A Study of Relationship between Leadership Styles of Principals and Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Colleges for Women.
The focus of the present study was to investigate the relationship between leadership styles of principals and job satisfaction of teachers in women colleges in the province of Punjab. This study was designed to identify the leadership styles of principals practiced by them in colleges for women and to find out the relationship between leadership styles and level of job satisfaction. The data were collected by using the Survey method from the selected sample comprised of 1005 college teachers from 100 colleges all over the Punjab. Leadership style was identified using leadership style questionnaire and job satisfaction was measured by using job satisfaction questionnaire. Data were analyzed with the help of descriptive and inferential statistics.
The major findings revealed that democratic leadership style is the most practiced leadership style in women colleges and this style has a positive and significant correlation with job satisfaction. Democratic leadership style also has a positive effect on teachers' job satisfaction
Keywords: Job satisfaction, leadership styles, principals
Background of the Study
Leadership is an important variable for the quality of education; excellent colleges have leaders who positively influence their stakeholders resulting in high level of students' achievement. With respect to the Pakistani scenario, Iqbal (2012) points out that the quality of education being imparted in education institutions at various stages is far from the satisfactory level. One of the reasons for low performance of the system in this respect is an inefficient administrative infrastructure, lack of leadership as well as ineffective communication system in the country. He reports that in Pakistan, heads of educational institutions, both at school and college levels are not trained in educational leadership affairs. Moreover, he says that in the education system heads are appointed due to their political powers instead of skills and qualities required to develop a conducive learning environment for better teaching and learning within the institutions.
Leadership is the core element of educational institutions. In today's educational system leadership is becoming gradually more important. Colleges need powerful or effective leaders or principals willing to foster high level of students' achievement and effective organizational climate of their colleges. The principal is the high official in the college. Thus, responsibility of running the college is that of the principal (Freiberg and Stein, 1999). According to Dunklee (2000), principal or leader influences the behavior and academic outcomes of the student. The principal of the college is torch bearer of the values and activities of his / her institution. Raza (2010) points out that every college has a climate of its own. In every college system, the interaction between the principal and the teachers decide or contribute to a large extent in developing the atmosphere or the climate of their colleges.
This climate affects the behavior of the individuals living and working in the environment which influences their performance and satisfaction with their jobs. Leadership in the educational institutions such as colleges is a key factor for the improvement and effectiveness of college climate and job satisfaction of its employees. Educational leaders perform multi-dimensional roles in schools and colleges and enhance job satisfaction of their colleagues (Northhouse, 2007). Generally, it is noticed that in the present situation, teachers have no clear idea about which leadership style is being practiced in their colleges, and how much their principal's leadership style affect their job satisfaction. Principals have no idea about the different leadership styles and how does it relate to or affect their employees' job satisfaction. Moreover, it is generally noticed that they have no idea which leadership style is more effective for the healthy college climate as well as the job satisfaction of their employees.
As the leadership style is one of the variables in this study so it is require defining it. Leadership is such a process in which subordinates are influenced by the leaders to achieve institutional goals (Omolayo, 2000; Bamigboye, 2000; Akanwa, 1997 and Bhatti, N., Maitlo, G. M., Shaikh, N., Hashmi, M. A., and Shaikh, F. M. 2012). Bass (1990) describes that leadership is regarded as interaction among individuals and groups of an organization in a structured or restructured manner. Go, F. M., Monachello, M. L. and Baum, T. (1996) explain leadership as the ability to adopt process and force to direct in certain situations. Schermerhorn (1999), Robbins (2001) and Hersey, P. and Blanchard K. H. (2001) state that the process of leadership is used to stimulate the followers and it is the behavior of an individual that have such influences which help to achieve organizational goals.
Aghenta (2001) describes that in the process of leadership individuals are motivated and encouraged to get things done in schools or colleges. Omolayo (2007), Hersey and Blanchard (1993) and Miller, J. E., Walker, J. R., and Drummond K. E. (2002) describe that leadership style is a pattern of interactions between leaders and followers in which leaders motivate, control or direct the subordinate to follow their instructions. Kavanaugh and Ninemeier (2001) describe that leadership style is determined by three factors such as: characteristics of leaders and subordinates and the organizational environment. Characteristics of leaders include knowledge, personality, values, and experiences which modify their particular leadership style, characteristics of employees include different personalities, backgrounds, expectations and experiences. Lewin, Lippit and White (1939), Wiles, 1990 and Libermanet al. (1994) identified three leadership styles such as: Autocratic, democratic and laissez-faire leadership styles.
