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A community-based biodiversity survey in the parks and reserves of eastern and south-eastern Melbourne--results and perspective: Fauna Survey Group Contribution No. 29.

Introduction

Parks Victoria (PV) is a statutory organisation responsible for managing nearly 3000 parks, conservation reserves and natural features throughout the State of Victoria (Parks Victoria 2015a). It is estimated that these areas provide a home for some 4300 native plant and 948 native animal species (Parks Victoria 2015b). Key management directions for the organisation include the conservation and restoration of habitats, the reduction of over-abundant and invasive plant and animal species and a focus on habitats for threatened species (Parks Victoria 2013).

Whatever conservation action is put in place, it 'must be measured by rigorous monitoring and reporting on trends in species populations, ecosystems and threats' (Lindenmayer et al. 2012). This biodiversity monitoring provides guidelines for decision-making and allows the measurement of progress over space and time (Niemela 2000). However, Bell et al. (2008) acknowledge that resourcing the gathering of biodiversity information is a general problem and suggest that demand has outstripped the capacity of professional scientists and that the cost is prohibitive. In Australia lack of government support for biodiversity monitoring has contributed to this problem (Lindenmayer et al. 2012). Given that there have been large biodiversity monitoring projects which owe their success to the contribution of volunteers or citizen scientists (Schmeller et al. 2009, Bonney et al. 2009), the use of volunteer labour provides a real opportunity to meet this excess demand.

In this context the Fauna Survey Group (FSG) of the Field Naturalists Club of Victoria (FNCV) volunteered to assist Parks Victoria with a vertebrate fauna survey in parks and reserves to the east and south-east of Melbourne. Drury (2014) outlined the project's background and aims. Some changes to the original proposal occurred, with fewer reserves and focus areas actually covered. Also, lack of resources meant that no specific audio or visual bird surveys could be completed, although bird presence was recorded during other types of survey.

This survey covered three parkland complexes: Berwick, Dandenong Valley and sandbelt, and included a total of 16 parks, bushland reserves (BR) and nature conservation reserves (NCR) (Fig. 1). In this paper these will be generically referred to as reserves.

In the north-east of the study area, Wattle Park in suburban Burwood is used largely for recreation but has a small conservation area at its eastern end. Some 10 km to the east is Koomba Park, which has Boronia Rd as its northern boundary and marks the northern end of the Dandenong Valley Parklands. From Koomba Park, this parkland follows the Dandenong Creek in a southerly direction through Bushy Park, Nortons Park (not surveyed), Shepherds Bush, Jells Park and Corhanwarrabul Wetlands. These reserves occur in an urbanised part of Melbourne and are separated by major roads. The creek then flows south through open space (including a Melbourne Water retarding basin, other wetlands and recreation areas and a golf course) to Stud Road, where it meets the Berwick parkland at the Dandenong Police Paddocks Reserve.

Dandenong Police Paddocks Reserve, Churchill National Park and Lysterfield Park, make up the largest contiguous component of the study area. While most of the boundaries of these parks are rural or open space, they also provide an example of the urban/rural interface with the typically suburban blocks of Rowville on one side and larger blocks of Hallam North on another. Baluk Willam NCR and Selby G190 BR are outlier reserves a few kilometres from the main reserve to the north, both in a rural setting.

Also in Berwick parklands are Cardinia Creek Parklands and Cardinia Reservoir Park, which flank Cardinia Creek and occur in a largely rural setting. Upper Beaconsfield NCR (Critchley Parker Junior Reserve) is an outlier less than a kilometre from the creek and between the other two reserves.

The sandbelt parkland reserves included in the study were Braeside and Karkarook Parks. Braeside is the larger of the two and is bounded by a mixture of residential, industrial and open space. Karkarook is a small reserve, similarly bounded.

In total the area of the reserves exceeds 4500 ha, but individually they differ significantly in size. The largest component is Churchill/Lysterfield at 1668 ha and the smallest is Selby at 21 ha.

Forty focus areas of interest were selected by Parks Victoria, based on conservation and pest control issues. Focus areas varied in size. In some cases they consisted of the whole reserve, but in others a number of focus areas were selected within a reserve. The first surveys took place in March 2013. Most of the survey work was completed by April 2014, except for monitoring of the tiles and tin, which continued until the end of 2016.

Methods

The fauna survey

The study recorded the occurrence of birds, reptiles, frogs and mammals, including bats. The survey techniques used (Table 1) were remote cameras, harp trapping, hair funnels, spotlighting, aural frog surveys and the establishment and monitoring of artificial habitat (roof tiles and tin) for reptiles, amphibians and small mammals.

The application of techniques in a focus area depended on the nature of the issues for that area (i.e. conservation or pest species), its geography (e.g. not all had wetlands), the safety of the public and the security of equipment. This meant that not all techniques were deployed in every focus area. In general, the size of the survey effort was related to the size of the focus area. The survey effort for each reserve is summarised in Table 2.

A mixture of Ltl Acorn 6210M and Scoutguard 550V cameras were used for this project. Parks Victoria provided a grid of study waypoints 200 metres apart, in each focus area. There were 307 of these waypoints. The cameras were placed on a tree as close to a point as possible and were focused on a bait station (cage containing a tea infuser containing a mixture of peanut butter, oats and golden syrup as bait) on a plastic garden stake (Macak et al. 2012). All cameras were deployed for 21 days and set to video for 10 seconds (around 7 megabytes) with a 3-minute interval before they could be activated by another trigger. The sensitivity level was set to high. Half the cameras in each focus area were deployed in autumn/winter and the other half in spring/summer. Cameras were not deployed at 29 sites where there was either no access (e.g. lake or swamp), no tree within 30 metres of the waypoint, or if the site was considered too exposed to the public. In all, cameras were deployed at 273 sites. Images were uploaded to Dropbox[TM] for volunteers to review and record the species detected. They were reviewed a second time in cases where the first reviewer had been uncertain of the species, where the detection indicated a small mammal or where the species was 'out of area'. Some of the reviewers noted bird calls, but this had not been requested.

The hair funnels were all Faunatech Universal Hair Funnel (150 mm diameter). The funnels were deployed in rows of 10 and baited with peanut butter, oats and golden syrup. In most focus areas one row of 10 was deployed, but in the larger focus areas this was increased to two or three rows. Rows were between camera sites where the vegetation was thickest. The funnels were deployed only in autumn/winter when reptile activity is lowest. They were deployed for 10 nights at 36 sites.

Spotlighting, using red filters, was undertaken along transects within focus areas. Where possible, this was done along already defined tracks. There were 42 transects in all. Surveys usually lasted one hour. Animals were recorded if they were seen or heard within the first 30 minutes and then in 15 minute blocks thereafter. For safety purposes, areas of thick bush or steep terrain were avoided if there was no track.

Frog surveys were undertaken at wetlands in and around the focus areas and were carried out in accordance with the Melbourne Water Frogwatch program (Melbourne Water 2012). The frog advertisement calls were recorded for five minutes at each site. The surveys were scheduled at 45 sites in August, October and November 2013 and April 2014. Two surveys were scheduled each month, the dates being determined by the survey team. After each survey, the recordings were analysed by a team member to determine the species that had called at each site. The results were entered on a data sheet that included observer details, site information, species and number recorded and time, date and weather information. Recordings and data sheets were forwarded to the survey co-ordinator for review and then forwarded to Melbourne Water for further review and inclusion in their database. Recordings and results were also uploaded to Dropbox[TM] for the information of surveyors.

Bat trapping was carried out at 36 sites using harp traps. There were usually two traps deployed at each site. In more secluded areas traps were left out overnight, after being checked around 10.30 pm. Security and safety (of animals, traps and park users) was a concern in the more heavily used reserves, where the traps were dismantled after the 10.30 pm check.

Fifty-five artificial shelter quadrats were set up. Each quadrat consisted of 16 roof tiles arranged in a 4 x 4 grid, all tiles two metres apart, plus two or four sheets of corrugated iron, roughly 900 mm x 900 mm, which were placed at each end of the quadrat. The tiles and tin were checked six times between October 2014 and December 2016.

All records were entered into the Victorian Biodiversity Atlas.

Community involvement

Community involvement took place at two levels: project management and fieldwork. The project management component was carried by FSG, along with PV.

Project management involved survey design, grant applications, community and management briefings, training of staff and volunteers, communication with volunteers, activity scheduling, management of field visits data, equipment preparation, analysis and management, and report preparation.

Fieldwork opportunities were provided for volunteers as follows:

* The deployment of cameras and hair funnels;

* Analysis of camera images, which had been uploaded onto Dropbox for ease of distribution and access;

* Participation in spotlighting and bat trapping;

* Participation in aural surveys for frogs, supported by a Melbourne Water training session. These results have also been placed on Dropbox for information and training purposes;

* Participation in training sessions for tile and tin deployment for reptile surveys;

* Checking tin and tiles.

Community engagement commenced with information sessions at each of the three parklands, thus providing an overview of the project for interested parties. Email lists were developed to contact participants about activities and the extent of their interest. A progress session was held in December 2013 and another feedback session in November 2014, after most of the results were available.

