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A Study of the Acceptance and Accommodation of Calvinism in the Korean Presbyterian Church: The Pyungyang Mission Station of Chosun-ya-so-kyo, 1900-1930.

The development of the Korean Presbyterian mission was more fruitful than other mission fields, such as India, China, and Japan. In particular, the Korean Presbyterian mission in the Pyungyang area in the northern part of Korea was much more successful than other denominations in Korea during the early Korean mission period, from the late Chosun Dynasty to Japanese colonization. There are three main factors explaining why Presbyterian mission thrived in Korea: the historical background, the socio-political background in terms of the geographical atmosphere, and the effective application of the Nevius Method. (1)

Historically, there were Korean witnesses of Protestant Christianity before Western missionaries visited Korea. Sang-riun Seo and his younger brother Kyung-cho, traders to China, accepted Protestantism through Scottish missionaries Mclntyre and Ross in the 1870s when they travelled to Manchuria. They translated the Chinese Bible into Korean, brought the Bible to Korea, and built a Christian community in So-rae province by themselves; this became the first Protestant church in Korea. This was the spark of Korean Christianity. When they met Western missionaries, Korean Christians and missionaries made a type of amplification effect in terms of church and other Christian communities.

The geographical conditions were also critical to church growth. The northern area was not as fit for farming as southern Korea. Many northern people worked as merchants and travelled to China. This led them to be more accepting of other ideas and traditions than southerners were. A more serious factor was the socio-political inequality between north and south of the capital city, Hahn-yang. The ruling group discriminated against the northerners, so they could more easily formulate progressive perspectives and accept other ideas and traditions. Many people in the north chose to become merchants, like the Seo brothers, rather than government officials or farmers.

The third factor affecting Christian church development was the acceptance of the Nevius Method. John Nevius was a missionary in China who developed a method that concentrated on the independence of indigenous people. As they developed their own churches, they did not pursue the assistance of Western missionaries. Nevius formulated three principles for this: self-dependence, self-propagation, and self-governance. He visited Korea to meet with Presbyterian missionaries and introduced this method in 1894. Ironically, this method was unsuccessful in China, Japan, and India. But Korean Presbyterian missionaries, in particular Presbyterian missionaries in the northern area, accepted this method and applied it in the Korean mission field. Korean churches in this area could develop their own church traditions using their own hands with minimal supports from Western missionaries.

Given these factors, Presbyterian missionaries attempted to make church leaders out of the indigenous Christians by founding the Pyungyang Theological Seminary in 1901, in the early mission history of the Korean Presbyterian Church. (2) Koreans thus became leaders in order to build a Korean Presbyterian Church denomination, creating their own church assembly, the Chosun-ya-so-kyo (Korean Christian church) Presbyterian Church in 1912. They began to evangelize the whole country independently, with missionaries' support, and sent missionaries to China voluntarily in 1913, 1917, and 1937. (3) In these circumstances, Chosun-ya-so-kyo Presbyterian Church and Pyungyang Theological Seminary valued theological education in order to raise sound church leaders. Fortunately, the faculty members were qualified to offer a strong theological education curriculum to Korean students, who were admitted based on strict application regulations. (4) The overall curricula were based on the conservative evangelical tradition. Although this school was founded in the Presbyterian tradition, this institution did not teach only Calvinism or Westminster Catechism. Instead, it taught students conservativism and evangelism based on the needs of the Korean church. (5)

The theological education of Pyungyang Theological Seminary has been criticized as not being academic enough to fully grasp Calvinism or the other theological subjects that were fully developed in Europe or the US. This is because the main task of the Korean Presbyterian Church was church growth related to evangelism. (6) Calvinism, one of the theological foundations of the Presbyterian church, however, was not completely ignored in the theological education of the Korean

mission field. Pyongyang Theological Seminary introduced Calvin and Calvinism in its church history, as well as systematic theology subjects. Moreover, there were about 20 publications on Calvinism in two academic journals--Shin-hak-ji-nam and Key-ja-cci (the Mustard Seed)--written by pastors and faculty members from this institution. (7) This research paper will delve into the traces of Calvinism in the early mission period of Korea, concentrating on these publications.

