okrita tribes of River state, Nigeria. They observed the NI of Andoni male and female as 79.83 and 83.77 while NI of Okrita male and female as 86.23 AND 86.46 respectively. Mean value of nasal index of Okrita Tribe was significantly higher than mean value of NI of Andoni population, p<.005. In our study the mean nasal breadth of Jat and Meena males are 3.53 and 3.66 cm respectively showing the p value as P>0.05. Uzam A, Bilgic S et al in 2006 observed the nasal anthropometric measurements in young Turkish males and observed nasal length and nasal bridge length; it was calculated as 56.92 and 55.26 mm respectively. Mean value observed for nasal breadth was 33.63mm.

N. V. Emelike, S.M. Garva et al in 2012 established anthropometric values for lip nose complex of Igbos males and females in Maiduguri, Male subject presented the value of nasal width and height higher than females, showing the significant relationship, p<0.05. Bae TH, YGY, Kimws, Kimtik et al in 2009 observed the nasal anthropometry of Koreans. Mean calculated value of breadth of nose for males was 37.63mm and for females it was 34.77mm.

Omotose, DR, Oludrian O et al in 2011 evaluated the nasal anthropometry of adult bini tribe in Nigeria. The calculated nasal breadth for male and female was 4.64cm and 4.42cm. In our study the calculated mean nasal height for Jat and Meena males is 4.73 and 4.36 cm. P value is p<0.001 showing significant relationship. Ototu et al in 2009 observed the nasal indices and bialar angle of Ibo and yourba ethnic group of Nigeria. The observed mean value of nasal height for male and female was 4.87cm and 4.40 cm respectively. Bae TH, YG Y, Kim WS,1 in 2009 observed the anthropometric study of nose in Koreans and calculated mean value of height of nose as 60.50mm and 59.14mm for male and female respectively.

Calculated mean value for nasal length for Jat and Meena males in our study is 4.88 and 4.44 cm respectively in our study. P value is <.001, shows significant relationship. Battacharya S, Jha N et al in 2009 observed the anthropometric relationship of Rai and limbo ethnic group showing the significant relationship, having the p value <.001. Oladipo G.S. et al in 2009 studied the anthropometric study of facial and nasal aspect of adult Igbo ethnic group of Nigeria and calculated the nasal length for igbo males as 4.87cm and for females it was 4.40 cm.

By virtue of this ergonomic study the design industry can also benefit and provide better and more comfortable mask, spectacles, nasal specula etc. In our present study the mean value for nasal deviation of nose for Jat and Meena males is 1.61 and 1.52 cm, highlighting that Meena male nose is to be less narrow, less elevated and less deviated than jat males.




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Rekha Parashar, Dhiraj Saxena, Navneet Parashar.

(1.) Ph.D. student, Department of Anatomy, SMS Medical College, Jaipur.

(2.) Associate professor, Department of Anatomy, SMS Medical College, Jaipur.

(3.) Assistant professor, Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Kota.


Mrs. Rekha Parashar, 918 Shanti nagar, Apposite Durgapura railway Station, Jaipur (Rajasthan).

TABLE NO. 1 Sample size

             Number of subjects   Average age in years

Jat male     50                   (18-25)
Meena male   50                   (18-25)

TABLE NO. 2 Nasal parameters of Rajasthan (Meena & Jat)

Nasal        Ethnic   Mean    S.D.    Mean    Mean      P
parameters   group     CM             +2SD    -2SD    value

Nasal         Jat     3.53    0.48    3.626   3.43    >0.05
breadth      Meena    3.66    0.115   3.89    3.40

Nasal         Jat     4.73    0.144   5.018    4.4    <0.001
Height       Meena    4.36    0.209   4.778   3.94

Nasal         Jat     4.88    0.172   5.224    4.5    <0.001
length       Meena    4.44    0.096   4.632    4.2

Nasal         Jat     1.61    0.030   1.67    1.55    <0.001
deviation    Meena    1.52    0.144   1.80    1.23

Nasal         Jat     74.61   2.20    79.01   70.21   <0.001
index        Meena    83.91   2.56    89.03   78.79

Nasal         Jat     45.78   0.953   47.68   43.87   <0.001
elevation    Meena    41.44   3.51    48.46   34.42

TABLE 3 Nasal index category

Ethnic   Sex   Mean   SD    Very narrow       Narrow       Medium
group                       hyperleptorrhin   Leptorrhin   Mesorrhin
                            -2SD to -1.5      1.5 SD to    5 SD
                            SD                -0.5 SD      to +0.5

Jat      M     74.6   2.2   70.21 - 71.31     77.31-       73.51-
               1                              73.51        75.71

Meena    M     83.9   2.5   78.79 - 80.12     80.12-       82.63-
              1      6                       82.63        85.19

Ethnic   Wide          Very Wide
group    Chamaerrhin   Hyperchamaerrhin
         +5 SD to      +1.5 SD to 2SD
         +1.5 SD

Jat      75.71-        77.91-79.01

Meen a   85.19-        87.75-89.03

TABLE 4 Nasal Bridge and Columella deviations found in Jat and
Meena Males with P values of comparison

Nasal          n(%)     R>L      deg.   P        n(%)    L>R
parameters              p

Nasal Bridge

Jat            11(22)   J v/s    3.9    J v/s    3(6)    J v/s
Meena          6(12)    M        2.5    M        3(6)    M
                        >0.05           <0.05            >0.05


Jat            1(2)     J v/s    2      J v/s    5(10)   J v/s
Meena          3(6)     M        0.81   M        0(0)    M
                        >0.05           >0.05            >0.05

Nasal          deg.   P        n(%)     p

Nasal Bridge

Jat            3.66   J v/s    14(28)   J v/s
Meena          4.00   M        9(18)    M
                      >0.05             >0.05


Jat            3.00   J v/s    6(12)    J v/s
Meena          0.00   M        3(6)     M
                      >0.05             >0.05

R: Right, L: Left, deg: Degree of deviation, n: number, M: Meena,
J: Jat
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Author:Parashar, Rekha; Saxena, Dhiraj; Parashar., Navneet
Publication:Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:May 20, 2013
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