Results

The fauna survey

Over 9800 vertebrate animal detections were made with identification to species level and 460 more to genus level or above. Detections by camera accounted for 85% of the total. There were 115 different species identified, comprising 64 birds, 29 mammals (including eight bat species) 10 frogs and 12 reptiles. Table 3 shows the occurrence of the species by reserve and the number of reserves in which a species was detected.

Recorded species of conservation significance (DSE, 2013) were: vulnerable Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus and Powerful Owl Ninox strenua (cover image), both recorded at five reserves, and Southern Toadlet Pseudophryne semimarmorata (Fig. 2) recorded at two reserves.

Near-threatened Nankeen Night Heron Nycticorax caledonicus hillii and Latham's Snipe Gallinago hardwickii were recorded at one reserve each.

Pteropus poliocephalus and Ninox strenua are both listed under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. Latham's Snipe has been nominated for listing and is covered by migratory bird treaties with China and Japan.

In order of abundance, the most widely detected native animals (in most reserves) were Common Brushtail Possum Trichosurus vulpecula, Common Ringtail Possum Pseudocheirus peregrinus, Striped Marsh Frog Limnodynastes peronii, Southern Brown Tree Frog Litoria ewingii, Garden Skink Lampropholis guichenoti, Little Forest Bat Vespadelus vulturnus, Superb Fairy-wren Malurus cyaneus, Common Froglet Crinia signifera, Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis, Delicate Skink Lampropholis delicata, and Weasel Skink Saproscincus mustelinus. All were recorded at ten or more reserves. The two possum species were recorded at 15 reserves, which was the maximum at which they could have been recorded, given the other reserve, Karkarook, was surveyed only for frogs. The most common exotic species detected were Red Fox Vulpes vulpes (Fig. 3), Common Blackbird Turdus merula and Black Rat Rattus rattus, which were recorded at 11 or more reserves. Other 'outsiders' included Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog Litoria fallax, which was found at three sites in Koomba Park, Vermont South, and Fallow Deer Cervus dama (Fig. 4), which was detected in two small reserves: Baluk Willam and Cardinia Creek Parklands.

While the animals were recorded across the study area certain patterns emerged. Large native mammal species such as macropods, Common Wombat Vombatus ursinus and Koala Phascolarctos cinereus were recorded mostly in Berwick parklands. It should be noted, however, that Black Wallaby Wallabia bicolor and Eastern Grey Kangaroo Macropus giganteus were both recorded in Corhanwarrabul Wetlands, the southernmost reserve in Dandenong Valley parklands. A similar pattern occurred with Agile Antechinus Antechinus agilis and Bush Rat Rattus fuscipes which, with the exception of hair samples in Dandenong Valley's Bushy Park, were recorded only in reserves in Berwick parklands. The only recording of Sugar Glider Petaurus breviceps outside Berwick parklands was also at Bushy Park. Dusky Antechinus Antechinus swainsonii was recorded only in the east and only in the two smaller reserves of Selby and Baluk Willam.

Verreaux's Tree Frog Litoria verreauxii and Peron's Tree Frog Litoria peronii were recorded only in Berwick parklands, and Victorian Smooth Froglet Geocrinia victoriana mainly so, the only recording outside this area being at Koomba Park. Four reptiles were recorded in one reserve: Bougainville's Skink Lerista bougainvillii, Eastern Three-lined Skink Acritoscincus duperreyi, Southern Water Skink Eulamprus tympanum and White-lipped Snake Drysdalia coronoides. The Tree Dragon Amphibolurus muricatus was recorded only in two reserves, while McCoy's Skink Anepischetosia maccoyi was recorded only in Berwick parklands.

The introduced mammal, Red Fox, was recorded across the study area, while others such as Black Rat and House Mouse Mus musculus were prevalent in Dandenong Valley and Braeside, but less so further into the rural landscape.

All techniques used, except for hair funnel, detected one or more species which was not detected by any other technique (Table 4). However, at a reserve level, hair funnels did make a difference. As an example, a hair sample was responsible for the only detection of Agile Antechinus at Bushy Park, and for the only detection of Dusky Antechinus at Baluk Willam.

Cameras recorded all of the mammal species (other than bats) that were detected by any method (Table 5). They were most successful (or equal first) in recording 15 of the species, while the hair funnels proved most successful for four of the small mammals species and spotlighting for arboreal mammals.

One outcome sought from the survey was some assessment of whether the survey regime was appropriate to gather the necessary management data. Table 6 provides a comparison of findings from this survey with the results of previous observations as entered into the VBA.

Even though this study did not concentrate on birds, from a future directions perspective it is worth noting that there are some 40 birds of conservation significance (DSE 2013) recorded in the VBA for the study area. While most of these are wetland birds, there are also a number of woodland species.

Community involvement

It is estimated that around 115 volunteers from 26 community/environmental organisations took part in the survey in one or more activities. Additionally, some 15 Parks Victoria staff also participated in on-site visits and activities. Volunteers indicated association with the following groups:

* Animalia

* Berwick Area Parklands

* Birdlife Melbourne

* Cardinia Catchment Landcare

* Cardinia Creek Landcare

* Field Naturalists Club of Victoria

* Friends of Baluk Willam

* Friends of Blind Creek Billabong

* Friends of Braeside

* Friends of Damper Creek Reserve

* Friends of Dandenong Valley Parklands

* Friends of Hazel Vale Valley

* Friends of Sassafras Creek

* Friends of Selby Nature Conservation Reserve

* Friends of Wattle Park

* Glen Eira Environment Group

* Knox City Council

* Knox Environment Society

* Latrobe Valley Field Naturalists

* Lysterfield Park Volunteers

* Monash University Biological Society

* Parks Victoria

* Ringwood Field Naturalists Club

* Southern Dandenong Landcare Group

* Southern Ranges Environment Alliance

* Wild Days Wildlife Shelter

The volunteers and PV staff took part in 137 outings (Table 7), plus untold hours of video analysis. Many took part in more than one activity and some took part in all activities.

We estimate a commercial value for the project at $160000. While this is a rough estimate, it nevertheless provides a scale of the effort involved and a background for judging if the outcomes were commensurate with this investment.

Discussion

The project set out to develop a vertebrate fauna list, to involve the community, to assess the success of the survey techniques and to provide a view of the implications for the future of monitoring projects.

Our results enabled the development of a significant fauna list for the reserves and focus areas within the study area. Combined with the records in the VBA, it can be demonstrated that over 300 vertebrate species use or have used the reserves and their surrounds.

Focus area results provide data on the locations of species using these reserves and allow assessments of which habitats may be important. As well as overall species richness, we found that these urban parks are providing habitat for species of conservation significance. If VBA records are included, then the total vertebrate species of conservation significance to have been recorded in the study area (over time) is over 40.

As well as the occurrence of native species, the survey recorded some exotic, over-abundant or invasive species. The Red Fox, Domestic Cat, European Rabbit and Noisy Miner were all detected. Their impacts are considered as potentially threatening processes under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. The presence of other immigrants also provides food for thought. The distribution of Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog Litoria fallax was historically in coastal and adjacent areas from southern New South Wales to central-eastern Queensland (Cogger 2000). The species was first found in Victoria in Moorabbin (Gillespie and Clemann, 2000), some 600 km from its then known home range. There is concern about the effect that 'imported' frogs may have on native populations (Gillespie and Clemann 2000). The Fallow Deer is the most widely distributed of the deer species in Australia (Moriarty 2004). Management of deer presents a conundrum for land managers as society is divided as to whether the animals are an asset or liability (Moriarty 2004).

The involvement of volunteers (citizen scientists) in natural resource and environmental science has been longstanding (McKinley et al. 2015). The outcomes have been shown to improve natural resource management and environmental protection and are making an increasing contribution to scientific papers (McKinley et al. 2015).

Our project demonstrates that there is a volunteer resource available and willing to make a sizeable commitment to biodiversity monitoring. We also found organisations and individuals that were willing to provide financial and material support. We were able to successfully engage individuals largely through existing environmental groups and networks. We did not formally pursue with the volunteers what their their motives were for joining the program or how they perceived its success or their levels of satisfaction. The project's appeal was possibly enhanced by its varying opportunities for participation. Camera analysis work provided a participation opportunity and a long-term commitment to a variety of survey techniques for those with either time constraints or other reasons for not being able to participate in fieldwork. The shorter time requirement of spotlighting/bat trapping likewise afforded an opportunity for the time-constrained, as well as a hands-on experience for families and younger participants.

Informally, feedback from volunteers was positive, with many relishing the opportunity to be involved. The main negative was the ultimate size of the program, its intensity and length of commitment. In our zeal to make a large contribution, it appears that on occasions we moved to a situation where participation was more of an onerous experience than a positive one.

Our survey techniques are commonly used in these types of surveys and well described (e.g. NPANSW 2001). We avoided catch and release methods, aside from bat traps, largely because we lacked the resources. Instead we used remote cameras which are now being used widely in wildlife management (Swann et al. 2004). They can provide a basic knowledge of an animal's presence, are relatively cheap and are safe for humans and animals (Swann and Perkins 2014). Multiple techniques are required to effectively assess species richness (Catling et al. 1997, Garden et al., 2007) and our results support that notion.