The Acceptance and Accommodation of Calvinism

Calvin and Calvinism were introduced in Korea in two dimensions: through a historical approach and through a theological approach. The theological approach was twofold: by missionaries and by Korean thinkers. Calvinism was introduced through several history classes in Pyungyang Theological Seminary. Faculty members introduced the historical approach to understanding the life of Calvin through lectures in courses on church history. The second, more important, approach to Calvin was launched by Korean and missionary thinkers through their publishing of academic articles in Shin-hak-ji-nam and Key-ja-cci, Shin-hak-ji-nam was the first academic journal in the area of theology in the Korean Presbyterian Church, in publication from March 1919 until the present. The first editor-in-chief was Gelson Engel, a professor from Pyungyang Theological Seminary. This journal is historically and theologically significant because it opened the academic arena of the Korean Presbyterian Church. It is currently published by Chongshin University and Theological Seminary, one of the major Presbyterian denominations in Korea.

Calvinism was introduced in this journal in July 1934, and it had published 14 articles about Calvin's life and thought by 1939. Key-ja-cci was initiated by the students of the Pyungyang Theological Seminary from 1931 to 1939. Byung-shik Yoon, Ji-il Bang, and Jin-hong Kim started this journal as a collection of stories by students. The contents of this journal, however, were not filled with simple stories; rather, the students published their theological thoughts, national sufferings, and biblical reflections. Although the Japanese colonial government tried to shut it down several times, the journal endeavoured to continue publishing until December 1939. In August 1936, this journal published a special edition on Calvinism, with six academic articles for the 400th anniversary of Calvin. (8) This research will be divided into three parts in discussing the acceptance and accommodation of Calvinism in the Korean mission field: introductory explanation, missionary approach, and the understandings of Korean thinkers.

The introduction of Calvin in Pyungyang: 1900s-1920s

Calvinism was introduced to students in their courses on church history. Strictly speaking, the course did not introduce Calvinism, but rather Calvin as one of the Reformers. Gelson Engel taught Calvin for the first time in the church history class in 1902. (9) When he started to teach in the institution, this course had no textbook, so he used Man-kook-tong-gahm, which William Baird and his wife, Annie Baird, co-translated as Sheffield's Universal History, published by Chosun-ya-so-kyo-seo-whoi in 1912. This book was also used for the world history course at Union Christian College (Soongsil University). Man-kook-tong-gahm described the Reformation in its introduction of Martin Luther and John Calvin. (10) This marked (11) the first introduction of Calvin in a higher education setting in Korea.

Samuel Moffett also introduced Calvin in his lecture on the 400th anniversary of Calvin in 1909, titled "On John Calvin: In Celebration of the 400th Anniversary of the Birth of John Calvin." This lecture is known as the first public lecture on Calvin in Korea. During this period, Pyungyang Theological Seminary began to teach Calvinism as well as church history. (12) Another introduction of Calvin was made by William Foote, (13) church history professor at this school from 1919. He published a book on the history of the Reformation, titled Gang-jeong-kyo-sa-gui, with Chosun-ya-so-kyo-seo-whoi in 1913, in which he described how Calvin built the Genevan Church and formulated his theological thoughts (45-67). This was the first detailed description of Calvin in Korea.