Adeyemi (2004) says that autocratic leader rules with severity. He / she leads or directs the subordinates in their work, give orders which are to be obeyed and all powers decision-making exist in the hands of leaders. The leader neither communicates clearly to the subordinate nor delegates the authority to them (Smylie and Jack, 1990; Hoy and Miskel, 1992; John, 2002). Whereas, in the democratic style subordinates and individuals are consulted in decision making and in formulating organizational policies. Communication is multidirectional and ideas are exchanged between employees and the leader (Okeniyi, 1995; Adeyemi, 2004; Heenan and Bennis, 1999). Mba (2004) says that in such style of leadership, working spirit of subordinates is elevated. Even though, the laissez-faire leadership style gives the opportunity to individuals to have dominant roles in decision-making. Subordinates are free to do what they like and they exercise power without the leader's participation.
In this style the leader plays the role of materials supplier (Obilade, 1998; Ogunsanwo, 2000; Talbert and Milbrey, 1994). Omolayo (2004). Kavanaugh and Ninemeier (2001) argue that in autocratic style a master servant relationship is maintained with the subordinates as the leader decides all the matters himself / herself and assigns the work load according to his / her own will by exercising supreme power. Whereas, democratic style exercises master-master relationship because subordinates are given equal chances to participate in decision making process and goal setting by following the consultative approach. While, the laissez-faire leadership style practices non-interference policy and workers are free of any type of hard and fast rules and they do not follow any particular course to meet the organizational goals. Omolayo (2004) concludes that organizational situation determines the leadership style to be adopted.
Wood (1994) discusses that learned and experienced employees do well under democratic leadership style, while individuals with different background and experiences perform well under autocratic leadership style. Locke (1976) defines that job satisfaction is a pleasant or positive emotional state resulting from one's job experiences. Armstrong (2003) declares job satisfaction as a positive attitude of employees towards a particular job or position. While, hostile and negative attitude of employees towards their job means job dissatisfaction. Aziri (2011) describes that job satisfaction is experiencing pleasant feelings about the joband work place and it has a positive impact on working abilities which motivates for work commitment of employees in an organization. Riggio (2000) and Robbins (2001) indicate that it is an individual's general feelings and attitude towards his or her job.
The effectiveness of an organization depends upon the job satisfaction of its employees and leadership in that organization (Kennerly, 1989). Hamidifar (n.d.) describes that leadership is a main contributing factor in the job satisfaction of employees of an organization. Furthermore, it has a great impact on the working motivation and dedication of employees. Yousef (2000) reveals that leadership behavior is closely related to the job satisfaction so, it is essential for leaders to adopt suitable leadership style to improve it. Chen and Silverthorne (2005) describe that leadership styles affect a number of factors and job satisfaction is one of them. Northouse (2007) and Bass (1990) narrate that in the decade of 1950s many researches were conducted to explore that how leaders' behaviors influence the level of job satisfaction of the employees and these studies proved that leadership style is major component for job satisfaction.
In this regard, the type of leadership styles used by principals seems to have positive or negative influences on teachers' job satisfaction in schools and colleges. Bass (1990) and Savery (1994) are of the view that a lower level of job satisfaction is the result of autocratic leadership, while higher level of job satisfaction emerges as the result of democratic leadership. He further states that job satisfaction under laissez-faire style is less than democratic leadership. No study was conducted on leadership style and job satisfaction at college level yet. So, the researcher decided to conduct the research at this level.
Objectives of the Study
Objectives of the study are:
* To identify the leadership styles in colleges for women as perceived by the teachers.
* To find out the relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction of teachers.
* To check the effects of leadership styles on job satisfaction of teachers.
Hypothesis of the Study
Hypothesis of the study are:
* There is no perception of teacher in leadership style practiced in their colleges.
* There is no significant correlation between leadership styles of principals and Job satisfaction of teachers in colleges for women.
* There is no effect of leadership styles on the job satisfaction of teachers as perceived by teachers in colleges for women.