While our results demonstrated the value in using multiple methods, there is still a chance that species remained undetected in the study area overall or in individual reserves and focus areas. As an example, a dead Agile Antechinus was reported at Braeside in 2015 near one of our study sites (Oliphant, pers. comm., May 2015). We recorded none in this reserve.

Historical records and the VBA (Table 6) indicate that some species previously recorded in the study area, were not recorded during this survey. Although these species may no longer be there, it raises the possibility that our techniques or survey regime did not adequately cater for all possibilities.

The frog findings, with the exception of L. fallax, were typical for the area and consistent with a previous study in Churchill and Lysterfield Parks (Drury and Patterson 2010). Growling Grass Frog Litoria raniformis, which is listed in the VBA as being recorded in the study area, was not detected. This species is not well represented in the Melbourne Water frog census (MW 2015), either for the study area or the metropolitan area at large. While the use of the Melbourne Water Frogwatch program methodology made this survey quite thorough, the study occurred in a period of below average rainfall. Bureau of Meteorology observations for nearby Scoresby show that five of the eight months over the survey period had below average rainfall, with the total for that time being 49 mm below average. The availability of water (Ficetola and De Bernardi, 2004) and the hydroperiod (the amount of time a wetland retains water) (Snodgrass et al. 2000), have been shown to be important determinants of frog activity.

The VBA shows a number of records for Eastern Broad-nosed Bat Scotorepens orion in the heathland focus area at Braeside. We recorded none. Most are recorded through bat trapping. While we used that technique, it was only for one night per location and therefore this and other bat species could have been easily missed. There were four terrestrial mammals recorded in the VBA that were not recorded in this survey. Two of these, Platypus Ornithorhynchus anatinus and Water Rat Hydromys chrysogaster, are aquatic and were unlikely to be recorded in this study regime, save for an incidental observation in a creek or wetland. Two VBA records of the Brown Rat Rattus norvegicus exist for Dandenong Valley, one by cage trap and the other an incidental sighting. The species is not well recorded and perhaps a more focused effort and the use of other techniques would be needed if the existence or otherwise of the mammal was deemed to be important for decision-making purposes.

Long-nosed Bandicoot Perameles nasuta and Southern Brown Bandicoot Isoodon obesulus were historically recorded in the Dandenong Valley (Wallis 1994), with the VBA containing records of the latter at Churchill NP in the 1980s. Given the extent of the camera survey and the success of this method for this species at other sites by the FSG and in other surveys (e.g. Smith and Coulson 2012), it seems likely that these species are no longer present.

Other medium-sized native species such as Tasmanian Bettong Bettongia gaimardi, Eastern Quoll Dasyurus viverrinus and Spot-tailed Quoll Dasyurus maculatus have also historically been recorded in the Dandenong Valley (Wallis 1994). Unsurprisingly the VBA does not record any of these species in the survey areas. The first two are believed to be extinct on the mainland, now occurring only in Tasmania (Rose 1986; Fancourt et al. 2013). The Spot-tailed Quoll is considered endangered in Victoria (DSE 2013) and is mainly recorded in south-western Victoria, the Otway Ranges, South Gippsland (the Strzelecki Ranges), north-eastern Victoria and East Gippsland (DSE 2003). Although we did not detect this species, an unconfirmed sighting of a Spot-tailed Quoll was reported near the Cardinia Creek in 2015 (S. Czarka pers. comm., June 2015), which raises the possibility of this species being in the area, or at least occasionally visiting.

Excluding birds, the reptile survey has revealed the largest discrepancy between our findings and VBA records (Table 6). Two species of snake and five species of lizard were recorded in the VBA, but not in our survey. These 'missing' species were detected largely by incidental observation, but Elliott traps, active searching and pitfall with drift fence also provided records. Therefore there is an argument to suggest that multiple techniques are necessary to improve the chances of detecting reptile presence.

A number of other factors could have affected the detection of a species. Clearly, the species list would have been increased significantly if we had been able to carry out a formal bird survey (e.g. Loyn 1986). A stratified sampling regime (Quinn and Keough 2006), as opposed to our unstratified grid positions, may be more appropriate to detect target species that prefer a specific habitat. Variations of the same technique, such as vertical orientation of ground-based cameras (Taylor et al. 2014) or the use of tree-based cameras for arboreal species (Harley et al. 2014; Drury 2016), may be in order.

We now have an opportunity to reflect on how this project developed and how useful the output will be. We can reflect upon both what went right and on those areas where improvements might be made. It is important that this process takes place. During this analysis we need to consider whether the results of this survey are good enough (in quality and/or completeness) to link with decision-making and policy-making processes. This link is seen to be essential (Niemela 2000; Schmeller et al. 2009; Lindenmayer et al. 2012). Data users need to be convinced that the data are useful and reliable (Cohn 2008). If volunteer interest is to be maintained, volunteers need to know that their data are used and valued by scientists and policy makers (Bell et al. 2008).

Overall, the results provide opportunities and set challenges for the delivery of PV's strategies. Our survey plus other records (e.g. VBA) show that all parklands can lay claim to species of conservation concern. Likewise all parklands harbour species listed as threats. Whatever priorities are determined, the support programs put in place will require a monitoring component. Well-organised citizen scientist involvement has been proved capable of making a significant contribution to this monitoring.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Parks Victoria for giving us the opportunity to participate in the program. Thanks to Rangers-in-charge David Collins, John Goodman and Des Lucas, and all their staff, for their support and participation. Thanks especially to PV staff Sandie Czarka, Mick Van de Vreede, Michelle Judd, Glen Oliphant, Garry Lalor, Andrew Van Vloten and Vanessa Bluett for their huge contribution to the project.

Thanks to FSG members Graeme Patterson and Su and Peter Dempsey for managing the camera and hair funnel program. I also thank Graeme for his considerable contribution to data management. Thanks to Ray Gibson, Russell Thompson and Ian Kitchen for managing the spotlighting and bat trapping. Thanks to David De Angelis for managing the frog census and to Kathy Himbeck, John Harris and David De Angelis for organising the reptile surveys.

Thanks to Hans Brunner for analysing the animal hairs; and to Mark Antos, Sally Bewsher and Ray Gibson for their helpful comments on this paper.

Thanks to Parks Victoria, Melbourne Water and the Knox Environment Society for their financial support, and Boral Industries, John Poppins and Ross O'Meara for the donation of equipment.

A special thank-you to all the volunteers from the FNCV and other community and environmental groups, who gave up their time to participate in the fieldwork or other tasks.

The survey was carried out in accordance with Department of Environment and Primary Industries research permits 10006308 and 10007541 and Wildlife and Small Institutions Animal Ethics Committee approvals 12.12 and 3.15.

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Smith JK and Coulson G (2012) A comparison of vertical and horizontal camera trap orientations for detection of potoroos and bandicoots. Australian Mammalogy 34, 196-201.

Snodgrass JW, Komoroski MJ, Bryan AL and Burger J (2000) Relationships among isolated wetland size, hydroperiod, and amphibian species richness: implications for wetland regulations. Conservation Biology 14, 414-419.

Swann DE, Hass CC, Dalton DC, Wolf SA (2004) Infrared-triggered cameras for detecting wildlife: an evaluation and review. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32, 357-65.

Swann DE and Perkins N (2014) Camera trapping for animal management and monitoring: a review of applications. In Camera trapping: Wildlife management and research, pp. 3-12. Eds P Meek, P Fleming, G Ballard, P Banks, A Claridge, J Sanderson and D Swann. (CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood).

Taylor BD, Goldingay RL and Lindsay JM (2014) Horizontal or vertical? Camera trap orientations and recording modes for detecting potoroos, bandicoots and pademelons. Australian Mammalogy 36, 60-66.

Wallis RL (1994) From Melbourne to Mornington--A survey of vertebrate fauna in parks and reserves. School of Aquatic Science and Natural Resource Management, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia. Technical Paper 1994/1.

Robin Drury

Fauna Survey Group, Field Naturalists Club of Victoria,

PO Box 13, Blackburn, Victoria 3130

Email: robindrury6@gmail.com

Received 29 June 2017; accepted 17 August 2017
Table 1. Groups of vertebrate fauna recorded during the survey and
survey recording techniques.

Survey technique  Bats  Birds  Frogs  Mammals  Mammals  Mammals
                                       large   medium    small

Remote camera           *                *        *        *
Hair funnels                                      *        *
Sound recording                *
Spotlighting      *     *      *         *        *
Harp trap         *
Hand-searching
(tiles and tin)                *                           *

Survey technique  Reptiles

Remote camera        *
Hair funnels
Sound recording
Spotlighting         *
Harp trap
Hand-searching
(tiles and tin)      *

Table 2. Survey effort by reserve. The asterisk indicates that the
focus area is the whole reserve and 'n' is the number of reserves in
which that technique was used.