Chun-kyung Oh also referred to Calvin in his book Kyo-whoi-yeok-sa-inn-mool-jee (Biography of Church History), published by Whal-dong-sea-hae in 1923. Chun-kyung Oh was not a faculty member, but one of graduates from this school, and he published this book while studying in Pyungyang Theological Seminary. In this book, he reviewed from Ignatius to D. L. Moody, writing about Calvin and including his picture (pp 103-110). In 1925, Charles A. Clark introduced Calvin in his textbook, Seol-kyo-hak (Lectures on Homiletics), published by Dae-han-gi-dok-seo-whoi, mentioning Calvin three times. These examples show that Pyungyang Theological Seminary tried to include Calvin in its theological education. (14) There were also several introductions to Calvin and Calvinism outside of Pyungyang during this period: for example, in the Methodist theological journal Shin-hak-sei-kye; in several articles published by the weekly newspaper Gi-dok-shin-bo (The Christian Messenger); and in the book Kyo-whoi-sa-gui, written by Elmer M. Cable. (15)

The discussion of Calvinism by the missionary faculties in 1934

There were four missionary faculties at Pyungyang Theological Seminary that published articles on Calvinism in Shin-hak-ji-nam for the first time in 1934: Charles A. Clark, (16) Stacy L. Roberts, (17) Floyd E. Hamilton, and William D. Reynolds. (18) W. D. Reynolds graduated from Richmond Union Theological Seminary (Southern Presbyterian Church of the U.S.A.) and came to Jeon-ra-do in the southern part of Korea in 1892. He worked for the Pyungyang Theological Seminary from 1901 and did Bible translation. C. A. Clark graduated from McCormick Theological Seminary (Northern Presbyterian Church of the U.S.A.) and came to Korea in 1902. He was a great scholar of biblical hermeneutics and a pioneer in the field of church social work. (19) S. L. Roberts graduated from Princeton Theological Seminary (Northern Presbyterian Church of the U.S.A.) and came to Korea in 1907. He was the second president of Pyungyang Theological Seminary and taught biblical hermeneutics. Floyd E. Hamilton also graduated from Princeton Theological Seminary, and he came to Korea in 1920 and taught systematic theology. (20) These theologians endeavoured to protect the conservative theological tradition against European liberalism, a theological need that motivated them to publish academic articles about Calvinism.

They published six articles on Calvinism: Clark, Roberts, and Reynolds individually in July 1934, and Hamilton three times between 1936 and 1937 (once in Key-ja-cci in August 1936, and twice in Shin-hak-ji-nam in September and November of 1937). The articles in 1934 were not at a high enough academic level to explain Calvinism, but were instead a kind of introductory explanation of Calvinism, including little of his historical background. These articles were based on topics of personal interest to the writers. Clark's, titled "Kang-dan-eui Calvin (Calvin in the Pulpit)," evidenced his theological interests, writing that Calvin recognized his main role in his church as an interpreter of the Bible and a preacher for his church. Roberts published similarly in this major field in an article titled "Seong-seo-joo-seok-ga-ro-bon Calvin (Calvin as an interpreter of the Bible)," revealing that he valued Calvin's linguistic capability, analytic insight, and piety. Reynolds, in his article "Calvin Shin-hak-kwa-geu-gahm-wha (the Theology of Calvin and its Influence)," illustrated Calvin as a theologian, arguing that Calvin was successor to the Apostle Paul and St Augustine.

Among these faculty members, Hamilton can be called a "Calvinist," since he was taught by famous Calvinist theologians Benjamin Warfield and Gresham Machen. Hamilton wrote The Basic Christian Faith (translated into Korean as Gi-dok-kyo-byun-jeung-ron [Apologetics of Christianity]) in 1926 and other articles related to conservative Christian faith. He published three articles about Calvinism, titled "Calvin-joo-eui-eui Joo-yo-hahn-won-lee-deul (The Main Principles of Calvinism)" in 1936 in Key-ja-cci; and "Calvin-joo-eui (Calvinism) 1 and 2" in 1937 in Shin-hak-ji-nam. These articles are valued as the theological introduction of Calvinism because Hamilton demonstrated the basic theological ideas of Calvin's five orthodoxies of Christian faith: total depravity, unconditional election, limited atonement, irresistible grace, and perseverance of the saint. He emphasized a sound attitude of Christian faith as he concluded, "I don't say that Calvinism is a unique way to receive grace and salvation, but whoever believes in Jesus Christ can be saved by the grace of God." (21) That is, he did not intend Calvinism to be the unique way to salvation as he excluded other traditions, but he tried to hold his theological faith firmly as a Calvinist theologian.

