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A cholesterol and actinide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea and viroids in neurodevelopmental disorders.

INTRODUCTION

Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) along with the root wilt disease of coconut is endemic to Kerala with its radioactive actinide beach sands. Actinides like rutile producing intracellular magnesium deficiency due to rutile-magnesium exchange sites in the cell membrane has been implicated in the etiology of EMF [1]. Endogenous digoxin, a steroidal glycoside which functions as a membrane sodium-potassium ATPase inhibitor has also been related to its etiology due to the intracellular magnesium deficiency it produces [2]. Organisms like phytoplasmas and viroids have also been demonstrated to play a role in the etiology of these diseases [3,4]. Endogenous digoxin has been related to the pathogenesis of autism, cerebral palsy and trisomy 212. The possibility of endogenous digoxin synthesis by actinide based primitive organism like archaea with a mevalonate pathway and cholesterol catabolism was considered [5,6,7]. Davies has put forward the concept of a shadow biosphere of organisms with alternate biochemistry present in earth itself [8]. An actinide dependent shadow biosphere of archaea and viroids in the above mentioned disease states is described [6].

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Informed consent of the subjects and the approval of the ethics committee were obtained for the study. The following groups were included in the study:-Autism, cerebral palsy and trisomy 21. There were 10 patients in each group and each patient had an age and sex matched healthy control selected randomly from the general population. The blood samples were drawn in the fasting state before treatment was initiated. Plasma from fasting heparinised blood was used and the experimental protocol was as follows (I) Plasma + phosphate buffered saline, (II) same as I + cholesterol substrate, (III) same as II + rutile 0.1 mg/ml, (IV) same as II + ciprofloxacine and doxycycline each in a concentration of 1 mg/ml. Cholesterol substrate was prepared as described by Richmond [9]. Aliquots were withdrawn at zero time immediately after mixing and after incubation at 37[degrees]C for 1 hour. The following estimations were carried out:-Cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, muramic acid, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide, serotonin, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA redutase, digoxin and bile acids [10,11,12,13]. Cytochrome F420 was estimated flourimetrically (excitation wavelength 420 nm and emission wavelength 520 nm). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon was estimated by measuring hydrogen peroxide liberated by using glucose reagent. The statistical analysis was done by ANOVA.

RESULTS

The parameters checked as indicated above were:cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, muramic acid, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide, serotonin, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA reductase, digoxin and bile acids. Plasma of control subjects showed increased levels of the above mentioned parameters with after incubation for 1 hour and addition of cholesterol substrate resulted in still further significant increase in these parameters. The plasma of patients showed similar results but the extent of increase was more. The addition of antibiotics to the control plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased their levels. The addition of antibiotics to the patient's plasma caused a decrease in all the parameters while addition of rutile increased their levels but the extent of change was more in patient's sera as compared to controls. The results are expressed in tables 1-7 as percentage change in the parameters after 1 hour incubation as compared to the values at zero time.

DISCUSSION

There was increase in cytochrome F420 indicating archaeal growth. The archaea can synthesise and use cholesterol as a carbon and energy source [14,15]. The archeal origin of the enzyme activities was indicated by antibiotic induced suppression. The study indicates the presence of actinide based archaea with an alternate actinide based enzymes or metalloenzymes in the system as indicated by rutile induced increase in enzyme activities [16]. There was also an increase in archaeal HMG CoA reductase activity indicating increased cholesterol synthesis by the archaeal mevalonate pathway. The archaeal beta hydroxyl steroid dehydrogenase activity indicating digoxin synthesis and archaeal cholesterol hydroxylase activity indicating bile acid synthesis were increased [7]. The archaeal cholesterol oxidase activity was increased resulting in generation of pyruvate and hydrogen peroxide [15]. The pyruvate gets converted to glutamate and ammonia by the GABA shunt pathway. The archaeal aromatization of cholesterol generating PAH, serotonin and dopamine was also detected [17]. The archaeal glycolytic hexokinase activity and archaeal extracellular ATP synthase activity were increased. The archaea can undergo magnetite and calcium carbonate mineralization and can exist as calcified nanoforms [18]. There was an increase in free RNA indicating self replicating RNA viroids and free DNA indicating generation of viroid complementary DNA strands by archaeal reverse transcriptase activity. The actinides modulate RNA folding and catalyse its ribozymal action. Digoxin can cut and paste the viroidal strands by modulating RNA splicing generating RNA viroidal diversity. The viroids are evolutionarily escaped archaeal group I introns which have retrotransposition and self splicing qualities [19]. Archaeal pyruvate can produce histone deacetylase inhibition resulting in endogenous retroviral (HERV) reverse transcriptase and integrase expression. This can integrate the RNA viroidal complementary DNA into the noncoding region of eukaryotic non coding DNA using HERV integrase as has been described for borna and ebola viruses [20]. The noncoding DNA is lengthened by integrating RNA viroidal complementary DNA with the integration going on as a continuing event. The archaea genome can also get integrated into human genome using integrase as has been described for trypanosomes [21]. The integrated viroids and archaea can undergo vertical transmission and can exist as genomic parasites20,21. This increases the length and alters the grammar of the noncoding region producing memes or memory of acquired characters [22]. The viroidal complementary DNA can function as jumping genes producing a dynamic genome important in storage of synaptic information, HLA gene expression and developmental gene expression. The RNA viroids can regulate mrna function by RNA interference [19]. The phenomena of RNA interference can modulate T cell and B cell function, insulin signaling lipid metabolism, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, neuronal transmission and euchromatin/ heterochromatin expression.