Parkland          Reserve

Berwick           BalukWillam NCR
                  Cardinia Creek Parklands (north)
                  Cardinia Reservoir Park
                  Churchill National Park
                  Dandenong Police Paddock Reserve
                  Lysterfield Park
                  Selby G190 BR
                  Upper Beaconsfield NCR
Dandenong Valley  Bushy Park
                  Corhanwarrabul Wetlands
                  Jells Park
                  Koomba Park
                  Shepherds Bush
                  Wattle Park
Sandbelt          Brae side Park
                  Karkarook Park
                  Total surveys

Parkland          Focus areas surveyed  Cameras deployed (n= 15)

Berwick                    1*                     16
                           4                      13
                           2                      13
                           2                      11
                           4                      28
                           8                     101
                           1*                      5
                           1*                      8
Dandenong Valley           3                      13
                           1*                      7
                           4                      19
                           1*                      8
                           1*                      5
                           1                       2
Sandbelt                   4                      24
                           2
                          40                     273

Parkland          Hair funnel deployed (n=13)  Harp trap sites (n=14)

Berwick                        20                         2
                               20                         4
                               20                         4
                               20                         4
                               40                         2
                              110                         8
                               10                         1
                               10                         2
Dandenong Valley               30                         1

                               10                         3
                                                          2
                               10                         1
                               10                         1
Sandbelt                       50                         2

                              360                        36

Parkland          Spotlight transects (n=14)  Frog sites (n=11)

Berwick                       2                       2
                              3                       6
                              4
                              5                       3
                              2                       4
                             10                      10
                              2
                              1
Dandenong Valley              1                       1

                              3                       3
                              2                       4
                              2                       2
                              1
Sandbelt                      4                       6
                                                      4
                             42                      45

Parkland          Reptile quadrats (n=12)

Berwick                      4
                             5
                             1
                             5
                            11
                             6

Dandenong Valley             3
                             3
                             4
                             2
                             2

Sandbelt                    10

                            55

Table 3. Species detected during the survey, by park or reserve, and
the number of parks or reserves in which they were recorded. The *
indicates exotic species and # indicates that the species is listed in
the Advisory List of Threatened Vertebrate Fauna in Victoria - 2013

Common Name                   Scientific Name

Amphibian
Common Froglet                Crinia signifera
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog       Litoria fallax
Peron's Tree Frog             Litoria peronii
Southern Brown Tree Frog      Litoria ewingii
Southern Bullfrog             Limnodynastes dumerilii
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #            Pseudophryne semimarmorata
Spotted Marsh Frog            Limnodynastes tasmaniensis
Striped Marsh Frog            Limnodynastes peronii
Verreaux's Tree Frog          Litoria verreauxii verreauxii
Victorian Smooth Froglet      Geocrinia victoriana
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat         Chalinolobus morio
Gould's Wattled Bat           Chalinolobus gouldii
Grey-headed Flying-fox#       Pteropus poliocephalus
Large Forest Bat              Vespadelus darlingtonii
Lesser Long-eared Bat         Nyctophilus geoffroyi
Little Forest Bat             Vespadelus vulturnus
Southern Forest Bat           Vespadelus regulus
White-striped Freetail Bat    Tadarida australis

Bird
Australian Magpie             Cracticus tibicen
Australian Owlet-nightjar     Aegotheles cristatus
Australian Wood Duck          Chenonetta jubata
Bassian Thrush                Zoothera lunulata
Beautiful Firetail            Stagonopleura bella
Brown Thornbill               Acanthiza pusilla
Brush Bronzewing              Phaps elegans
Buff-banded Rail              Gallirallus philippensis
Cattle Egret                  Ardea ibis
Common Blackbird*             Turdus merula
Common Bronzewing             Phaps chakoptera
Common Myna*                  Acridotheres tristis
Common Starling*              Sturnus vulgaris
Crimson Rosella               Platycercus elegans
Dusky Moorhen                 Gallinula tenebrosa
Eastern Rosella               Platycercus eximius
Eastern Spinebill             Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris
Eastern Yellow Robin          Eopsaltria australis
European Goldfinch*           Carduelis carduelis
European Greenfinch*          Carduelis chloris
Fan-tailed Cuckoo             Cacomantis flabelliformis
Galah                         Eolophus roseicapilla
Gang-gang Cockatoo            Callocephalon fimbriatum
Golden Whistler               Pachycephala pectoralis

Grey Butcherbird              Cracticus torquatus
Grey Currawong                Strepera versicolor
Grey Fantail                  Rhipidura albiscapa
Grey Shrike-thrush            Colluricincla harmonica
House Sparrow*                Passer domesticus
Latham's Snipe #              Gallinago hardwickii
Laughing Kookaburra           Dacelo novaeguineae
Little Raven                  Corvus mellori
Little Wattlebird             Anthochaera chrysoptera
Magpie-lark                   Grallina cyanoleuca
Masked Lapwing                Vanellus miles
Nankeen Night Heron #         Nycticorax caledonicus hillii
Noisy Miner                   Manorina melanocephala
Pacific Barn Owl              Tyto javanica
Pacific Black Duck            Anas superciliosa
Pied Currawong                Strepera graculina
Powerful Owl #                Ninox strenua
Purple Swamphen               Porphyrio porphyrio
Rainbow Lorikeet              Trichoglossus haematodus
Red Wattlebird                Anthochaera carunculata
Red-browed Finch              Neochmia temporalis
Rock Dove*                    Columba livia
Sacred Kingfisher             Todiramphus sanctus
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo         Chrysococcyx lucidus
Song Thrush*                  Turdus philomelos

Southern Boobook              Ninox novaeseelandiae
Spotted Pardalote             Pardalotus punctatus
Spotted Turtle-Dove*          Streptopelia chinensis
Striated Pardalote            Pardalotus striatus
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo      Cacatua galerita
Superb Fairy-wren             Malurus cyaneus
Tawny Frogmouth               Podargus strigoides
White-browed Scrubwren        Sericornis frontalis
White-eared Honeyeater        Lichenostomus leucotis
White-faced Heron             Egretta novaehollandiae
White-plumed Honeyeater       Lichenostomus penicillatus
White-throated Treecreeper    Cormobates leucophaeus
Willie Wagtail                Rhipidura leucophrys
Yellow-faced Honeyeater       Lichenostomus chrysops
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo  Calyptorhynchus funereus
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus              Antechinus agilis
Black Rat*                    Rattus rattus
Black Wallaby                 Wallabia bicolor
Bush Rat                      Rattus fuscipes
Common Brushtail Possum       Trichosurus vulpecula
Common Ringtail Possum        Pseudocheirus peregrinus

Common Wombat                 Vombatus ursinus
Cow*                          Bos taurus
Dog*                          Canis lupus familiaris
Dusky Antechinus              Antechinus swainsonii
Eastern Grey Kangaroo         Macropus giganteus
European Hare*                Lepus europeaus
European Rabbit*              Oryctolagus cuniculus
Fallow Deer*                  Cervus dama
House Cat*                    Felis catus
House Mouse*                  Mus musculus
Koala                         Phascolarctos cinereus
Red Fox*                      Vulpes vulpes
Short-beaked Echidna          Tachyglossus aculeatus
Sugar Glider                  Petaurus breviceps
Swamp Rat                     Rattus lutreolus
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard    Tiliqua nigrolutea
Bougainville's Skink          Lerista bougainvillii
Common Snake-necked Turtle    Chelodina longicollis

Delicate Skink                Lampropholis delicata
Eastern Three-lined Skink     Acritoscincus duperreyi
Garden Skink                  Lampropholis guichenoti
Lowland Copperhead            Austrelaps superbus
McCoy's Skink                 Anepischetosia maccoyi
Southern Water Skink          Eulamprus tympanum
Tree Dragon                   Amphibolurus muricatus
Weasel Skink                  Saproscincus mustelinus
White-lipped Snake            Drysdalia coronoides

                              Baluk Willam NCR  Braeside Park

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet                       X                X
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog
Peron's Tree Frog                    X
Southern Brown Tree Frog             X                X
Southern Bullfrog                    X                X
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #
Spotted Marsh Frog                                    X
Striped Marsh Frog                   X                X
Verreaux's Tree Frog                 X
Victorian Smooth Froglet
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat
Gould's Wattled Bat
Grey-headed Flying-fox#                               X
Large Forest Bat
Lesser Long-eared Bat                                 X
Little Forest Bat                    X                X
Southern Forest Bat
White-striped Freetail Bat           X

Bird
Australian Magpie                                     X
Australian Owlet-nightjar
Australian Wood Duck
Bassian Thrush
Beautiful Firetail
Brown Thornbill
Brush Bronzewing
Buff-banded Rail
Cattle Egret                                          X
Common Blackbird*                    X
Common Bronzewing                                     X
Common Myna*
Common Starling*
Crimson Rosella
Dusky Moorhen
Eastern Rosella
Eastern Spinebill
Eastern Yellow Robin
European Goldfinch*
European Greenfinch*
Fan-tailed Cuckoo
Galah
Gang-gang Cockatoo
Golden Whistler

Grey Butcherbird
Grey Currawong
Grey Fantail
Grey Shrike-thrush                   X
House Sparrow*
Latham's Snipe #                                      X
Laughing Kookaburra                  X
Little Raven                         X
Little Wattlebird
Magpie-lark                                           X
Masked Lapwing
Nankeen Night Heron #
Noisy Miner                                           X
Pacific Barn Owl                                      X
Pacific Black Duck                                    X
Pied Currawong
Powerful Owl #
Purple Swamphen
Rainbow Lorikeet
Red Wattlebird
Red-browed Finch
Rock Dove*
Sacred Kingfisher
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo
Song Thrush*