These examples illustrate that missionaries were involved in discussions of Calvinism as they introduced him into the Korean mission field. Even though they could not explain Calvinism thoroughly, their understanding of it could help the students of Pyungyang Theological Seminary to grasp Calvinism and spur them to study it further to build their own theological tradition for the Korean Presbyterian Church. In particular, Hamilton gave them the opportunity to gain a dogmatic understanding of Calvinism and helped them to contemplate a sound Christian attitude.

The discussion of Calvinism by Korean faculties and pastors in the 1930s (22)

Besides the missionaries' introductions to Calvinism, Korean faculties more dynamically participated in the discussion of Calvinism during this period. Six Korean faculties joined the discourse, divided into two groups: the progressive and the conservative. During the early period of Korean mission and Chosun-ya-so-kyo, the main purpose of theological education was to raise conservative evangelists in order to spread the gospel to the Korean people. As time went on, the graduates of Pyungyang Theological Seminary had the chance for theological education abroad: for example, in the US or Japan. Although most missionaries teaching Pyungyang Theological Seminary had strong conservative Christianity, those who studied abroad could learn broader theological perspectives from their institutions.

Nine Korean faculties and pastors published academic articles about Calvinism in Shin-hak-ji-nam and Kei-ja-cci during the 1930s: Chang-geun Song, Hyuk Namgoong, Ji-il Bang, In-joon Kim, Jae-joon Kim, Hyung-rong Park, Pil-geun Chea, Tae-mook Kim, and Yoon-seon Park. A liberal and fundamental debate ensued during this period in the US, and this debate motivated the Korean Presbyterian mission to publish work on Calvinism written by both missionaries and Korean thinkers. Most Korean thinkers studied abroad in places like Japan and the US, except Ji-il Bang, so they could learn about Calvinism from those schools and write about it.

Conservative scholars of Calvinism

Hyuk Namgoong was the first Korean faculty member of Pyungyang Theological Seminary in 1925. He studied at Pyungyang Theological Seminary and at Princeton Theological Seminary, received a PhD from Richmond Union Theological Seminary, worked as editor-in-chief of Shin-hak-ji-nam in 1928, and started Kei-ja-cci with other colleagues. He published two articles about Calvinism: "Calvin Shin-hak-kwa Hyun-dae-sang-whal (Calvin: Theological and Modern Life)" in September 1934 and "Calvin-eui Sa-sang (The Thought of Calvin)" in January 1939 in Shin-hak-ji-nam. He explained the influence of Calvin as he focused on Calvin's idea of the Bible and creation in the first article, and Calvin's systematic logic of the idea of orthodoxy, concentrating on his thought of predestination against liberalism, in the second article.

In-joon Kim graduated from Pyungyang Theological Seminary in 1926, studied at the University of Chicago and Princeton Theological Seminary, received a PhD from Richmond Union Theological Seminary, joined the faculty of Pyungyang Theological Seminary, and became a martyr of the North Korean communist government in 1947. He published an article in Kei-ja-cci in August 1936 titled "Calvin Shin-hak-gae-yo (An Introduction on Calvinism)" illustrating the theological foundation of Calvinism and its ethical implications. Ji-il Bang graduated from Pyungyang Theological Seminary in 1937, but he did not study abroad. Instead, he decided to be a missionary to China; he went to China in 1937 and worked there until 1957. He published his article in Kei-ja-cci in August 1936 titled "Calvin-eui Seong-kyung-ron (Calvin's Thought on the Bible)," which explained the idea of the inspiration of the Bible.