Research Design and Method
This study focused to investigate the relationship between leadership styles and job satisfaction. The variables included in this study were leadership styles and job satisfaction. Leadership style was the independent variable and job satisfaction was the dependent variable. This study was co-relational in nature as the researcher intended to seek out relationships among variables included in the study and survey design was used to collect the data. As the present study was delimited to the women colleges in the province of Punjab, according to the list provided by Directorate of Public Instruction (colleges) office (DPI) Punjab, Lahore, there are 291 government colleges for women in the province of Punjab. So, the population of the study comprised of all the teachers of all 291 colleges for women in the province of Punjab. The teachers were selected from different colleges by using random sampling technique from hundred colleges of different districts from all over the Punjab.
Moreover, Sample size calculator was used to select the sample and it was found 1005 college teachers. Therefore, the sample of the study consisted of 1005 college teachers. For the purpose of data collection two different questionnaires were used in the study and for each questionnaire, five point Likert scale was used to gather the responses. In order to find out the perceptions of teachers about the leadership styles of their principals a Leadership Style Questionnaire for teachers (LSQT) was developed by the researcher herself. To meet the study objectives following questionnaires were reviewed. Leaders Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) developed by Ohio State University (1957-1962); The T.P Leadership Questionnaire developed by Pfeiffer, Jones and Jolla (1974); Leadership Expert Questionnaire developed by Oates (2010); Leadership Style Survey developed by Clark (2007); Leadership style questionnaire was retrieved from www.sagepub.com.
A questionnaire for Leadership Styles for teachers was pilot tested on 50 teachers in five different colleges for women by the researcher herself. To analyze the reliability of the questionnaire, the Cronbach Alpha Reliability Coefficient for this questionnaire was analyzed with the help of specific method to analyze the reliability in SPSS version 20. The reliability of this questionnaire was 0.8. To seek the validity of the questionnaire experts' opinion were taken into account. To find out the level of job satisfaction of teachers, job satisfaction questionnaire was developed by the researcher herself after reviewing the following questionnaires: Job satisfaction survey developed by Spector (1985), Overall job Satisfaction by Brayfield and Routh (1951) as cited in hand book "Taking the measure of work" by Fields (2002). Present questionnaire was also pilot tested on 50 teachers in five different colleges for women and the Cronbach Alpha Reliability Coefficient for this questionnaire was 0.9.
The collected data were analyzed by using different statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages, Mean, Standard deviation, Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. As sample of the study was consisted on 1005 college teachers but the return rate were 905. So, statistical analysis of data was conducted on 905 college teachers.
Teachers' perceptions about their Principals' Leadership Styles
To identify the leadership styles of principals in colleges for women as perceived by teachers, number of teachers for each leadership style and the percentage of these numbers are calculated as well as mean and standard deviation are also calculated.
Table 1 Frequency, Percentage, Mean and Standard deviation of Teachers' perceptions falling in Different Leadership Styles
Table 1 reflects the frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation of teachers' perceptions falling in different leadership styles. On the basis of their perceptions, 197 teachers (21.8%, M=3.5068, SD=.3993) agreed that their principals are practicing autocratic leadership style in their colleges. On the other hand, 670 teachers (74.0% M= 3.8329, SD=.4685) agreed that their principals are practicing democratic leadership style in their colleges, whereas only 38 teachers (4.2%, M=2.9678, SD=.5466) agreed that their principals are practicing laissez faire leadership style. Mean values among these three leadership styles also shows that democratic leadership style (M=3.8329, SD=.4685) is the most practiced style. So, the perceptions of teachers shows that democratic leadership style is the most practiced leadership style in colleges for women in the province of Punjab. While, autocratic style is less practiced and laissez faire leadership style is hardly practiced in colleges for women.
Perceptions of teachers about the job satisfaction
In the following table, results of teachers' perceptions about their job satisfaction are presented.
Table 2 Teachers' Perceptions about their job satisfaction
Table 2 reflects the teachers' perceptions about their job satisfaction. It is revealed that teachers have highly positive mean score for the Job Satisfaction (Mean=4.06, SD= 0.81). This means that teachers feel higher level of job satisfaction in their colleges.
Correlation of Leadership Styles and Job satisfaction as Perceived by Teachers
To explore the correlation between leadership styles of principals and Job satisfaction as perceived by teachers, Pearson correlation was conducted and the results of this correlation are presented in Table 3.