Southern Boobook                     X
Spotted Pardalote
Spotted Turtle-Dove*                                  X
Striated Pardalote
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo                              X
Superb Fairy-wren
Tawny Frogmouth                                       X
White-browed Scrubwren
White-eared Honeyeater
White-faced Heron
White-plumed Honeyeater
White-throated Treecreeper
Willie Wagtail
Yellow-faced Honeyeater
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus                     X
Black Rat*                                            X
Black Wallaby                        X
Bush Rat                             X
Common Brushtail Possum              X                X
Common Ringtail Possum               X                X

Common Wombat                        X
Cow*                                                  X
Dog*
Dusky Antechinus                     X
Eastern Grey Kangaroo                X
European Hare*
European Rabbit*                                      X
Fallow Deer*                         X
House Cat*                           X
House Mouse*                                          X
Koala
Red Fox*                             X                X
Short-beaked Echidna                 X                X
Sugar Glider                         X
Swamp Rat
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard                            X
Bougainville's Skink                                  X
Common Snake-necked Turtle

Delicate Skink                       X                X
Eastern Three-lined Skink            X
Garden Skink                         X                X
Lowland Copperhead                                    X
McCoy's Skink                        X
Southern Water Skink                 X
Tree Dragon                                           X
Weasel Skink                         X                X
White-lipped Snake

                              Bushy Park  Cardinia Creek Parklands

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet                    X                  X
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog
Peron's Tree Frog
Southern Brown Tree Frog          X                  X
Southern Bullfrog                                    X
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #
Spotted Marsh Frog                X                  X
Striped Marsh Frog                X                  X
Verreaux's Tree Frog                                 X
Victorian Smooth Froglet
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat
Gould's Wattled Bat               X                  X
Grey-headed Flying-fox#           X
Large Forest Bat
Lesser Long-eared Bat                                X
Little Forest Bat                 X                  X
Southern Forest Bat
White-striped Freetail Bat        X                  X

Bird
Australian Magpie                 X                  X
Australian Owlet-nightjar
Australian Wood Duck                                 X
Bassian Thrush
Beautiful Firetail                X
Brown Thornbill                   X                  X
Brush Bronzewing
Buff-banded Rail                  X
Cattle Egret
Common Blackbird*                 X                  X
Common Bronzewing                 X                  X
Common Myna*                      X                  X
Common Starling*                  X                  X
Crimson Rosella                                      X
Dusky Moorhen
Eastern Rosella                                      X
Eastern Spinebill                                    X
Eastern Yellow Robin                                 X
European Goldfinch*
European Greenfinch*
Fan-tailed Cuckoo                                    X
Galah                                                X
Gang-gang Cockatoo                                   X
Golden Whistler

Grey Butcherbird                                     X
Grey Currawong                    X
Grey Fantail                                         X
Grey Shrike-thrush                                   X
House Sparrow*
Latham's Snipe #
Laughing Kookaburra               X                  X
Little Raven                      X                  X
Little Wattlebird
Magpie-lark                                          X
Masked Lapwing                                       X
Nankeen Night Heron #
Noisy Miner                                          X
Pacific Barn Owl
Pacific Black Duck
Pied Currawong
Powerful Owl #                                       X
Purple Swamphen                                      X
Rainbow Lorikeet                                     X
Red Wattlebird                                       X
Red-browed Finch
Rock Dove*
Sacred Kingfisher
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo                                X
Song Thrush*

Southern Boobook                                     X
Spotted Pardalote                                    X
Spotted Turtle-Dove*              X                  X
Striated Pardalote                                   X
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo                             X
Superb Fairy-wren                 X                  X
Tawny Frogmouth
White-browed Scrubwren
White-eared Honeyeater
White-faced Heron
White-plumed Honeyeater
White-throated Treecreeper
Willie Wagtail                                       X
Yellow-faced Honeyeater                              X
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo                         X
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus                  X
Black Rat*                        X
Black Wallaby                                        X
Bush Rat                          X
Common Brushtail Possum           X                  X
Common Ringtail Possum            X                  X

Common Wombat                                        X
Cow*
Dog*                              X                  X
Dusky Antechinus
Eastern Grey Kangaroo                                X
European Hare*
European Rabbit*                                     X
Fallow Deer*                                         X
House Cat*                        X
House Mouse*                      X
Koala
Red Fox*                          X                  X
Short-beaked Echidna                                 X
Sugar Glider                      X
Swamp Rat
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard
Bougainville's Skink
Common Snake-necked Turtle

Delicate Skink                    X                  X
Eastern Three-lined Skink
Garden Skink                      X                  X
Lowland Copperhead                                   X
McCoy's Skink                                        X
Southern Water Skink
Tree Dragon
Weasel Skink                      X                  X
White-lipped Snake

                              Cardinia Reservoir Park

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog
Peron's Tree Frog
Southern Brown Tree Frog                 X
Southern Bullfrog                        X
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #
Spotted Marsh Frog
Striped Marsh Frog
Verreaux's Tree Frog
Victorian Smooth Froglet
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat                    X
Gould's Wattled Bat
Grey-headed Flying-fox#
Large Forest Bat
Lesser Long-eared Bat                    X
Little Forest Bat                        X
Southern Forest Bat                      X
White-striped Freetail Bat               X

Bird
Australian Magpie
Australian Owlet-nightjar
Australian Wood Duck                     X
Bassian Thrush
Beautiful Firetail
Brown Thornbill
Brush Bronzewing
Buff-banded Rail
Cattle Egret
Common Blackbird*
Common Bronzewing
Common Myna*
Common Starling*
Crimson Rosella
Dusky Moorhen
Eastern Rosella
Eastern Spinebill
Eastern Yellow Robin                     X
European Goldfinch*
European Greenfinch*
Fan-tailed Cuckoo                        X
Galah
Gang-gang Cockatoo
Golden Whistler

Grey Butcherbird
Grey Currawong                           X
Grey Fantail
Grey Shrike-thrush                       X
House Sparrow*
Latham's Snipe #
Laughing Kookaburra                      X
Little Raven
Little Wattlebird
Magpie-lark
Masked Lapwing
Nankeen Night Heron #
Noisy Miner
Pacific Barn Owl
Pacific Black Duck
Pied Currawong
Powerful Owl #
Purple Swamphen
Rainbow Lorikeet
Red Wattlebird
Red-browed Finch
Rock Dove*
Sacred Kingfisher
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo
Song Thrush*

Southern Boobook
Spotted Pardalote
Spotted Turtle-Dove*
Striated Pardalote
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
Superb Fairy-wren                        X
Tawny Frogmouth
White-browed Scrubwren
White-eared Honeyeater
White-faced Heron
White-plumed Honeyeater
White-throated Treecreeper
Willie Wagtail
Yellow-faced Honeyeater
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus
Black Rat*
Black Wallaby                            X
Bush Rat                                 X
Common Brushtail Possum                  X
Common Ringtail Possum                   X

Common Wombat                            X
Cow*
Dog*
Dusky Antechinus
Eastern Grey Kangaroo                    X
European Hare*
European Rabbit*
Fallow Deer*
House Cat*
House Mouse*
Koala
Red Fox*                                 X
Short-beaked Echidna                     X
Sugar Glider
Swamp Rat
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard
Bougainville's Skink
Common Snake-necked Turtle

Delicate Skink                           X
Eastern Three-lined Skink
Garden Skink                             X
Lowland Copperhead
McCoy's Skink
Southern Water Skink
Tree Dragon
Weasel Skink
White-lipped Snake

                              Churchill National Park

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet                           X
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog
Peron's Tree Frog                        X
Southern Brown Tree Frog                 X
Southern Bullfrog                        X
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #                       X
Spotted Marsh Frog
Striped Marsh Frog                       X
Verreaux's Tree Frog                     X
Victorian Smooth Froglet                 X
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat
Gould's Wattled Bat
Grey-headed Flying-fox#
Large Forest Bat
Lesser Long-eared Bat                    X
Little Forest Bat                        X
Southern Forest Bat
White-striped Freetail Bat               X

Bird
Australian Magpie                        X
Australian Owlet-nightjar                X
Australian Wood Duck
Bassian Thrush
Beautiful Firetail
Brown Thornbill
Brush Bronzewing
Buff-banded Rail
Cattle Egret
Common Blackbird*
Common Bronzewing                        X
Common Myna*
Common Starling*
Crimson Rosella
Dusky Moorhen
Eastern Rosella
Eastern Spinebill
Eastern Yellow Robin
European Goldfinch*
European Greenfinch*
Fan-tailed Cuckoo
Galah
Gang-gang Cockatoo
Golden Whistler

Grey Butcherbird
Grey Currawong
Grey Fantail
Grey Shrike-thrush
House Sparrow*
Latham's Snipe #
Laughing Kookaburra
Little Raven
Little Wattlebird
Magpie-lark                              X
Masked Lapwing
Nankeen Night Heron #
Noisy Miner
Pacific Barn Owl
Pacific Black Duck
Pied Currawong
Powerful Owl #                           X
Purple Swamphen
Rainbow Lorikeet
Red Wattlebird                           X
Red-browed Finch
Rock Dove*
Sacred Kingfisher
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo
Song Thrush*