Yoon-sun Park graduated from Pyungyang Theological Seminary in 1934, studied at Westminster Theological Seminary, and taught biblical languages at Pyungyang Theological Seminary from 1936. He published the article "Calvin-eui Ki-do-ron-eui Chaol-yo-soo-jo (A Brief Explanation of Calvin's Thought on Prayer)," in which he translated part of Calvin's thoughts on prayer in Institutes of the Christian Religion. He also published a relevant article, "Ki-dok-kyo Ye-jeong-ron So-go (A Brief Understanding of Predestination in Christianity)," in Kei-ja-cci in June 1936. Tae-mook Kim graduated from the department of theology of Doshisha University and became a Presbyterian pastor of the Taegu presbytery. He submitted articles about Calvin's thought on predestination three times to Shin-hak-ji-nam: in September 1938, November 1938, and January 1939. These articles are evaluated as showing academic achievement in demonstrating Calvin's thought on predestination thoroughly through footnotes. (23)

Hyung-rong Park published two articles, "Calvin-eui Ye-jeong-ron (Calvin's Thought on Predestination)" in Shin-hak-ji-nam in July 1934 (24) and "Calvin- joo-eui-wa Shin-Calvin-joo-eui (Calvinism and Neo-Calvinism)" in Shin-hak-ji-nam in September 1940. He also published a book, translated as The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination, by Loraine Boettner (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans, 1932), titled Calvinism Ye-jeong-ron (publisher unknown) in 1938. He graduated from Union Christian College (Soongsil University), studied at Keum-reung University in China, graduated from Princeton Theological Seminary under Warfield and Machen in 1926, and became a faculty member at Pyungyang Theological Seminary from 1931. He was one of the renowned conservative theologians in Korea. His book dealt with the debates on the idea of predestination, comparing it to Arminianism, and he introduced Calvin's life briefly. Hamilton inferred that Park developed his own conservative theological perspectives based on Calvinism.

Liberal discussion of Calvinism

Chang-geun Song studied at Pierson Theological College in Korea; Doyo University and Ahohyama University in Japan in 1926; and San Francisco Theological Seminary, Princeton Theological Seminary, and Western Theological Seminary (now Pittsburgh Theological Seminary); and received a PhD from Illif Theological Seminary in Denver, Colorado, in 1931. He came back to Pyungyang and served at the San-jeong-hyun Church as a Presbyterian pastor from 1932 to 1936. He published two articles on Calvin in September 1934, concentrating on Calvin's life and its practical implications. The first was titled "John Calvin-eui Il-sang (The Life of John Calvin)," and the second, "Ye-jung-shin-hak-ei-seo Ye-jung-shin-ang-ei (From the Theology of Predestination to the Faith of Predestination)." As a liberal theological thinker, he did not focus on the conservative theological ideas of Calvinism; rather, he looked on the life of Calvin as a frontier of Reformation, and he incorporated Calvin's idea of predestination into the idea of ethics and Christian life; as he said, "Now, let's change our life principle into the new morality which came from the faith of predestination not only for each individual but also for the Church." (25)

Phil-geun Chea studied at the Pyungyang Theological Seminary in 1918, received a PhD from the University of Tokyo, and became a faculty member at the Pyungyang Theological Seminary in 1926. He published articles titled "Calvin-eui Kyo-whoi-kwan-kwa Kyo-whoi-jeong-chaik (The Ecclesiology and Church Policy of Calvin)" in Shin-hak-ji-nam in September 1934 and "Calvin-eui Il-sang (The Life of Calvin)" in Kei-ja-cci in August 1936. He argued for the ethical role of church in society and, in the first article, demonstrated that church leaders are stewards who are selected by church congregations. He briefly outlined the story of Calvin from his birth to death, emphasizing his dedication to the church.

Jae-joon Kim, a friend of Chea's, graduated from Yaohyama University in Japan, studied at Princeton Theological Seminary and Western Theological Seminary in 1932, and then came to Pyungyang as a chaplain at Soong-in-sang-up-hak-kyo (Soong-in Commercial School) in 1933. He submitted an article of a translation of Calvin's preaching to Shin-hak-ji-nam in September 1934, titled "Phip-bark, John Calvin-eui Seol-kyo (Enduring Persecution for Christ: A Preaching of John Calvin)." Although it was not an academic article, the editor-in-chief published it because the spirit of the martyr was important to Korean Christians.