Table 3 Correlation of Leadership Styles and Job satisfaction as Perceived by Teachers
Table 3 shows the correlation between each leadership style and Job satisfaction as perceived by teachers. Results of the study show that the Autocratic leadership style has the least positive correlation (r=.068, n=905) with Job Satisfaction of teachers while, the Democratic leadership style has weak positive correlation (r=.227, n=905) with Job Satisfaction, on the other hand Laissez faire leadership style has negative correlation (r= -.043, n=905) with job satisfaction of teachers. The results reflect that there is a positive relationship among Autocratic, Democratic leadership styles and job satisfaction of teachers. While, laissez faire has negative relationship with job satisfaction.
Effect of Leadership Styles on the Job Satisfaction of Teachers
To find out the effect of different leadership styles on the Job Satisfaction of teachers, Regression Analysis was conducted.
Table 4 Regression Analysis: Effect of Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction (N=905)
Table 4 shows the results of Regression Analysis. The [beta] value shows the effects of Democratic, Autocratic and Laissez faire leadership styles on Job Satisfaction. The [beta] value of Autocratic style is positive (0.07) and P value is .05 which means that negative effect of Autocratic style on Job satisfaction is statistically not significant. The [beta] value of Democratic style is positive (0.23) and P value is less than .05 (P<.05) which means that effect of Democratic style on the Job satisfaction is statistically significant. Whereas, [beta] value of Laissez faire style is negative ([beta]=-0.11) and it means that its effect is negative and the P value is less than .05 (P<.05) which shows that its negative effect is statistically significant. So, on the basis of [beta] values it is determined that Democratic style has highly positive effect on the Job satisfaction of teachers.
In the previous section, the data collected for this study were analyzed and several findings were made. One salient finding was the fact that the democratic leadership style is the most practiced leadership style in women colleges in the province of Punjab. This finding was consistent with the findings of the study conducted by Akerele (2007) in Lagos State, Nigeria and the findings of study conducted by Iqbal (2010) in the province of Punjab, Pakistan that majority of the principals practiced democratic leadership style. also match the results of Obilade (1998); Adeyemi (2010) and Ajibade (1990). Another finding of the study revealed that teachers feel higher level of job satisfaction in their colleges. The results of the study conducted by Iqbal (2010) are also compatible with present study results. Whereas studies conducted by Adeyemi and Adu (2013) Hamidifar (n.d) Bidwell (2001) and Mosadeghrad and Yarmohammadian (2006) revealed the moderate level of job satisfaction of teachers.
One of the striking finding revealed that democratic leadership style has positive relationship with job satisfaction of teachers. The present study findings are also consistent with the results of the studies conducted by Iqbal (2010); Adeyemi and Adu (2013); Liberman et al., (1994) Heenan and Bennis (1999). The results of the study by Rad and Yarmohammadian (2006) at Isfahan University Hospitals in Iran revealed that there was no relationship between leadership and job satisfaction of employees. The present study findings revealed that Democratic leadership style has a significant and positive effect on the job satisfaction of teachers as compared to autocratic leadership style, whereas laissez faire leadership style has a negative effect on the job satisfaction of teachers. These results are also consistent with the results of the studies conducted by Iqbal (2010), Kenneth and Faith (2012).
Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that democratic leadership style is the most practiced leadership style in colleges for women and this style has a positive relationship with the job satisfaction of teachers. It is also concluded that democratic style enhances the job satisfaction of teachers while laissez faire style decreases the level of job satisfaction.
Considering the results and conclusions it is recommended that the democratic style of leadership should be supported and used by all principals in their administrative responsibilities rather than autocratic or laissez faire style. This was evident in the findings of this study that democratic leadership style as being significantly related with teachers' job satisfaction in the colleges for women. In this regard, principals of women colleges should continue to use the democratic leadership style by delegating authority to staff in order to facilitate or enhance better job satisfaction among teachers in their colleges.
Adeyemi, T. O. (2004). Educational administration: An introduction. Lagos: Atlantic Associated Publishers.
Adeyemi, T. O. (2010). "Principals' leadership styles and teachers' job performance in senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria." Kenya. Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, 2(6), 83-91
Adeyemi, T. O., and Adu, E. T. (2013). Head teachers' leadership styles' and teachers job satisfaction in primary schools in Ekiti state, Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Economics and Management Sciences, 2(2). ISSN: 2226-3624.