Southern Boobook                         X
Spotted Pardalote
Spotted Turtle-Dove*
Striated Pardalote
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo                 X
Superb Fairy-wren                        X
Tawny Frogmouth
White-browed Scrubwren
White-eared Honeyeater
White-faced Heron
White-plumed Honeyeater
White-throated Treecreeper
Willie Wagtail
Yellow-faced Honeyeater
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus
Black Rat*                               X
Black Wallaby                            X
Bush Rat
Common Brushtail Possum                  X
Common Ringtail Possum                   X

Common Wombat                            X
Cow*
Dog*
Dusky Antechinus
Eastern Grey Kangaroo                    X
European Hare*
European Rabbit*                         X
Fallow Deer*
House Cat*
House Mouse*
Koala                                    X
Red Fox*                                 X
Short-beaked Echidna                     X
Sugar Glider
Swamp Rat
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard               X
Bougainville's Skink
Common Snake-necked Turtle

Delicate Skink                           X
Eastern Three-lined Skink
Garden Skink                             X
Lowland Copperhead
McCoy's Skink                            X
Southern Water Skink
Tree Dragon
Weasel Skink                             X
White-lipped Snake

                              Corhanwarrabul Wetlands

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog
Peron's Tree Frog
Southern Brown Tree Frog
Southern Bullfrog
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #
Spotted Marsh Frog
Striped Marsh Frog
Verreaux's Tree Frog
Victorian Smooth Froglet
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat
Gould's Wattled Bat
Grey-headed Flying-fox#
Large Forest Bat
Lesser Long-eared Bat
Little Forest Bat
Southern Forest Bat
White-striped Freetail Bat

Bird
Australian Magpie                        X
Australian Owlet-nightjar
Australian Wood Duck
Bassian Thrush                           X
Beautiful Firetail
Brown Thornbill
Brush Bronzewing
Buff-banded Rail
Cattle Egret
Common Blackbird*                        X
Common Bronzewing                        X
Common Myna*
Common Starling*                         X
Crimson Rosella
Dusky Moorhen
Eastern Rosella
Eastern Spinebill
Eastern Yellow Robin                     X
European Goldfinch*
European Greenfinch*
Fan-tailed Cuckoo
Galah
Gang-gang Cockatoo
Golden Whistler

Grey Butcherbird                         X
Grey Currawong                           X
Grey Fantail                             X
Grey Shrike-thrush
House Sparrow*
Latham's Snipe #
Laughing Kookaburra
Little Raven
Little Wattlebird
Magpie-lark
Masked Lapwing
Nankeen Night Heron #
Noisy Miner
Pacific Barn Owl
Pacific Black Duck
Pied Currawong
Powerful Owl #
Purple Swamphen
Rainbow Lorikeet
Red Wattlebird                           X
Red-browed Finch                         X
Rock Dove*
Sacred Kingfisher
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo
Song Thrush*

Southern Boobook
Spotted Pardalote
Spotted Turtle-Dove*                     X
Striated Pardalote
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
Superb Fairy-wren                        X
Tawny Frogmouth                          X
White-browed Scrubwren                   X
White-eared Honeyeater                   X
White-faced Heron
White-plumed Honeyeater
White-throated Treecreeper
Willie Wagtail
Yellow-faced Honeyeater
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus
Black Rat*                               X
Black Wallaby                            X
Bush Rat
Common Brushtail Possum                  X
Common Ringtail Possum                   X

Common Wombat
Cow*
Dog*
Dusky Antechinus
Eastern Grey Kangaroo                    X
European Hare*
European Rabbit*
Fallow Deer*
House Cat*                               X
House Mouse*                             X
Koala
Red Fox*                                 X
Short-beaked Echidna
Sugar Glider
Swamp Rat                                X
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard
Bougainville's Skink
Common Snake-necked Turtle

Delicate Skink
Eastern Three-lined Skink
Garden Skink                             X
Lowland Copperhead
McCoy's Skink
Southern Water Skink
Tree Dragon
Weasel Skink                             X
White-lipped Snake

                              Dandenong Police Paddocks reserve

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet                                X
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog
Peron's Tree Frog
Southern Brown Tree Frog                      X
Southern Bullfrog                             X
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #
Spotted Marsh Frog                            X
Striped Marsh Frog                            X
Verreaux's Tree Frog                          X
Victorian Smooth Froglet                      X
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat
Gould's Wattled Bat                           X
Grey-headed Flying-fox#                       X
Large Forest Bat
Lesser Long-eared Bat                         X
Little Forest Bat                             X
Southern Forest Bat
White-striped Freetail Bat                    X

Bird
Australian Magpie                             X
Australian Owlet-nightjar
Australian Wood Duck
Bassian Thrush
Beautiful Firetail
Brown Thornbill
Brush Bronzewing
Buff-banded Rail
Cattle Egret
Common Blackbird*                             X
Common Bronzewing                             X
Common Myna*                                  X
Common Starling*                              X
Crimson Rosella
Dusky Moorhen
Eastern Rosella
Eastern Spinebill
Eastern Yellow Robin                          X
European Goldfinch*
European Greenfinch*
Fan-tailed Cuckoo                             X
Galah
Gang-gang Cockatoo
Golden Whistler

Grey Butcherbird                              X
Grey Currawong                                X
Grey Fantail
Grey Shrike-thrush                            X
House Sparrow*
Latham's Snipe #
Laughing Kookaburra                           X
Little Raven
Little Wattlebird
Magpie-lark                                   X
Masked Lapwing
Nankeen Night Heron #
Noisy Miner                                   X
Pacific Barn Owl
Pacific Black Duck
Pied Currawong
Powerful Owl #
Purple Swamphen
Rainbow Lorikeet
Red Wattlebird                                X
Red-browed Finch
Rock Dove*
Sacred Kingfisher
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo
Song Thrush*

Southern Boobook
Spotted Pardalote
Spotted Turtle-Dove*
Striated Pardalote
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
Superb Fairy-wren                             X
Tawny Frogmouth
White-browed Scrubwren                        X
White-eared Honeyeater
White-faced Heron                             X
White-plumed Honeyeater
White-throated Treecreeper
Willie Wagtail
Yellow-faced Honeyeater
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus
Black Rat*                                    X
Black Wallaby                                 X
Bush Rat
Common Brushtail Possum                       X
Common Ringtail Possum                        X

Common Wombat
Cow*                                          X
Dog*                                          X
Dusky Antechinus
Eastern Grey Kangaroo                         X
European Hare*
European Rabbit*                              X
Fallow Deer*
House Cat*
House Mouse*                                  X
Koala
Red Fox*                                      X
Short-beaked Echidna                          X
Sugar Glider                                  X
Swamp Rat
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard                    X
Bougainville's Skink
Common Snake-necked Turtle

Delicate Skink                                X
Eastern Three-lined Skink
Garden Skink                                  X
Lowland Copperhead                            X
McCoy's Skink                                 X
Southern Water Skink
Tree Dragon                                   X
Weasel Skink                                  X
White-lipped Snake

                              Jells Park  Karkarook Park  Koomba Park

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet                    X             X              X
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog                                        X
Peron's Tree Frog
Southern Brown Tree Frog          X                            X
Southern Bullfrog
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #
Spotted Marsh Frog                X                            X
Striped Marsh Frog                X             X              X
Verreaux's Tree Frog
Victorian Smooth Froglet                                       X
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat
Gould's Wattled Bat               X
Grey-headed Flying-fox#           X
Large Forest Bat
Lesser Long-eared Bat             X
Little Forest Bat                 X                            X
Southern Forest Bat
White-striped Freetail Bat

Bird
Australian Magpie
Australian Owlet-nightjar
Australian Wood Duck
Bassian Thrush                    X
Beautiful Firetail
Brown Thornbill                                                X
Brush Bronzewing
Buff-banded Rail                                               X
Cattle Egret
Common Blackbird*                 X                            X
Common Bronzewing                 X
Common Myna*                      X                            X
Common Starling*                                               X
Crimson Rosella
Dusky Moorhen                                                  X
Eastern Rosella
Eastern Spinebill                                              X
Eastern Yellow Robin              X                            X
European Goldfinch*               X
European Greenfinch*              X
Fan-tailed Cuckoo
Galah
Gang-gang Cockatoo
Golden Whistler                                                X

Grey Butcherbird
Grey Currawong                                                 X
Grey Fantail                      X                            X
Grey Shrike-thrush                X                            X
House Sparrow*                    X
Latham's Snipe #
Laughing Kookaburra
Little Raven                                                   X
Little Wattlebird                 X
Magpie-lark                       X
Masked Lapwing
Nankeen Night Heron #                                          X
Noisy Miner
Pacific Barn Owl
Pacific Black Duck                                             X
Pied Currawong                    X                            X
Powerful Owl #
Purple Swamphen                   X             X
Rainbow Lorikeet
Red Wattlebird                                                 X
Red-browed Finch                  X                            X
Rock Dove*                        X
Sacred Kingfisher                                              X
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo
Song Thrush*