The Accommodation of Calvinism in Korea

Based on these observations of articles on Calvinism, we can see that there are three areas of focus in this accommodation of Calvinism: the concerns of missionaries; the theorization of conservative theology of both missionary and Korean thinkers; and the liberal and practical approach of Calvinism of liberal Korean thinkers. Clark, Roberts, and Reynolds are included in the first group. They had a clear focus on evangelization, so they tried to utilize Calvin and his thought in the area of biblical interpretation for preaching, as evangelism is based on a strong message.

The second area is represented by Hamilton and several Korean thinkers, such as Hyuk Namgoong, Hyung-rong Park, In-joon Kim, Ji-il Bang, Tae-mook Kim, and Yoon-sun Park. The necessity of defending conservative theology against liberalism made Hamilton delve into Calvinism following his teachers, Warfield and Machen. He maintained a conservative theological approach to Calvinism. This attitude directly influenced Hyung-rong Park, and other Korean thinkers also tried to grasp Calvin's theological thoughts through a conservative theology.

Although the introduction and accommodation of Calvinism was initiated as the goal for conservative theology, ironically Korean liberal thinkers like Chang-geun Song, Jaejoon Kim, and Phil-geun Chea moved Calvinism into the practical arena of Christian life. They concentrated on Calvin's life story, church policy, and preaching of persecution. This approach demonstrated the process of contextualization of Calvinism in Korea. This process influenced the division of progressive and conservative theology in Korea during the period of Japanese colonization and the Korean War.

Conclusion

It has been argued that the study of Calvinism was limited in the Korean mission field because of the missionary focus on evangelism, the Confucius Korean culture, and the circumstances of Japanese colonization. (26) In a sense, this criticism is legitimate, as the volumes of study on Calvin were fewer than other theological fields during this period. In another sense, however, once we fully consider the theological discussion of Calvinism during this period, this criticism may not completely grasp the development of Calvinism in terms of the acceptance and accommodation of it.

In response, this research delved into the acceptance and accommodation of Calvinism in Korea, concentrating on the Pyungyang Station of the Korean Presbyterian Church and the Pyungyang Theological Seminary. Calvin was introduced into Korea first with a historical approach, then applied to meet the need for evangelism, and finally developed into a theological discussion. There were three areas of focus on this: missionaries for evangelism, Korean conservative thinkers for theorization; and liberal thinkers for practical interpretation. These demonstrate how the Korean Presbyterian mission field in Pyungyang station accepted and accommodated Calvinism into and for Korean churches.

ShinHyung Seong is an assistant professor of Baird Liberal Arts College at Soongsil University, Seoul, South Korea.

(1) Richard Baird, William M. Baird of Korea: A Profile, unpublished book, chapters 7 and 8, and appendix 5. In particular, Richard Baird explained this point insightfully in his appendix. This book was translated into Korean by In-soo Kim, a church history professor at the Presbyterian University and Theological Seminary in 2000 for the first time, and it was retranslated by the Committee of Searching for Historical Origin of Soongsil University (BBoo-ree-chat-gi-wui-won-hoe), in that William Baird is the founder of Soongsil.

(2) The original name is Chosun Ya-so-kyo Presbyterian Theological Seminary. It is usually called "Pyungyang Theological Seminary" because this school was located in Pyungyang in the Korean Presbyterian Mission Station. This research also uses "Pyungyang Theological Seminary" instead of "Chosun Ya-so-kyo Presbyterian Theological Seminary."

