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A comparative analysis of medicinal plants used to treat gastrointestinal disorders in two sub-districts of Greater Khulna Division, Bangladesh.

Introduction

The Indian sub-continent, which comprises of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan have a rich tradition of medicinal practices. Besides the comparatively newer practices of allopathic and homeopathic medicines, traditional medicinal practices include Ayurvedic, Unani and the Sidha systems of medicine. Dating back thousands of years ago, these three systems have become institutionalized with their specific medicinal books and customized practices. Other than the before-mentioned systems, another system exists, which can be termed as folk medicine, which is practiced by folk medicinal practitioners of various villages and tribes who are known as Kavirajes, Vaidyas or Ojhas in Bangladesh (note that Ayurvedic medicinal practitioners are also known as Kavirajes or Vaidyas; Ojhas generally apply to practitioners of tribal groups like the Santals) depending on the region. The Kavirajes practice a much simpler form of treatment with medicinal plants where a simple decoction or paste of the plant is usually used orally or topically for treatment of a given ailment. As a general rule, the folk medicinal practitioners avoid complex mixtures of plants or plant parts as well as elaborate formulations and preparations. The medicinal plant knowledge of the Kavirajes is kept closely guarded and passed on from generation to generation within the immediate family.

The folk medicinal practitioners do not have their own medicinal books or follow any standardized customs. As a result, the selection of a medicinal plant by a Kaviraj for treatment of any specific ailment is unique to the Kavirajes, and varies considerably between Kavirajes of a particular area or even villages (Nawaz, A.H. Md., 2009; Mia, Md. M.K., 2009; Hossan, Md. S., 2009). To get a comprehensive view of the medicinal plants used in folk medicinal treatments, one has therefore, go to Kavirajes of a particular area and interview them on their choice of plants. The attainment of such knowledge is important for a number of reasons. The first is that any individual Kavirajes' knowledge of medicinal plants is the result of accumulation of such knowledge over successive generations; as a result, the Kaviraj comes to possess substantial expertise on medicinal plants that he or she uses in his or her routine practices. A second reason is that through interviewing Kavirajes of different regions, one can build up a data-base of various plants used to treat any specific ailment. This knowledge or data-base is important for it can provide valuable guidance for further modern scientific studies on any plant in question. It may be pointed out in this regard that even of to-date a number of modern drug discoveries have been based on medicinal plants used by indigenous people (Balick, J.M. and P.A. Cox, 1996). It has been further reported that about 64% of the total world population uses traditional medicine to satisfy their health-care needs (Cotton, C.M., 1996). The number of papers published in ethnobotanical or traditional medicinal scientific journals attest to the fact that scientists are getting increasingly interested in ethnobotanical practices of indigenous people as a strategy for discovery of novel drugs against both ancient and newly emerging diseases.

The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes of Paikgacha and Rampal sub-districts (lying respectively in Khulna and Bagerhat districts of Khulna Division) on medicinal plants used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders or symptoms. Khulna and Bagerhat district adjoins each other; in fact they were not too long ago considered as a single district. Both districts lie in the south-western part of Bangladesh, contains major portions of the Sunderbans forest (with its rich diversity of mangrove species), have similar floral and faunal species and similar climatic conditions. In other aspects, the districts are akin to each other in that they are in close proximity to the Bay of Bengal and contain substantial amount of estuarine areas. The livelihood of the people is similar in Paikgacha and Rampal, both being subdistricts with agriculture as the main occupation. A large number of people from both survey areas use the Sunderbans forest to collect wood, fish, honey, and other forest products. A second objective of the study was to analyze any differences noted in the medicinal plants used in the two areas surveyed.

Materials and Methods

Area of survey

Paikgacha sub-district is a part of Khulna district and lies approximately between 89[degrees]15 - 89[degrees]25 E and 22[degrees]28 - 22[degrees]43 N. The annual average temperature of Khulna district ranges between a minimum of 12.5[degrees]C to a maximum of 35.5[degrees]C. Annual rainfall of Khulna district averages 1710 mm. The main occupation is agriculture and agricultural laborer and the main crops are paddy, jute, and vegetables. Rampal sub-district is a part of Bagerhat district and lies approximately between 89[degrees]35 - 89[degrees]55 E and 22[degrees]30 - 22[degrees]42 N. The annual average temperature of Bagerhat district ranges between a minimum of 12.5[degrees]C to a maximum of 33.5[degrees]C. Annual rainfall of Bagerhat district averages 1710 mm. The main occupation is agriculture and agricultural laborer and the main crops are paddy, jute, sugar cane and potatoes.