Southern Boobook                  X
Spotted Pardalote
Spotted Turtle-Dove*              X                            X
Striated Pardalote
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo                                       X
Superb Fairy-wren                 X                            X
Tawny Frogmouth                   X                            X
White-browed Scrubwren                                         X
White-eared Honeyeater
White-faced Heron
White-plumed Honeyeater                                        X
White-throated Treecreeper                                     X
Willie Wagtail
Yellow-faced Honeyeater
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus
Black Rat*                        X                            X
Black Wallaby
Bush Rat
Common Brushtail Possum           X                            X
Common Ringtail Possum            X                            X

Common Wombat
Cow*
Dog*                              X                            X
Dusky Antechinus
Eastern Grey Kangaroo
European Hare*                    X
European Rabbit*                  X
Fallow Deer*
House Cat*
House Mouse*                      X
Koala
Red Fox*                          X                            X
Short-beaked Echidna
Sugar Glider
Swamp Rat
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard
Bougainville's Skink
Common Snake-necked Turtle

Delicate Skink                    X             X              X
Eastern Three-lined Skink
Garden Skink                      X             X              X
Lowland Copperhead
McCoy's Skink                                                  X
Southern Water Skink
Tree Dragon
Weasel Skink                      X             X              X
White-lipped Snake                                             X

                              Lysterfield Park  Selby G190 BR

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet                       X
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog
Peron's Tree Frog                    X
Southern Brown Tree Frog             X                X
Southern Bullfrog                    X
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #                   X
Spotted Marsh Frog                   X
Striped Marsh Frog                   X
Verreaux's Tree Frog                 X
Victorian Smooth Froglet             X
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat
Gould's Wattled Bat
Grey-headed Flying-fox#
Large Forest Bat                     X
Lesser Long-eared Bat                X
Little Forest Bat                    X                X
Southern Forest Bat
White-striped Freetail Bat           X

Bird
Australian Magpie                    X                X
Australian Owlet-nightjar            X                X
Australian Wood Duck
Bassian Thrush                       X
Beautiful Firetail
Brown Thornbill
Brush Bronzewing                     X
Buff-banded Rail
Cattle Egret
Common Blackbird*                    X                X
Common Bronzewing                    X
Common Myna*
Common Starling*
Crimson Rosella                                       X
Dusky Moorhen
Eastern Rosella
Eastern Spinebill
Eastern Yellow Robin                 X                X
European Goldfinch*
European Greenfinch*
Fan-tailed Cuckoo
Galah
Gang-gang Cockatoo
Golden Whistler

Grey Butcherbird                     X                X
Grey Currawong                       X
Grey Fantail                         X                X
Grey Shrike-thrush                   X                X
House Sparrow*
Latham's Snipe #
Laughing Kookaburra                  X                X
Little Raven                         X
Little Wattlebird
Magpie-lark                          X
Masked Lapwing
Nankeen Night Heron #
Noisy Miner                          X
Pacific Barn Owl
Pacific Black Duck
Pied Currawong                       X
Powerful Owl #                       X
Purple Swamphen
Rainbow Lorikeet
Red Wattlebird
Red-browed Finch                     X                X
Rock Dove*                           X
Sacred Kingfisher
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo
Song Thrush*

Southern Boobook                     X
Spotted Pardalote
Spotted Turtle-Dove*
Striated Pardalote
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
Superb Fairy-wren                    X                X
Tawny Frogmouth                      X
White-browed Scrubwren               X                X
White-eared Honeyeater
White-faced Heron
White-plumed Honeyeater
White-throated Treecreeper
Willie Wagtail
Yellow-faced Honeyeater
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus                     X                X
Black Rat*                           X
Black Wallaby                        X                X
Bush Rat                             X                X
Common Brushtail Possum              X                X
Common Ringtail Possum               X                X

Common Wombat                        X                X
Cow*                                 X
Dog*                                 X
Dusky Antechinus                                      X
Eastern Grey Kangaroo                X                X
European Hare*                       X
European Rabbit*                     X
Fallow Deer*
House Cat*                           X
House Mouse*
Koala                                X
Red Fox*                             X                X
Short-beaked Echidna                 X                X
Sugar Glider                         X
Swamp Rat                            X
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard           X
Bougainville's Skink
Common Snake-necked Turtle                            X

Delicate Skink                                        X
Eastern Three-lined Skink
Garden Skink                                          X
Lowland Copperhead                   X
McCoy's Skink
Southern Water Skink
Tree Dragon
Weasel Skink                                          X
White-lipped Snake

                              Shepherds Bush  Upper Beaconsfield NCR

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet                      X
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog
Peron's Tree Frog
Southern Brown Tree Frog            X
Southern Bullfrog
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #
Spotted Marsh Frog                  X
Striped Marsh Frog                  X
Verreaux's Tree Frog
Victorian Smooth Froglet
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat
Gould's Wattled Bat
Grey-headed Flying-fox#
Large Forest Bat                                        X
Lesser Long-eared Bat
Little Forest Bat                   X
Southern Forest Bat
White-striped Freetail Bat

Bird
Australian Magpie                                       X
Australian Owlet-nightjar
Australian Wood Duck
Bassian Thrush                      X                   X
Beautiful Firetail
Brown Thornbill
Brush Bronzewing
Buff-banded Rail
Cattle Egret
Common Blackbird*                   X                   X
Common Bronzewing                   X
Common Myna*
Common Starling*
Crimson Rosella
Dusky Moorhen
Eastern Rosella
Eastern Spinebill
Eastern Yellow Robin                X                   X
European Goldfinch*
European Greenfinch*
Fan-tailed Cuckoo
Galah
Gang-gang Cockatoo
Golden Whistler

Grey Butcherbird
Grey Currawong
Grey Fantail                        X
Grey Shrike-thrush                  X
House Sparrow*
Latham's Snipe #
Laughing Kookaburra
Little Raven                        X
Little Wattlebird
Magpie-lark
Masked Lapwing                      X
Nankeen Night Heron #
Noisy Miner
Pacific Barn Owl
Pacific Black Duck
Pied Currawong
Powerful Owl #                      X                   X
Purple Swamphen
Rainbow Lorikeet
Red Wattlebird                      X
Red-browed Finch
Rock Dove*
Sacred Kingfisher
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo
Song Thrush*                        X

Southern Boobook                    X
Spotted Pardalote
Spotted Turtle-Dove*
Striated Pardalote
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo            X
Superb Fairy-wren                   X                   X
Tawny Frogmouth                     X
White-browed Scrubwren              X                   X
White-eared Honeyeater
White-faced Heron
White-plumed Honeyeater
White-throated Treecreeper
Willie Wagtail                      X
Yellow-faced Honeyeater
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus
Black Rat*                          X                   X
Black Wallaby                                           X
Bush Rat
Common Brushtail Possum             X                   X
Common Ringtail Possum              X                   X

Common Wombat                                           X
Cow*
Dog*                                X
Dusky Antechinus
Eastern Grey Kangaroo                                   X
European Hare*                      X
European Rabbit*
Fallow Deer*
House Cat*                                              X
House Mouse*                        X
Koala
Red Fox*                                                X
Short-beaked Echidna                                    X
Sugar Glider                                            X
Swamp Rat
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard
Bougainville's Skink
Common Snake-necked Turtle

Delicate Skink
Eastern Three-lined Skink
Garden Skink
Lowland Copperhead
McCoy's Skink
Southern Water Skink
Tree Dragon
Weasel Skink
White-lipped Snake

                              Wattle Park

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog
Peron's Tree Frog
Southern Brown Tree Frog
Southern Bullfrog
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #
Spotted Marsh Frog
Striped Marsh Frog                 X
Verreaux's Tree Frog
Victorian Smooth Froglet
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat
Gould's Wattled Bat
Grey-headed Flying-fox#            X
Large Forest Bat
Lesser Long-eared Bat
Little Forest Bat
Southern Forest Bat
White-striped Freetail Bat

Bird
Australian Magpie
Australian Owlet-nightjar
Australian Wood Duck
Bassian Thrush
Beautiful Firetail
Brown Thornbill
Brush Bronzewing
Buff-banded Rail
Cattle Egret
Common Blackbird*                  X
Common Bronzewing
Common Myna*
Common Starling*
Crimson Rosella
Dusky Moorhen
Eastern Rosella
Eastern Spinebill
Eastern Yellow Robin
European Goldfinch*
European Greenfinch*
Fan-tailed Cuckoo
Galah
Gang-gang Cockatoo
Golden Whistler

Grey Butcherbird
Grey Currawong
Grey Fantail
Grey Shrike-thrush
House Sparrow*
Latham's Snipe #
Laughing Kookaburra
Little Raven
Little Wattlebird
Magpie-lark
Masked Lapwing
Nankeen Night Heron #
Noisy Miner
Pacific Barn Owl
Pacific Black Duck
Pied Currawong
Powerful Owl #
Purple Swamphen
Rainbow Lorikeet
Red Wattlebird
Red-browed Finch
Rock Dove*
Sacred Kingfisher
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo
Song Thrush*