Aghenta, J. A. (2001). Educational planning. A turning point in education and development in Nigeria. Inaugural Lecture Series 58 University of Benin, Benin-City, Nigeria.
Ajibade, E. S. (1990). The relationship between principals leadership styles and staff motivation in secondary schools in Ibadan. (Unpublished master's Thesis), University of Ibadan, Ibadan.
Akanwa, P. U. (1997). Fundamental of human resources management in Nigeria. Lagos: Kosoko Press, 45-50.
Akerele, S. A. (2007). Principals leadership styles and teachers' job performance in lagos state public secondary schools (Unpublished M. Ed Thesis) University of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.110-124.
Armstrong, M. (2003). A handbook of human resource management practice (9th ed.). London: KoganPage.
Aziri, B. (2011). Job satisfaction: A literature review, management research and practice, 3(4) 2011 p. 77-86. Retrieved from http://mrp.ase.ro/no34/f7.pdf
Bamigboye, I. O. (2000).Organization behavior. Lagos: Salek educational Pub.
Bass, B. M. (1990). Bass and stogdill's handbook of leadership: Theory, research, and managerial applications (3rd ed.). New York: The Free Press, A Division of Macmillan, Inc.
Bhatti, N., Maitlo, G. M., Shaikh, N., Hashmi, M. A., and Shaikh, F. M. (2012). The impact of autocratic and democratic leadership style on job satisfaction. International Business Research, 5(2). doi:10.5539/ibr.v5n2p192.
Bidwell, C. E. (2001). Analyzing schools as organizations long-term permanence and short-term change. Sociology of Education. Extra.100-114.
Brayfield, A. H., and Rothe, H. F. (1951). An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35, 307-311.
Chen, J., and Silverthorne, C. (2005). Leadership effectiveness, leadership style and employee readiness. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 26(4), 280-288.
Clark, D. R. (2007). Leadership style survey. Retrieved from http://www.nwlink.com~donclark /leader/survstyl.html.
Dunklee, D. R. (2000). If you want to lead, not just manage: A primer for principals. California: Corwin Press Inc.
Fields, D. L. (2002). Taking the measure of work: A guide to validated scales for organizational research and diagnosis. California, Thousand Oakes: Sage Publication Inc.
Freiberg, H. J., and Stein, T. A. (1999). Measuring improving and sustaining healthy learning environment in school climate. London: Palmer Press.
Go, F. M., Monachello, M. L. and Baum, T. (1996). Human resource management in the hospitality industry. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Hamidifar, F. (n.d). A study of the relationship between leadership styles and employee job satisfaction at Islamic Azad University branches in Tehran, Iran.
Heenan, D. A., and Bennis, W. (1999). Co-leaders. The power of great partnership. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 38-54.
Hersey, P., and Blanchard K. H. (1993). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. H. and Johnson D. E. (2001). Management of organizational behavior: Leading human resources (8th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Hoy, N. K. and Miskel, C. G. (1992). Educational administration: Theory, research and practice (2nd Ed), Randam House, New York.
Iqbal, A. (2010). A comparative study of the impact of principals' leadership styles on the job satisfaction of teachers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of the Punjab, Lahore: Institute of education and research.
Iqbal, H. M. (2012). Education in Pakistan (Developmental Milestone). Ministry of Education: Islamabad, Pakistan.
John, C. M. (2002). Million leaders mandate. Notebookone. America: Equip Publishers. Kavanaugh, R. R. and Ninemeier J. D. (2001). Supervision in the hospitality industry (3rd ed.). Michigan: The Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Lodging Association.
Kennerly, S. M. (1989). Leadership behavior and organizational characteristics: Implications for faculty satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Education, 28(5), pp198-202.
Kenneth, A. O and Faith, C. O. (2012). The influence of principals' leadership styles on secondary school teachers' job satisfaction. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(9). ISSN 2239-978X. Doi:10.5901/jesr.2012.v2n9p45.
Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire - Form XII. (1957-1962). Self-originated by staff members of The Ohio State Leadership Studies and revised by Bureau of Business Research. Published by Fisher College of Business, The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210.