Data collection and mode of survey

Extensive interviews were conducted of the Kavirajes with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. A group of Kavirajes were chosen in both Paikgacha and Rampal area based on questioning common people of the two areas and noting down which Kavirajes were most frequently visited by them. Prior to the actual survey, in preliminary meetings with the Kavirajes, a list of gastrointestinal disorders or symptoms were prepared, which were the common gastrointestinal disorders treated by the Kavirajes in the two survey areas. Informed consent was obtained from each Kaviraj prior to the actual questioning. The Kavirajes were informed as to the purpose of the survey and consent obtained from them that the data may be disseminated in national or international conferences and scientific journals. The basic survey method followed was that of Martin (1995) and Maundu (1995), which is known as the guided field-walk method. In this method, the Kavirajes took the interviewers through guided field-walks to places from where they usually collected their medicinal plants. Plants were pointed out by the Kavirajes and local names and gastrointestinal disorders treated by the plants were given along with plant parts used and any other information, which the Kavirajes considered important. All data were cross-checked with the Kavirajes in later informal sessions attended by Kavirajes and any other interested people of the area. Plant specimens as pointed out by the Kavirajes were collected, pressed and dried on the field. All plant species collected were identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium.

Results

The various gastrointestinal disorders or symptoms treated by the Kavirajes of Paikgacha and Rampal area can be generally categorized as follows: indigestion, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence, piles (hemorrhoids leading to passing of blood in stool), helminthiasis (presence of intestinal worms), colic, and gastritis. A total of 20 plant species distributed into 20 families were found to be used in Paikgacha area while 19 plants distributed into 12 families were used by Kavirajes of Rampal area for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The results are summarized in Table 1. Taking both areas under consideration, the Asteraceae and the Fabaceae families provided the largest number of plant species contributing four plants from each family.

Whole plants as well as plant parts like leaf, stem, root, bark, fruit, flower, seed, and gum were used for treatment. The usual mode of treatment was extracting juice from crushed whole plant or plant parts followed by administration of the juice orally till cure. The Kavirajes did not provide any information on the amount of juice to be administered from any particular plant or plant part on grounds that it would hurt their interests if this information is known by others. The percent of use of whole plant or plant parts differed somewhat between Paikgacha and Rampal and is shown in Table 2. The differences were not great for use of whole plant, leaf, fruit, or seed. However, the use of bark was 17.6% at Paikgacha and 9.7% at Rampal. Flowers constituted 2.9% of total use at Paikgacha, while it was 6.5% at Rampal. Interestingly, the Kavirajes of Paikgacha did not use roots or gum of any plant in their preparations; the Kavirajes of Rampal did not use the stem of any plant in their preparations.

The most significant finding of the present survey was that the plant species used for treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders differed totally between the Kavirajes of Paikgacha and Rampal even though the two areas are in close proximity to each other, contains identical floral species, and have similar climatic conditions. The one plant that was commonly used by Kavirajes of both regions was Scoparia dulcis (Family: Scrophulariaceae). Even then, the Kavirajes of Paikgacha used the leaves, roots and seeds of the plant to treat dysentery, diarrhea, and colic. Interestingly, the Kavirajes of Rampal used the whole plant to treat constipation, which is the opposite of diarrhea or dysentery. Other than that, the differences between uses of plants in the two areas surveyed differed to the extent of dissimilarity not only in plant species and genera but also continued to plant family level. For instance, the Kavirajes of Paikgacha used the plants Pterocarpus santalinus, Moringa oleifera, Mirabilis jalapa, Zizyphus mauritiana, Nicotiana alata, and Cissus quadrangularis for treatment of indigestion. The above plants belong, respectively, to Fabaceae, Moringaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Rhamnaceae, Solanaceae, and Vitaceae families. On the other hand, the Kavirajes of Rampal used the plants Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta alba, Cuscuta reflexa, and Tamarindus indica for treatment of indigestion. These plants belong, respectively, to the Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Cuscutaceae, and Fabaceae families. The Fabaceae family was common in this instance; however, the plant species belonging to this family and used by the Kavirajes differed between Paikgacha and Rampal. With the exception of indigestion, the other gastrointestinal ailments treated by the Kavirajes of Paikgacha and Rampal did not demonstrate a single instance of the same family plant species being used in common, let alone same genera or same plant species. The results are shown in Table 3.