(3) Chosun ya-so-kyo sent out three Korean missionaries--Tea-ro Park, Young-hoon Kim, and Byung-soon Sah--for the first time in 1913. Yet, their mission was not successful, so they had to come back to Korea in 1917. Instead, Chosun ya-so-kyo sent several other missionaries--Hyo-won Bang, Seong-hahn Hong in 1917 and Sang-soon Park in 1918. They tried to settle down in China, and their endeavour was fruitful for Chinese mission by Koreans. The second stage of Chinese mission started in 1937. After Hyo-won Bang came back to Korea, Chosun ya-so-kyo decided to send his son, Ji-il Bang. Ji-il Bang went to San-dong, China, and Hyuk-joo Choi to Manchuria in 1937. During this period, Chosun ya-so-kyo tried to dedicate for world mission, as they sent several missionaries into China in this way.

(4) Nak-heung Yang, Han-kook-jang-ro-kyo-whoi-sa (The History of the Korean Presbyterian Church) (Seoul: Sang-myungeui-mal-sseum-sa, 2008), 81-85. According to this book, missionaries in Korea were well educated at American theological institutions from the early period of mission history. Around 1916, there were 17 professors in this institution. Most of them had PhDs from American theological institutions such as McCormick Theological Seminary, Princeton Theological Seminary, and Richmond Union Theological Seminary.

(5) Ibid., 86-90.

(6) Ibid., 91-95.

(7) Sang-kyu Lee demonstrated the acceptance of Calvinism in Korea as he explained the theological education of Pyungyang Theological Seminary and Shin-hak-ji-nam in Calvin-kwa-hahn-kook-kyo-whoi (Calvin and the Korean Church), ed. Jeong-ho Oh (Seoul: Sang-myung-eui-mal-sseum-sa, 2009), 253-59. I added the part of Kei-ja-cci.

(8) Calvin was born in 1509, so the 400th anniversary of Calvin must be in 1909. The Reformation was initiated in 1517, so the 400th anniversary of the Reformation must be in 1917. This journal might not have kept the right anniversary year, but this is an important illustration that they endeavoured to remember the historical event.

(9) He came from Australia and worked in Korea from 1900 to 1937. His Korean name is Gil-Ji Wang. He worked for Union Christian College (Soongsil University) and Pyung yang Theological Seminary. He taught church history, Christian education, and biblical hermeneutics in this school. For more detailed information about him, Sang-kyu Lee's book, Wang-Gil-Ji-ewi-Hahn-kook-seon-kyo (The Korean Mission of Gelson Engel) (Seoul: Soongsil University Press, 1917).

(10) The original book, Universal History, no longer exists. It can be inferred that this book was used for history class at Sheffield University. The Bairds (William and Annie) translated Man-kook-tong-gahm from the Chinese translation into Korean. According to this book, volume 4, Reformation History, was illustrated in chapter 2. This book explained Luther thoroughly (13-30) and mentioned Calvin once (25).

(11) Kyung-soo Park, Hahn-kook-kyo-whoi-reul-wi-hahn Calvin-eui You-sahn (The Heritage of Calvin for Korean Church) (Seoul: Dea-hahn-gi-dog-kyo-seo-whoi, 2014), 17.

(12) Chongshin University 100 Yeon-sa-Pyun-chan-wi-won-whoi (Committee for Publishing the History of Chongshin University's 100 Years), Chongshin University 100 Yeon-sa, vol. 1 (The History of 100 Years of Chongshin University) (Seoul: Chongshin University Press 2003), 41-44.

(13) William Foote was a Canadian missionary who came to Korea in 1898, and started to teach at Pyungyang Theological Seminary in 1919. His Korean name is Doo-il Boo.

(14) Kang-sik Joo, "Han-kook-jang-ro-kyo-whoi-eui Kae-hyuk-shin-hak-ei-dae-hahn-yeon-goo (A Study of Reformed Theology of the Korean Presbyterian Church)," PhD dissertation, Graduate School of Korea Theological University, 2014, 123-124.