Leadership Styles Questionnaire. (n.d.).Retrieved from www.sagepub.com/northouseintro 2e. Lewin, K, Lippit, R., and White, R. K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in artificially created social climate. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-299.
Liberman, A., Beverly, F., and Alexander, L. (1994). A culture in the making: Leadership in learner-centre schools. New York: National Centre for Restructuring Education. 10-18.
Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and cause of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (ed.). Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally.
Mba, J. (2004). Strategic management centre. Printed and published by punch (Nig.) Ltd. 1 OluAboderinOnipetesi.Ikeja, Lagos.
Miller, J. E., Walker, J. R., and Drummond K. E. (2002). Supervision in the hospitality industry (4th ed.). New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Mosadeghrad, A. M., and Yarmohammadian, M. H. (2006). A study of relationship between managers' leadership style and employees' job satisfaction. Leadership in Health Services. 19(2), pp. 11-28.
Northouse. (2007). Leadership theory and practice (3rd ed.) London: Sage publication, Inc.
Oates, S. (2010). Leadership expert 'how do you lead? Questionnaire. Retrieved from http://www.leadership-expert.co.uk/leadership-styles/.
Obilade, S. O. (1998). Leadership qualities and styles as related to instructional programme. Ibadan: Department of Educational Management, University of Ibadan.14-31.
Ogunsanwo, O. A. (2000). Modern principles and techniques of management Ibadan: External Studies Programme, Department of Educational Management University of Ibadan 2, 4-90.
Okeniyi, C. M. (1995). Relationship between leadership problems and school performance in OyoState secondary schools. (Unpublished M.ed. thesis) University of Ibadan. 57-82.
Omolayo, B. (2007). Effect of leadership style on job-related tension and psychological sense of community in work organizations: A case study of four organizations in Lagos State, Nigeria. Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology, 4(2).
Omolayo, B. O. (2000). Psychology of human being at work. Ado-Ekiti: Crown House Publishers.
Omolayo, B. O. (2004). Influence of job variables on workers' commitment and satisfaction in four selected Nigerian manufacturing industries. (Unpublished master's thesis) University of Ado-Ekiti.
Pfeiffer, Jones, E., and Jolla, J. L. (1974). The T. P. Leadership questionnaire. National Association of student council.A Handbook of Structured Experiences for Human Relations Training, Revised edition, Vol. 1.CA: University Associates Inc. Retrieved from http://www.nasc.us/Content/158/56458.pdf
Rad, A. M. M. and Yarmohammadian, M. H. (2006). A study of relationship between managers' leadership style and employees' job satisfaction. Leadership in Health Service, 19(2) 11-28.
Raza, S. A. (2010). Relationship between organizational climate and performance of teachers in public and private colleges of Punjab (Unpublished doctoral dissertation).University institute of Education and Research PirMehr Ali Shah, Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.Retrieved from http//prr.hec.gov.pk/Thesis/201S.pdf.
Riggio, R. E. (2000). Introduction to industrial organizational psychology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 54-92.
Robbins, S. P. (2001). Organizational behavior (9th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Savery, L. K. (1994). The influence of the perceived styles of leadership on a group of workers on their attitudes to work. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 15(4): 12-18.
Schermerhorn, J. R. (1999). Management (6th ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Smylie, M. A., and Jack, W. D. (1990). Teachers' leadership tension and ambiguities in organizational perspective education administration. Quarterly, 26: 235-259.
Spector, P. (1985). Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development of the job satisfaction survey. American journal of Community Psychology, 13(6), 693-713.
Talbert, J. E., and Milbrey, W. M. (1994).Teacher Professionalism in Local School Contexts. Am. J.Edu., 102(2), 123-153.
Wiles, K. (1990). Supervision for better schools Englewood-Cliffs. M. J. Practice-Hall, Practice HallInc., Jersey, pp: 329-341.
Wood, R. C. (1994). Organizational behavior for hospitality management (1st ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.
Yousef, D. A. (2000). Organizational commitment: A mediator of the relationships of leadership behavior with job satisfaction and performance in a non-western country. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(1), 6-24.
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Publication:||Bulletin of Education and Research|
|Date:||Aug 31, 2018|
|Previous Article:||Why Girls Disown Business Education: A Qualitative Study.|
|Next Article:||Higher Education as a Predictor of Employment: The World of Work Perspective.|