Discussion

A noteworthy feature of the present survey was the significant difference noticed between selections of plant species for treatment of the same ailment or symptom amongst Kavirajes of two areas in close proximity to each other. The expected finding would have been that given the similarities between geographical location, climatic conditions, socio-cultural factors, and common floral species, the plant species selected for treatment of any particular gastrointestinal disorder would be highly similar between Kavirajes of Paikgacha and Rampal. The actual findings indicate the contrary; not a single plant species was commonly used by the Kavirajes of Paikgacha and Rampal. Such differences have been observed before in other ethnobotanical studies. Etkins has also mentioned that even within small and apparently undifferentiated groups, heterogeneity exists as to perception of illness and mode of treatment (Etkins, N.L., 1993). Shepard demonstrated that the ethnobotany of two neighboring Amazonian peoples varies considerably in the use of essentially the same environment (Shepard, G., 2004). This brings forth the obvious question as to what leads a Kaviraj to select a plant in the first place for treatment of any ailment.

When queried on this point, the Kavirajes pointed to two possibilities. The first was that any individual Kaviraj would obtain his or her knowledge from somebody in his or her immediate family (usually father, mother, or uncle), who has practiced as a Kaviraj in the previous generation and this has continued for generations. Alternatively, the Kaviraj or his predecessor has obtained the requisite knowledge from a teacher whom they term as 'guru' in exchange for services or money. Once such knowledge is gained, it is closely guarded and not transferred to anybody except the children (who wishes to continue the generational practice) or to a disciple, who is also sworn to keep the knowledge exclusively to himself or herself. As a result, knowledge of medicinal plants becomes 'specialized' to a great extent. It is worth pointing out in this regard that the Kamba and Luo tribal traditional medicinal practitioners of Kenya also has been reported as owing their healing skills to training by knowledgeable kin, or buying such knowledge from a non-relative specialist (Owuor, B.O. and D.P. Kisangau, 2006). The second possibility behind the variations of medicinal plant selection between Kavirajes of different area that the Kavirajes pointed out is that they do not stop adding to their knowledge after their training period with a member of an earlier generation or a guru. They experiment with medicinal plants initially on cattle, later on upon their family members, and finally on patients. Thus the selection of medicinal plants is always an ongoing process, a fact also noted by other authors (Caniago, I. and S. Siebert, 1998; Garro, L.C., 1986; Trotter, R.T. and M.H. Logan, 1986). The basis for such experimentations is simple. For instance, bitter-tasting herbs or plants are usually experimented for treatment of diabetic patients. Red-leaved plants or red flowers are usually tested on women losing too much blood during menstruation. Occasionally, a plant may be chosen for its supposed similarity to a human organ, in which case the plant is experimented for any disorders related to that organ. It is not only that such experiments are conducted at present; the Kavirajes mentioned that their predecessors also experimented with plants and treatment of diseases. Over time, this has led to considerable diversification between plant species chosen by different Kavirajes for treatment of any given ailment.

The observed diversification of plant species between the Kavirajes of Paikgacha and Rampal to treat gastrointestinal disorders, which is a common occurrence throughout the country, highlights the importance of conducting ethnomedicinal surveys amongst Kavirajes of as many regions as possible throughout Bangladesh. It is possible that all plant species used by the Kavirajes may not prove suitable for treatment of the specific gastrointestinal ailment that they are used for by the Kavirajes. It is necessary to conduct proper scientific studies on the efficacy of a particular plant. On the other hand, the diversity of plant species used to treat gastrointestinal disorders provides a rich data-base from which potentially many lead compounds can be discovered to fight gastrointestinal disorders, which are prevalent throughout the world and particularly in developing countries like Bangladesh with improper hygienic conditions, poor sanitary systems, and lack of good quality potable water. If plants found in the common neighborhood or immediate vicinity can become a proven source for treatment of common sicknesses like gastrointestinal disorders, not only it can provide the patients with a cheap and accessible source of cure, but also spur efforts toward conservation of medicinal plants, which are fast becoming endangered throughout the world.

References

Balick, J.M. and P.A. Cox, 1996. Plants, People and Culture: the Science of Ethnobotany, Scientific American Library, New York, pp: 228.

Cotton, C.M., 1996. Ethnobotany: Principle and Application, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Caniago, I. and S. Siebert, 1998. Medicinal plant ecology, knowledge and conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Economic Botany, 52: 229-250.

