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A bull's-eye budget.

YOU MAY FIRST HEAR OF THE new wing planned for your facility when your boss walks in and says, "We intend to add a new wing onto this building. Work with the facilities people and see if you can get me some preliminary ideas and figures in the next couple of weeks." With such specific guidance, how could you go wrong?

Sure, it's complex and it's a big job, but a lot of help is available. For the past three years the Architect Engineer Subcommittee of the ASIS Standing Committee on Physical Security has been instructing and assisting ASIS members in developing a systematic approach to planning the physical security of a new or expanding facility.

That approach covers all the essentials: Determining what must be protected, identifying the probable threats, selecting the system and materials to counter the threats, pricing it out, getting management approval, and implementing the system. Each step requires analytical thinking and planning. This article addresses only determining project cost. Cost analysis should be as systematic as an engineering project, but any conscientious security practitioner can learn the system and do it properly.

One of the first challenges for a security manager is to present a reliable budget figure as part of the overall plans for constructing the new wing. A reliable figure ensures that sufficient funds are included in the budget for all your security needs. Budgeting happens months before the actual work. You'll know if your initial figuring was correct as soon as the job goes out for bids. If you planned well, the bids will be close to your budget estimate. If the security portion of the job is to be done in house, it is even more important to be accurate. When bidders are involved, the company selects one bid and the price is set by the contractor. When the work is done in-house, you may have to live within your original dollar estimate.

Many controllers see a 10 percent overrun as the maximum acceptable margin of error. More than that and the security manager may be told to live within the amount budgeted. As if that isn't difficult enough, he or she may then be looked on as someone who isn't good with fiscal details. On the other hand, the manager who comes in slightly under budget is looked on as an individual who knows the trade and handles his or her budget in a professional manner.

The heart of the problem is that those who estimate any project must consider many variables: the total cost of the hardware and materials, the labor rate, the hours required to complete the job, unforeseen delays and contingencies, overhead and profit markups, and extra costs for that particular job.

Estimating is not for the fainthearted. It is the time to stretch your imagination and reach for all you can get. When you start listing what you need, be sure to price high. Estimating requires an up-to-date knowledge of the costs of the following hardware:

* video equipment, such as cameras, monitors, switchers, and splitters

* audio equipment, such as intercoms and radios

* alarm system components, such as controllers, CRTS, printers, door contacts, and motion detectors

* access controls, such as doors, turnstiles, and card-reading equipment

* support equipment, such as consoles, locks, and ciphers

You'll also need to understand the costs of a variety of power and signal transmission methods, such as coax cable, fiber-optic cable, and microwave transmission equipment. Finally, you'll need to estimate the cost of the labor that is required to install the equipment and complete the job.

Labor rates range widely in different parts of the country. Your in-house rate or local union rates can provide the base rate per hour for the job. But don't forget to add in the unique requirements of some jobs.

For example, a significant amount of overtime and weekend work might be required to meet deadlines or to schedule minimum downtime on your existing equipment. Guards must be placed on some jobs because equipment is temporarily shut off . Other jobs may require escorts. Each of these situations adds to the total cost of the job.

Your company may charge these support costs to something other than the job, but you may want to know the total cost so you'll at least have a record of them. One lesson you learn early on is that you can't do all of this yourself.

For help and information close to home, first consider the engineers in your company. Then talk to your vendors and use their specification cut sheets and current price lists. Also talk to your peers, particularly if you know someone who has experience in security system expansion or new system installation. Finally, look to the standards available in engineering manuals that can take the guesswork out of estimating. The Means construction estimating manuals (published by the R. S. Means Company) are particularly useful and should be available through your engineering department. Sylvania publishes Quik Specs" that describe the types and uses for their lighting devices. These sources help you to zero in on the specific hardware you'll need and make it easier to estimate the costs accurately.

Step one might be to talk to the operations people to learn all you can about what will go into the new wing. How many people will it hold? What type of materials and processes will it house? Will it be mostly offices or production areas?

The second step might be to visit the facility engineer to learn who will be in charge of the design and drafting. Let him or her know you want to attend every design meeting and that when the design team is formed you want to be a member. Weekly meetings are a common method of pulling all activities together, and you'll want to receive a copy of all the minutes of these meetings. At this stage you won't know the size, shape, or physical layout of the new wing; the location of doors, hallways, or electrical rooms; or any other details required to put your plan together. But you can develop concepts.

Will the new area be a duplicate of what is already in existence? If so, an extension of the present alarm system might be appropriate. But be very careful at this point not to make assumptions that later prove false.