The presence of muramic acid, HMG CoA reductase and cholesterol oxidase activity inhibited by antibiotics indicates the presence of bacteria with mevalonate pathway. The bacterial with mevalonate pathway include streptococcus, staphylococcus, actinomycetes, listeria, coxiella and borrelia [23]. The bacteria and archaea with mevalonate pathway and cholesterol catabolism had a evolutionarily advantage and constitutes the isoprenoidal clade organism with the archaea evolving into mevalonate pathway gram positive and gram negative organism through horizontal gene transfer of viroidal and virus genes [24]. The isoprenoidal clade prokaryotes develop into other groups of prokaryotes via viroidal/ virus as well as eukaryotic horizontal gene transfer producing bacterial speciation [25]. The RNA viroids and its complementary DNA developed into cholesterol enveloped RNA and DNA viruses like herpes, retrovirus, influenza virus, borna virus, cytomegalo virus and Ebstein Barr virus by recombining with eukaryotic and human genes resulting in viral speciation. Bacterial and viral species are ill defined and fuzzy with all of them forming one common genetic pool with frequent horizontal gene transfer and recombination. Thus the multi and unicellular eukaryote with its genes serves the purpose of prokaryotic and viral speciation. The multicellular eukaryote developed so that their endosymbiotic archaeal colonies could survive and forage better. The multicellular eukaryotes are like bacterial biofilms. The archaea and bacteria with a mevalonate pathway uses the extracellular RNA viroids and DNA viroids for quorum sensing and in the generation of symbiotic biofilm like structures which develop into multicellular eukaryotes [26,27]. The endosymbiotic archaea and bacteria with mevalonate pathway still uses the RNA viroids and DNA viroids for the regulation of muticellular eukaryote. Pollution is induced by the primitive nanoarchaea and mevalonate pathway bacteria synthesised PAH and methane leading on to redox stress. Redox stress leads to sodium potassium ATPase inhibition, inward movement of plasma membrane cholesterol, defective SREBP sensing, increased cholesterol synthesis and nanoarchaeal/mevalonate pathway bacterial growth [28]. Redox stress leads on to viroidal and archaeal multiplication. Redox stress can also lead to HERV reverse transcriptase and integrase expression. The noncoding DNA is formed of integrating RNA viroidal complementary DNA and archaea with the integration going on as a continuing event. The archaeal pox like dsDNA virus forms evolutionarily the nucleus. The integrated viroidal, archaeal and mevalonate pathway bacterial sequences can undergo vertical transmission and can exist as genomic parasites. The genomic integrated archaea, mevalonate pathway bacteria and viroids form a genomic reserve of bacteria and viruses which can recombine with human and eukaryotic genes producing bacterial and viral speciation. Bacteria and viruses have been related to the pathogenesis of autism. Clostridia, mycoplasma and borrelia have been related to autism [29]. Measles virus, influenza virus and borna virus are important in the pathogenesis of autism [30]. The change in the length and grammar of the noncoding region produces eukaryotic speciation and individuality [31]. Changes in the length of noncoding region can lead onto disorders of consciousness like schizophrenia and possibly autism [32]. The integration of nanoarchaea, mevalonate pathway prokaryotes and viroids in to the eukaryotic and human genome produces a chimera which can multiply producing biofilm like multicellular structures having a mixed archaeal, viroidal, prokaryotic and eukaryotic characters which is a regression from the multicellular eukaryotic tissue. This results in a new neuronal, metabolic, immune and tissue phenotype leading to human diseases like autism, cerebral palsy and trisomy 21. The microchimeras formed can lead to polyploidy and trisomy 21.