Etkins, N.L., 1993. Anthropological methods in ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 38: 93-104.

Garro, L.C., 1986. Intracultural variation in folk medicinal knowledge: A comparison between curers and noncurers. American Anthropologist, 88: 351-370.

Hossan, Md. S., A. Hanif, M. Khan, S. Bari, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2009. Ethnobotanical survey of the Tripura tribe of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 253-261.

Mia, Md. M.K., M.F. Kadir, Md. S. Hossan and M. Rahmatullah, 2009. Medicinal plants of the Garo tribe inhabiting the Madhupur forest region of Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 165-171.

Martin, G.J., 1995. Ethnobotany: a 'People and Plants' Conservation Manual, Chapman and Hall, London, pp: 268.

Maundu, P., 1995. Methodology for collecting and sharing indigenous knowledge: a case study. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor, 3: 3-5.

Nawaz, A.H. Md., M. Hossain, M. Karim, M. Khan, R. Jahan and M. Rahmatullah, 2009. An ethnobotanical survey of Rajshahi district in Rajshahi division, Bangladesh. American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3: 143-150.

Owuor, B.O. and D.P. Kisangau, 2006. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2: 7-14.

Shepard, G., 2004. A sensory ecology of medicinal plant therapy in two Amazonian societies. American Anthropologist, 106: 252-266.

Trotter, R.T. and M.H. Logan, 1986. Informant consensus: A new approach for identifying potentially effective medicinal plants. In: Plants in indigenous medicine and diet: Biobehavioral approaches, N.L. Etkin (ED.), Redgrave Publishing Co., Bedford Hills, NY, pp: 91-112.

(1) Mohammed Rahmatullah, (2) Md. Ariful Haque Mollik, (2) Alok Kumar Paul, (2) Rownak Jahan, (3) Mst. Afsana Khatun, (2) Syeda Seraj, Anita Rani Chowdhury, (2) A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar, (2) S.M. Riajul Wahab, (4) M. Taufiq-ur-Rahman

(2) Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

(3) Present address: Dept. of Pharmacy, Lincoln College, Mayang Plaza, Block A, No 1, Jalan SS 26/2, Taman Mayang Jaya, 47301, Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

(4) Present address: Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road CB2 1PD, Cambridge, UK

Corresponding Author: Professor Dr. Mohammed Rahmatullah, Pro-Vice Chancellor University of Development Alternative House No. 78, Road No. 11A (new) Dhanmondi R/A, Dhaka-1205 Bangladesh Email: rahamatm@hotmail.com Fax: 88-02-8157339
Table 1: Medicinal plants used by Kavirajes in
Paikgacha area, Khulna district and Rampal area,
Bagerhat district, Bangladesh for treatment of
gastrointestinal disorders