Southern Boobook                   X
Spotted Pardalote
Spotted Turtle-Dove*
Striated Pardalote
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo
Superb Fairy-wren
Tawny Frogmouth                    X
White-browed Scrubwren
White-eared Honeyeater
White-faced Heron
White-plumed Honeyeater
White-throated Treecreeper
Willie Wagtail
Yellow-faced Honeyeater
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus
Black Rat*                         X
Black Wallaby
Bush Rat
Common Brushtail Possum            X
Common Ringtail Possum             X

Common Wombat
Cow*
Dog*
Dusky Antechinus
Eastern Grey Kangaroo
European Hare*
European Rabbit*
Fallow Deer*
House Cat*
House Mouse*                       X
Koala
Red Fox*                           X
Short-beaked Echidna
Sugar Glider
Swamp Rat
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard
Bougainville's Skink
Common Snake-necked Turtle

Delicate Skink
Eastern Three-lined Skink
Garden Skink
Lowland Copperhead
McCoy's Skink
Southern Water Skink
Tree Dragon
Weasel Skink
White-lipped Snake

                              Number of parks in which species
                                       were recorded

Common Name
Amphibian
Common Froglet                               11
Eastern Dwarf Tree Frog                       1
Peron's Tree Frog                             3
Southern Brown Tree Frog                     12
Southern Bullfrog                             7
(ssp. unknown)
Southern Toadlet #                            2
Spotted Marsh Frog                            8
Striped Marsh Frog                           12
Verreaux's Tree Frog                          5
Victorian Smooth Froglet                      4
Bat
Chocolate Wattled Bat                         1
Gould's Wattled Bat                           4
Grey-headed Flying-fox#                       5
Large Forest Bat                              2
Lesser Long-eared Bat                         7
Little Forest Bat                            12
Southern Forest Bat                           1
White-striped Freetail Bat                    7

Bird
Australian Magpie                             9
Australian Owlet-nightjar                     3
Australian Wood Duck                          2
Bassian Thrush                                5
Beautiful Firetail                            1
Brown Thornbill                               3
Brush Bronzewing                              1
Buff-banded Rail                              2
Cattle Egret                                  1
Common Blackbird*                            12
Common Bronzewing                             9
Common Myna*                                  5
Common Starling*                              5
Crimson Rosella                               2
Dusky Moorhen                                 1
Eastern Rosella                               1
Eastern Spinebill                             2
Eastern Yellow Robin                         10
European Goldfinch*                           1
European Greenfinch*                          1
Fan-tailed Cuckoo                             3
Galah                                         1
Gang-gang Cockatoo                            1
Golden Whistler                               1

Grey Butcherbird                              5
Grey Currawong                                6
Grey Fantail                                  7
Grey Shrike-thrush                            9
House Sparrow*                                1
Latham's Snipe #                              1
Laughing Kookaburra                           7
Little Raven                                  6
Little Wattlebird                             1
Magpie-lark                                   6
Masked Lapwing                                2
Nankeen Night Heron #                         1
Noisy Miner                                   4
Pacific Barn Owl                              1
Pacific Black Duck                            2
Pied Currawong                                3
Powerful Owl #                                5
Purple Swamphen                               3
Rainbow Lorikeet                              1
Red Wattlebird                                6
Red-browed Finch                              5
Rock Dove*                                    2
Sacred Kingfisher                             1
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo                         1
Song Thrush*                                  1

Southern Boobook                              7
Spotted Pardalote                             1
Spotted Turtle-Dove*                          6
Striated Pardalote                            1
Sulphur-crested Cockatoo                      5
Superb Fairy-wren                            12
Tawny Frogmouth                               7
White-browed Scrubwren                        7
White-eared Honeyeater                        1
White-faced Heron                             1
White-plumed Honeyeater                       1
White-throated Treecreeper                    1
Willie Wagtail                                2
Yellow-faced Honeyeater                       1
Yellow-tailed Black-Cockatoo                  1
Mammal (except bat)
Agile Antechinus                              4
Black Rat*                                   11
Black Wallaby                                 9
Bush Rat                                      5
Common Brushtail Possum                      15
Common Ringtail Possum                       15

Common Wombat                                 7
Cow*                                          3
Dog*                                          7
Dusky Antechinus                              2
Eastern Grey Kangaroo                         9
European Hare*                                3
European Rabbit*                              6
Fallow Deer*                                  2
House Cat*                                    5
House Mouse*                                  7
Koala                                         2
Red Fox*                                     14
Short-beaked Echidna                          9
Sugar Glider                                  5
Swamp Rat                                     2
Reptile
Blotched Bluetongue Lizard                    4
Bougainville's Skink                          1
Common Snake-necked Turtle                    1

Delicate Skink                               11
Eastern Three-lined Skink                     1
Garden Skink                                 12
Lowland Copperhead                            4
McCoy's Skink                                 5
Southern Water Skink                          1
Tree Dragon                                   2
Weasel Skink                                 11
White-lipped Snake                            1

Table 4. Total species richness of each vertebrate group and the method
by which they were detected. The figure in brackets represents the
number of species that were detected by this method alone.

Class/Order            Total species richness  Camera audio

Bats                               8
Birds                             64               32(12)
Amphibians                        10                3(0)
Mammals (excl. Bats)              21
Reptiles                          12
Total species detected           115               35(12)

Class/ Order            Camera visual  Frog survey  Hair funnels

Bats
Birds                      44(22)
Amphibians                                10(2)
Mammals (excl. Bats)        21(3)                      12(0)
Reptiles                    2(0)
Total species detected     67(25)         10(2)        12(0)

Class/ Order            Harp trap  Spotlight  Tiles/Tin

Bats                      6(5)        3(2)
Birds                                19(8)
Amphibians                            8(0)
Mammals (excl. Bats)                 12(0)
Reptiles                              1(1)       10(7)
Total species detected    6(5)       43(11)      10(7)

Table 5. Number of reserves at which mammal species (excluding bats)
were detected by the survey techniques of remote camera (visual), hair
funnel and spotlighting. Red indicates the 'most successful' technique
for that species and 'n is the total number of reserves in which that
technique was used.

Common Name              Camera visual (n=15)  Hair funnel (n=13)

Agile Antechinus                   3                   4
Black Rat                         10                   2
Black Wallaby                      9                   1
Bush Rat                           2                   5
Common Brushtail Possum           12                   5
Common Ringtail Possum             9                   1
Common Wombat                      7
Cow                                3
Dog                                6                   1
Dusky Antechinus                   1                   2
Eastern Grey Kangaroo              9
European Hare                      3
European Rabbit                    6                   1
Fallow Deer                        2
House Cat                          5
House Mouse                        2                   5
Koala                              1
Red Fox                           13                   4
Short-beaked Echidna               9
Sugar Glider                       1
Swamp Rat                          2                   1
Total species                     21                  12

Common Name              Spotlighting (n=14)

Agile Antechinus
Black Rat                         3
Black Wallaby                     4
Bush Rat
Common Brushtail Possum          12
Common Ringtail Possum           14
Common Wombat                     2
Cow
Dog
Dusky Antechinus
Eastern Grey Kangaroo             6
European Hare
European Rabbit                   1
Fallow Deer                       1
House Cat
House Mouse
Koala                             1
Red Fox                           5
Short-beaked Echidna              1
Sugar Glider                      5
Swamp Rat
Total species                    12

Table 6. Comparison between the species recorded in this study and
those recorded in the same reserves in the Victorian Biodiversity Atlas
as at August 2016. Birds have not been included in this comparison
because this study did not include a full bird survey. (This survey
recorded 67 bird species and the VBA 227.)

Class/Order           No. of species  Number of species
                        this study    in VBA (Aug 2016)

Amphibians                  10                8
Bats                         8                9
Mammals (excl. Bats)        21               21

Reptiles                    11               17

Class/Order           Common name of species in VBA,
                      but not detected in this study

Amphibians            Growling Grass Frog
Bats                  Eastern Broad-nosed Bat
Mammals (excl. Bats)  Brown Rat, Platypus, Southern Brown
                      Bandicoot, Water Rat.
Reptiles              Black Rock Skink, Common Blue-tongued
                      Lizard, Cunningham's Skink,
                      Eastern Small-eyed Snake, Southern
                      Grass Skink, Tiger Snake, White's
                      Skink

Table 7. Activities in which volunteers participated and an estimate of
the extent of their involvement.

Activity                       Estimated number  Workload
                                of volunteers

Camera - set up                       10         273 cameras deployed
                                                 and retrieved in 48
                                                 outings
Camera - image analysis               28         33,000 10-second
                                                 videos analysed
Hair-funnels                          10         360 hair-tubes
                                                 deployed and collected
                                                 in 20 outings
Bat trapping and spotlighting         71         36 bat trap
                                                 deployments at 24
                                                 sites and spotlighting
                                                 at 42 sites in a total
                                                 of 12 outings
Frog Surveys                          27         45 sites surveyed 8
                                                 times each in around
                                                 45 outings
Reptile surveys                       46         55 quadrats checked in
                                                 12 outings
Total                                115         137 outings
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Contributions; Melbourne, Australia
Author:Drury, Robin
Publication:The Victorian Naturalist
Geographic Code:8AUST
Date:Oct 1, 2017
Words:10718
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