The archaea and viroids can regulate the nervous system including the NMDA/GABA thalamocorticothalamic pathway mediating conscious perception [2,33]. NMDA/ GABA receptors can be modulated by digoxin induced calcium oscillations resulting NMDA/ GAD activity induction, PAH increasing NMDA activity and inducing GAD as well as viroid induced RNA interference [2]. The cholesterol ring oxidase generated pyruvate can be converted by the GABA shunt pathway to glutamate and GABA. The dipolar PAH and archaeal magnetite in the setting of digoxin induced sodium potassium ATPase inhibition can produce a pumped phonon system mediated frohlich model superconducting state inducing quantal perception with nanoarchaeal sensed gravity producing the orchestrated reduction of the quantal possibilities to the macrosopic world [2,33]. The archaea can regulate limbic lobe transmission with archaeal cholesterol aromatase/ring oxidase generated norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and acetyl choline [17]. The higher degree of integration of the archaea into the genome produces increased digoxin synthesis producing right hemispheric dominance and lesser degree producing left hemispheric dominance [2]. The increased integration of archaea into the neuronal genome can produce increased cholesterol oxidase and aromatase mediated monoamine and NMDA transmission producing autism, cerebral palsy and trisomy 21. The archaeal bile acids are chemically diverse and structurally different from human bile acids. The archaeal bile acids can bind olfactory GPCR receptors and stimulate the limbic lobe producing a sense of social identity. The dominance of archaeal bile acids over human bile acids in stimulating the olfactory GPCR-limbic lobe pathway leads to loss of social identity and autism [34]. Archaea and RNA viroid can bind the TLR receptor induce NFKB producing immune activation and cytokine TNF alpha secretion. The archaeal DXP and mevalonate pathway metabolites can bind [gamma][delta] TCR and digoxin induced calcium signaling can activate NFKB producing chronic immune activation [2,35]. The archaea and viroid induced chronic immune activation and generation of superantigens can lead on to autoimmune disease. Immune activation and autoimmunity is important in the pathogenesis of autism, cerebral palsy and trisomy 21. Archaea, viroids and digoxin can induce the host AKT PI3K, AMPK, HIF alpha and NFKB producing the Warburg metabolic phenotype [36]. The increased glycolytic hexokinase activity, decrease in blood ATP, leakage of cytochrome C, increase in serum pyruvate and decrease in acetyl CoA indicates the generation of the Warburg phenotype. There is induction of glycolysis, inhibition of PDH activity and mitochondrial dysfunction resulting in inefficient energetics. Mitochondrial dysfunction can lead onto NMDA excitotoxicity and cell death important in autism, cerebral palsy and trisomy 21. Cholesterol oxidase activity, increased glycolysis related NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction generates free radicals important in the pathogenesis of these disease states. The accumulated pyruvate enters the GABA shunt pathway and is converted to citrate which is acted upon by citrate lyase and converted to acetyl CoA, used for cholesterol synthesis [36]. The pyruvate can be converted to glutamate and ammonia which is oxidised by archaea for energy needs. The increased cholesterol substrate leads to increased archaeal growth and digoxin synthesis leading to metabolic channeling to the mevalonate pathway. Hyperdigoxinemia is important in the pathogenesis of trisomy 21 and autism [2]. The Warburg phenotype induced increased mitochondrial PT pore hexokinase, archaeal PAH and viroid induced RNA interference can lead on to malignant transformation important in trisomy 21. The digoxin and PAH induced increased intracellular calcium can lead to PT pore dysfunction, cell death and neuronal degeneration [2]. The archaeal cholesterol catabolism can deplete the cell membranes of cholesterol resulting in organelle dysfunction and neuronal degeneration important in autism, trisomy 21 and cerebral palsy.

DOI: 10.3968/j.ans.1715787020110402.460

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Ravikumar Kurup-A. (1) *; Parameswara Achutha Kurup (1)

(1) Professor of Metabolic Medicine and Neurology The Metabolic Disorders Research Centre, TC 4/1525, Gouri Sadan, Kattu Road, North of Cliff House, Kowdiar PO, Trivandrum, Kerala, India

Corresponding author.