Serial   Scientific Name        Family Name        Local Name
Number

1        Andrographis           Acanthaceae        Kalo-megh
         paniculata (Burm.
         f.) Wall. ex Nees

2        Hygrophila             Acanthaceae        Kulekhara-shak
         auriculata
         (Schumach.) Heine

3        Ruellia ciliosa        Acanthaceae        Chot-poti
         Pursh.

4        Thunbergia             Acanthaceae        Mahi-lota
         grandiflora Roxb.

5        Polyalthia             Annonaceae         Pankhi-raaz
         mossambicensis
         Vollesen

6        Philodendron selloum   Araceae            Gladiolus
         K. Koch

7        Calotropis gigantea    Asclepiadaceae     Akondo
         (L.) Ait.f.

8        Eclipta alba (L.)      Asteraceae         Khot-kushte
         Hassk.

9        Tagetes erecta L.      Asteraceae         Gada-phool

10       Vernonia cinerea       Asteraceae         Tula-urhi
         (L.) Less.

11       Xanthium italicum      Asteraceae         Heghra
         Moretti

12       Basella alba L.        Basellaceae        Pui-shak

13       Oroxylum indicum       Bignoniaceae       Hanghoal
         (L.) Vent.

14       Kalanchoe pinnata      Crassulaceae       Pathorkuchi
         (Lam.) Pers.

15       Momordica              Cucurbitaceae      Kakroal
         cochinchinensis
         (Lour.) Spreng.

16       Cuscuta reflexa        Cuscutaceae        Swornolota
         Roxb.

17       Dioscorea bulbifera    Dioscoreaceae      Matae-alu
         L.

18       Acalypha indica L.     Euphorbiaceae      Denari-shak

19       Excoecaria agallocha   Euphorbiaceae      Gewa
         L.

20       Caesalpinia bonduc     Fabaceae           Nata
         (L.) Roxb.

21       Cassia angustifolia    Fabaceae           Herangci
         Vahl.

22       Pterocarpus            Fabaceae           Rokto-chondon
         santalinus L.f.

23       Tamarindus indica L.   Fabaceae           Tetul-gach
         (L.)

24       Hyptis suaveolens      Lamiaceae          Tokma
         Poit.

25       Leucas aspera          Lamiaceae          Dron-pusphe
         (Willd.) Link

26       Cinnamomum tamala      Lauraceae          Tej-pata
         (Buch.-Ham.) Nees &
         Eberm.

27       Ficus carica L.        Moraceae           Tri-muki

28       Moringa oleifera       Moringaceae        Sajna
         Lam.

29       Ardisia solanacea      Myrsinaceae        Gota-gach
         Roxb.

30       Mirabilis jalapa L.    Nyctaginaceae      Shondha-maloti
         Peperomia pellucida
31       (L.) Kunth.            Piperaceae         Thosha-pata

32       Portulacaria afra      Portulacaceae      Jeet-gach
         (L.) Jacq.

33       Zizyphus mauritiana    Rhamnaceae         Borhoi
         Lam.

34       Nauclea latifolia      Rubiaceae          Jongli gulap-jam
         Sm.

35       Murraya koenigii       Rutaceae           Keri-pata
         (L.) Spreng

36       Scoparia dulcis L.     Scrophulariaceae   1. Misri-dana
                                                   2. Jongli dhonia

37       Nicotiana alata Link   Solanaceae         Jongli-tamak
         & Otto

38       Cissus                 Vitaceae           Haar-jora
         quadrangularis L.

Serial   Plant part(s)       Ailment(s)                  Area of
Number   utilized            treated                     use

1        Whole plant         Indigestion.                Rampal

2        Whole plant         Constipation.               Rampal

3        Whole plant         Constipation.               Rampal

4        Whole plant         Intestinal disorders        Paikgacha
                             (colic, diarrhea).

5        Stem, bark          Helminthiasis               Paikgacha
                             (infection by
                             parasitic worm in
                             the intestines).

6        Whole plant         Helminthiasis.              Paikgacha

7        Leaf, bark,         Piles                       Rampal
         flower, gum         (hemorrhoids).

8        Whole plant         Indigestion.                Rampal

9        Whole plant         Flatulence                  Rampal
                             (presence of
                             excessive gas in
                             the digestive tract).

10       Whole plant         Flatulence.                 Paikgacha

11       Leaf, fruit         Piles, colic                Rampal
                             (spasmodic pains
                             in the abdomen).

12       Leaf, seed          Flatulence.                 Paikgacha

13       Leaf, bark          Diarrhea.                   Rampal

14       Leaf                Diarrhea.                   Rampal

15       Fruit, seed         Flatulence.                 Paikgacha

16       Whole plant         Indigestion.                Rampal

17       Leaf, fruit         Diarrhea.                   Rampal

18       Leaf, root          Diarrhea.                   Rampal

19       Leaf, bark          Piles.                      Rampal

20       Leaf                Helminthiasis,              Rampal
                             constipation.

21       Whole plant         Flatulence.                 Rampal

22       Leaf, bark          Indigestion.                Paikgacha

23       Fruit, seed         Gastritis (chronic Rampal
                             or acute inflammation
                             of the stomach),
                             indigestion.
24       Leaf, bark          Constipation.               Paikgacha

25       Leaf, flower        Colic.                      Rampal

26       Leaf, bark          Colic.                      Paikgacha

27       Whole plant         Flatulence.                 Paikgacha

28       Bark, fruit         Indigestion.                Paikgacha

29       Leaf, fruit         Colic.                      Paikgacha

30       Leaf, flower        Indigestion,                Paikgacha
                             constipation.
31       Whole plant         Diarrhea.                   Rampal

32       Whole plant         Stomach ache.               Paikgacha

33       Leaf, fruit, seed   Indigestion.                Paikgacha

34       Leaf, bark, fruit   Piles.                      Paikgacha

35       Leaf, fruit         Flatulence.                 Paikgacha

36       1. Leaf, root,      1. Diarrhea,                1. Rampal
         seed                dysentery, colic.           2. Paikgacha
         2. Whole plant      2. Constipation.