Here are a few of the more common pitfalls. You might assume that the equipment in use is still being manufactured; however, older hardware is often difficult to obtain. You might assume that your computerized system can be expanded without realizing that it requires expensive port expansion or additional channel boards. You might think your wiring is compatible but learn later that it isn't. You may find your system is digital but that the current hardware uses analog data.

Will there be a new parking lot? If so, you may require additional access controls for new entrances. Is this an opportunity to purchase some new equipment to upgrade your old alarm system? If so, your presentation to your boss should include at least three options-the cost of expanding the present system, the cost of upgrading it, and the cost of a new system. There is never a better time to ask for $50,000 or $60,000 for security than when it can be absorbed into a large budget project. For most departments it's a better opportunity than inserting the money as a line item in an annual budget.

As more specific drawings come from the draftsmen and more details are available on the physical layout, you should be evaluating the threat to the new wing. Will there be any research and development work? Will any precious metals be kept there? Will there be any significant safety or fire considerations? Will the new wing have a computer room? The answers to these questions will help you determine the level of security required.

HAVING DEVELOPED A SECURITY concept, you'll need to start an equipment list for budgeting purposes. What will be required? in one column list every major component you can think of. Then begin your research for specific hardware and list brands and models in the center column. Finally, locate current price schedules, and list the costs down a third column. You will quickly have a nucleus from which to estimate your budget.

Another approach is to draw up a concept without any reference to manufacturers or models. You can state only what you want the equipment to do and let the contractor select the equipment for you. This approach is called a performance specification. It saves you a lot of work, but you'll have to take the equipment the contractor chooses. Since you are adding onto an existing building, you'll probably want equipment similar to what is already in use - hence the need to specify your preference.

Remember, always use the highest price possible. If you get prices on closed-circuit television (CCTV) equipment from Panasonic, RCA, and Ikegami, use the highest price quoted as your budget estimate. Do this even if you know you may be forced to take cheaper equipment later on. This is the time to request charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras instead of Vidicons or Newvicons. Also ask for a couple of outside CCTV cameras with environmental housings, long cable runs, and pan, tilt, and zoom capabilities.

With this amount of detail you are ready to meet with your boss to sell him or her on your overall concept. if the boss agrees with your ideas and cost estimate, you've passed a major stumbling block. However, if he or she gives you an incredulous look and says, "It will cost how much?"-you know you've hit a major stumbling block.

If you are required to make reductions, look carefully at the overall picture. Remember those "nice to have" outdoor cameras and the CCDs instead of tubes? Now's the time to take them out or find a similar item at lower cost rather than give u an critical components.

After the first couple of months of working with the task force, you should get detailed and updated drawings that enable you to determine the exact number of locks, motion detectors, door alarms, local alarm crash bars, and other items you will require. Don't make any changes without coordinating them with the engineer.

At this stage you can't think about your equipment only. You must think about the overall environment being designed. Is the proposed lighting sufficient for your video cameras in lobbies and on loading docks? Is it adequate for employee safety in the parking lot and on walkways? Will the emergency generator being installed have enough capacity for all the security equipment? Did the computer room get a halon system that adds alarm zones to your security system? Did the security control room get an air conditioner? Do any areas need walls that go from the floor to the deck, or are walls that go from the floor to the drop ceiling sufficient?

You or the engineer or both must ut together a statement of work, which details what is to be installed and exactly where it will go. Part of the package that will be used for bids by your engineers is a detailed security layout on blueprints. Use a different symbol for each security device. You can use squares, circles, triangles, and asterisks, and they can mean whatever you want them to mean on the blueprint as long as you use a legend so everyone who picks up the drawing knows what a circle means on that print. If you want to use standardized symbols, the American Society for Testing & Materials has a book, "Standard Practice for Security Engineering Symbols," from which you and your engineers can select the appropriate symbols. Once the package is submitted, you still have no time to relax. Contractors bidding on the job will want a site tour, and you will want to be present to answer their questions, rather than having the engineer tell them what he or she thinks you want.

Finally the bid packages are returned. It's a good feeling to receive and read through bids that have come in based on your specs and to note that they are very close to your budget estimate. You might even think planning and budgeting aren't really so hard now that you've got the system down. But then you realize all this work has only brought you to the point where the money and contractor are locked in. Next come the headaches of ordering, delivery, construction delays and overruns, and those inevitable but unforeseen changes. But that's another article.

About the Author William Lang, CPP, MPA, is manager of plant protection for Sanders Associates, a Lockheed Company. He is a member of ASIS.
COPYRIGHT 1990 American Society for Industrial Security
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1990 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
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Title Annotation:for facility expansions
Author:Lang, William
Publication:Security Management
Date:Mar 1, 1990
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Next Article:The security manager's apprentice.

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