Email: ravikurup13@yahoo.in

Received 17 September 2011; accepted 19 November 2011
Table 1
Effect of Rutile and Antibiotics on Muramic Acid and Serotonin

 Muramic acid % change Muramic acid % change
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy + Cipro)

Normal 4.41 0.15 18.63 0.12
Autism 22.76 2.20 67.63 3.52
Trisomy 21 24.00 1.64 66.04 4.36
Cerebral Palsy 23.98 1.72 66.76 4.01
F value 403.394 680.284
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

 5 HT % 5 HT %
 (Increase without Doxy) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.34 0.15 18.24 0.37
Autism 22.79 2.20 64.26 6.02
Trisomy 21 22.52 2.06 66.09 5.73
Cerebral Palsy 22.78 1.94 63.06 6.20
F value 348.867 364.999
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

Table 2
Effect of Rutile and Antibiotics on Free DNA and RNA

 DNA % change DNA % change
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.37 0.15 18.39 0.38
Autism 22.12 2.44 63.69 5.14
Trisomy 21 23.49 1.19 64.63 6.58
Cerebral Palsy 23.13 1.78 64.88 4.96
F value 337.577 356.621
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

 RNA % change RNA % change
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.37 0.13 18.38 0.48
Autism 23.33 1.35 66.83 3.27
Trisomy 21 23.22 1.35 66.42 4.21
Cerebral Palsy 23.27 1.56 66.43 3.77
F value 427.828 654.453
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

Table 3
Effect of Rutile and Antibiotics on HMG CoA Reductase and PAH

 HMG CoA R % change HMG CoA R % change
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.30 0.20 18.35 0.35
Autism 22.72 1.89 64.51 5.73
Trisomy 21 23.82 1.78 61.63 7.96
Cerebral Palsy 22.44 2.27 63.92 4.99
F value 319.332 199.553
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

 PAH % change PAH % change
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.45 0.14 18.25 0.72
Autism 22.61 1.42 64.48 6.90
Trisomy 21 24.06 1.50 63.01 7.76
Cerebral Palsy 23.06 1.78 65.73 4.00
F value 391.318 257.996
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

Table 4
Effect of Rutile and Antibiotics on Digoxin and Bile Acids

 Digoxin (ng/ml) Digoxin (ng/ml)
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy + Cipro)

Normal 0.11 0.00 0.541 0.003
Autism 0.53 0.08 0.205 0.041
Trisomy 21 0.52 0.08 0.208 0.031
Cerebral Palsy 0.51 0.07 0.212 0.034
F value 135.116 71.706
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

 Bile acids % change Bile acids % change
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.29 0.18 18.15 0.58
Autism 22.21 2.04 63.84 6.16
Trisomy 21 21.65 2.37 65.91 4.82
Cerebral Palsy 22.18 2.40 65.89 6.18
F value 290.441 203.651
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

Table 5
Effect of Rutile and Antibiotics on Pyruvate and Hexokinase

 Pyruvate % change Pyruvate % change
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.34 0.21 18.43 0.82
Autism 21.91 1.71 58.45 6.66
Trisomy 21 20.95 1.35 60.24 7.16
Cerebral Palsy 21.81 1.03 63.83 5.41
F value 321.255 115.242
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

 Hexokinase % change Hexokinase % change
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.21 0.16 18.56 0.76
Autism 22.88 1.87 65.45 5.08
Trisomy 21 22.88 1.98 65.45 5.49
Cerebral Palsy 22.52 1.93 65.61 6.20
F value 292.065 317.966
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

Table 6
Effect of Rutile and Antibiotics on Hydrogen Peroxide and
Delta Amino Levulinic Acid

 [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] % [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] %
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.43 0.19 18.13 0.63
Autism 23.52 1.49 63.24 7.36
Trisomy 21 23.76 1.48 62.14 6.76
Cerebral Palsy 23.87 1.41 61.14 6.93
F value 380.721 171.228
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

 ALA % ALA %
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.4 0.10 18.48 0.39
Autism 23.2 1.57 66.65 4.26
Trisomy 21 23.41 1.55 66.36 4.31
Cerebral Palsy 23.11 1.82 66.96 3.79
F value 372.716 556.411
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

Table 7
Effect of Rutile and Antibiotics on ATP Synthase and
Cytochrome F 420

 ATP synthase % ATP synthase %
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy)

Normal 4.40 0.11 18.78 0.11
Autism 22.60 1.64 66.86 4.21
Trisomy 21 23.34 1.58 65.76 3.91
Cerebral Palsy 22.91 1.69 66.23 3.44
F value 449.503 673.081
P value < 0.001 < 0.001

 CYT F420 % CYT F420 %
 (Increase with Rutile) (Decrease with Doxy

Normal 4.48 0.15 18.24 0.66
Autism 21.68 1.90 57.93 9.64
Trisomy 21 22.78 2.19 58.97 8.84
Cerebral Palsy 22.84 2.66 55.33 6.05
F value 306.749 130.054
P value < 0.001 < 0.001
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Author:Kurup A., Ravikumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha
Publication:Advances in Natural Science
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Date:Dec 31, 2011
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