37       Whole plant         Indigestion.                Paikgacha

38       Whole plant         Indigestion.                Paikgacha

Table 2: Comparative use of whole plant or
plant parts in Paikgacha and Rampal for treatment
of gastrointestinal disorders

Plant part    Percent (%) of use

              Paikgacha   Rampal

Whole plant   23.5        25.8
Leaf          26.5        32.3
Stem          2.9         0
Root          0           6.5
Bark          17.6        9.7
Fruit         17.6        9.7
Flower        2.9         6.5
Seed          8.8         6.5
Gum           0           3.2

Table 3: Comparative analysis of medicinal plants and
their families used by Kavirajes of Paikgacha and Rampal
area for various types of gastrointestinal disorders
and symptoms

Ailments/       Paikgacha, Khulna      Family
Symptoms        district Plant

Indigestion     Pterocarpus            Fabaceae
                santalinus L.f.        Moringaceae
                Moringa oleifera       Nyctaginaceae
                Lam. Mirabilis         Rhamnaceae
                jalapa L. Zizyphus     Solanaceae
                mauritiana Lam.        Vitaceae
                Nicotiana alata Link
                & Otto Cissus
                quadrangularis L.

Constipation    Hyptis suaveolens      Lamiaceae
                (L.) Poit. Mirabilis   Nyctaginaceae
                jalapa L. Scoparia     Scrophulariaceae
                dulcis L.

Dysentery,      Thunbergia             Acanthaceae
diarrhea        grandiflora Roxb.

Flatulence      Vernonia cinerea       Asteraceae
                (L.) Less. Basella     Basellaceae
                alba L. Momordica      Cucurbitaceae
                cochinchinensis
                (Lour.) Spreng.        Moraceae
                Ficus carica L.        Rutaceae
                Murraya koenigii
                (L.) Spreng

Piles           Nauclea latifolia      Rubiaceae
(hemorrhoids)   Sm.

Helminthiasis   Polyalthia mossambicensAnnonaceae
                Vollesen
                Philodendron selloum K.Araceae

Colic           Thunbergia             Acanthaceae
                grandiflora Roxb.      Lauraceae
                Cinnamomum tamala      Myrsinaceae
                (Buch.-Ham.) Nees &    Portulacaceae
                Eberm. Ardisia
                solanacea Roxb.
                Portulacaria afra
                (L.) Jacq.

Gastritis

Ailments/       Rampal, Bagerhat       Family
Symptoms        district Plant

Indigestion     Andrographis           Acanthaceae
                paniculata (Burm.
                f.) Wall. ex Nees      Asteraceae
                Eclipta alba (L.)      Cuscutaceae
                Hassk. Cuscuta         Fabaceae
                reflexa Roxb.
                Tamarindus
                indica L.

Constipation    Hygrophila             Acanthaceae
                auriculata
                (Schumach.) Heine      Acanthaceae
                Ruellia ciliosa        Fabaceae
                Pursh. Caesalpinia
                bonduc (L.) Roxb.

Dysentery,      Oroxylum indicum       Bignoniaceae
diarrhea        (L.) Vent. Kalanchoe   Crassulaceae
                pinnata (Lam.) Pers.   Dioscoreaceae
                Dioscorea bulbifera    Euphorbiaceae
                L. Acalypha indica     Piperaceae
                L. Peperomia           Scrophulariaceae
                pellucida (L.)
                Kunth. Scoparia
                dulcis L.

Flatulence      Tagetes erecta L.      Asteraceae

                Cassia angustifolia    Fabaceae
                Vahl.

Piles           Calotropis gigantea    Asclepiadaceae
(hemorrhoids)   (L.) Ait.f. Xanthium   Asteraceae
                italicum Moretti       Euphorbiaceae
                Excoecaria agallocha
                L.

Helminthiasis

                Caesalpinia bonduc (L.)Fabaceae

Colic           Xanthium italicum      Asteraceae
                Moretti Leucas         Lamiaceae
                aspera (Willd.) Link

Gastritis       Scoparia dulcis L.     Scrophulariaceae
                Tamarindus indica L.   Fabaceae
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Mollik, Ariful Haque; Paul, Alok Kumar; Jahan, Rownak; Khatun, Afsana; Seraj,
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9BANG
Date:Jan 1, 2010
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