(15) Interestingly, the first academic article about Calvin was published by In-young Kim, a Methodist theologian, in 1924 in Shin-hak-sei-kye. The Korean Methodist Church published this first in 1916, two years prior to Shin-hak-ji-nam. Kim published an academic article, "Johg-kyo-gae-hyuk-ga John Calvin (A Reformer, John Calvin)," in 1924. Gi-dok-shin-bo (The Christian Messenger), a weekly newspaper, was co-published by the Korean Methodist Church and the Presbyterian Church from 1915. Si-on-shan-in, an anonymous writer, introduced Calvin 25 times between 29 November 1916 and 20 June 1917, as he translated several articles written by a Japanese pastor, Mathnaga Humio. And, another Methodist pastor, Sang-hyun Choi, published two articles, "John Calvin-eui Sang-ae-wa Sa-up (The Life and Mission of John Calvin)" in July and September of 1903. He noted Calvin's lifestyle as a social progressive. Elmer M. Cable, a Methodist missionary whose Korean name was Yee-boo Kee, published Kyo-whoi-sa-gui (A History of the Christian Church) by Cho-sun-ya-so-kyo-seo-whoi in 1922, a translation of Martin Schaub's book, and introduced Calvin on pages 220-24.

(16) His Korean name is Ahn-ryon Kwok.

(17) His Korean name is Boo-yeol Ra.

(18) His Korean name is Nool-seo Lee.

(19) See Whoi-kwon Kim, Kwok-Ahn-Ryon (A Study of the Hermeneutics of Old Testament of Charles Allen Clark) (Seoul: Soongsil University Press, 2017) and Hahn-kook-sa-whoi-bok-ji-sa-hyup-whoi, Kwok-ahn-ryon-seon-kyo-sa-eui-kyo-whoi-sa-whoi-sa-up-ei-kwon-hahn-hyun-dea-jeok-hea-seok (Modern Interpretation of Church Social Work, of Missionary Kwok-Ahn-Ryon) (Seoul: Hahn-deul Press, 2012).

(20) His mentor was John G. Machen, who was involved in fundamental theology debates, decided to separate from the Presbyterian denomination, and founded Westminster Theological Seminary.

(21) Floyd E. Hamilton, "Calvinism," Shin-hak-ji-nam 20 (1937), 127.

(22) This research focuses on Shin-hak-ji-nam and Kei-ja-cci. Yet, there are more publications of Calvin and Calvinism inside and outside the Korean Presbyterian Church. Tae-bok Kim, a Presbyterian pastor, published a book titled Calvin-eui Sang-ae-wa-geu-sa-up (Calvin's ljje and Mission) in 1935. The publisher is unknown. Tae-min Kang published five articles with same title, "John Calvin-eui Sang-ae (The Life of John Calvin)" in Jong-kyo-si-bo in 1935. This is a monthly journal issued by the Presbyterian Church's Religious Education Department from 1932. In November 1936, a Methodist pastor published the article "Calvin-eui Kong-heon (The Contribution of Calvin)" in Shin-hak-sei-kye. Hyung-myoung Park published the article "Kyo-whoi-sa-eui Jong-whong-ki: Calvin-pha-wa Arminian-pha-eui Shin-hak-sang Jang-ron (The Theological Debates between Calvinism and Arminianism) in Wahl-cheon, volume 183, in 1938. This journal was first issued by the Korean Holiness Church in 1922.

(23) Kang-sik Joo, "Han-kook-jang-ro-kyo-whoi-eui Kae-hyuk-shin-hak-ei-dae-hahn-yeon-goo (A Study of Reformed Theology of the Korean Presbyterian Church)," 142.

(24) He published the same article in Kei-ja-cci in August 1936.

(25) Chang-geun Song, "Ye-jung-shin-hak-ei-seo Ye-jung-shin-ang-ei (From the Theology of Predestination to the Faith of Predestination)," Shin-hak-ji-nam 73 (1934), 59.

(26) Sang-kyu Lee, Calvin-kwa-hahn-kook-kyo-whoi (Calvin and the Korean Church), 258.

DOI: 10.1111/irom.12248
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Author:Seong, ShinHyung
Publication:International Review of Mission
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Date:Dec 1, 2018
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