A STUDY OF JOB SATISFACTION OF DOCTORS IN DISTRICT HOSPITAL, KALABURAGI--A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY.
Medicine has long been considered as one of the most sacred and well reputed professions. In all groups of population, many children aspire to become doctor since their early childhood. But gradually a physician's job has lost its charm as it used to be in the past.  The prime reason of this attenuated job satisfaction is enormous job stress, which a doctor undergoes during performance of his job. Albeit, singular stressors at job contribute immensely in abatement of attraction for this erstwhile most preferred profession.
Though there is a general perception that currently doctors are adequately contented with their jobs, yet formal medical research over the subject is meagre all over the globe. The same phenomena holds true where excessive psycho-socio stressors have made doctors more prone to deteriorated job satisfaction. In last two decades, a lot of research has been done to evaluate job satisfaction in medical staff. Happy doctors, as internal customers, can yield healthy patients. Job satisfaction amongst doctors is the linchpin to get better delivery of health care.
Many developing countries including India have worsening grades of job satisfaction in their doctors. Even in US, a well-developed country, less than 50% doctors were satisfied with their job. A person cannot be happy with all aspects of his job at one moment of time. 
Job satisfaction is used to measure how content an employee is with the job. High job satisfaction can improve the enthusiasm of the staff and is beneficial to the success and progress of the organisation. It can lead to lower turnover and high-quality service. Healthcare staff with low job satisfaction may suffer from medical problems themselves and individual employee's health may influence the overall stability of the healthcare staff. Dissatisfied employees are more likely to leave the organisation and as a result the remaining employees may engage in counterproductive activities such as low-quality service and cause damage to equipment.
Job satisfaction, according to Holger,  is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like or dislike their jobs. Investigated by several disciplines such as psychology, sociology, economics and management sciences, job satisfaction is a frequently studied subject in work and organisational literature. This is mainly due to the fact that many experts believe that job satisfaction trends can affect labour market behaviour and influence work productivity, work effort, employee absenteeism and staff turnover.
Beyond the research literature and studies, job satisfaction is also important in everyday life. Organisations have significant effects on the people who work for them and some of those effects are reflected in how people feel about their work. This makes job satisfaction an issue of importance for both employers and employees. As many studies suggest, employers benefit from satisfied employees as they are more likely to profit from lower staff turnover and higher productivity if their employees experience a high level of job satisfaction. However, employees should also "be happy in their work, given the amount of time they have to devote to it throughout their working life." Over the past few years, the number of doctors choosing to work abroad or in nonmedical professions has been growing. Among the doctors who have remained in the workforce, there is a similar dissatisfaction reflected in part by a general strike in 2010 by Nigerian doctors, especially Association of Resident Doctors (ARD) in favour of higher wages and better working conditions. Job demands and workload of hospital doctors are increasing. 
The implication of health worker's job satisfaction on patient care, patient satisfaction, improved patient outcome and overall health care delivery quality cannot be overemphasised. Studies conducted to assess job satisfaction among health professionals were majorly in developed countries. Studies on this subject matter remain scanty in the Asian continent where shortage of health, manpower and high burden of the disease are prevalent. The millennium Development Goals seek among other things to reduce all the indices of poor health by various fractions by 2020, but the human resource in the health sector needs to achieve these goals need to be motivated in order to achieve the goals. 
Aims and Objectives
This is a descriptive study carried out in District Hospital, Kalaburagi, to find out the level of job satisfaction in doctors. The study was conducted between January 2017 and March 2017.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This is a descriptive study carried out in a sample group of 50 doctors working in district hospital, Gulbarga. This included both working in medical education department and health and family welfare department. A questionnaire is prepared and the response is recorded. Data analysis is carried out and necessary suggestions will be considered and if required necessary measures will be taken to increase the job satisfaction among doctors
* Study Design- Descriptive study.
* Study Period- January 2017 to March 2017.
* Sample Size- 50 doctors working in district hospital.
* Data Collection- Structured questionnaire method.
* Sampling Technique- Simple random sampling techniques used.
1. How are the physical work conditions?
2. Freedom to choose the desired method of working.
3. Attitude of fellow workers.
4. Attitude of immediate boss.
5. Amount of responsibility.
6. Inter- and intra-departmental management.
7. Rate of pay.
8. Average of working hours.
9. Chance of promotion.
10. Attitude of patients, their attenders and public. RESULTS
Our initial assumption carried weight as significant number of doctors were found discontented with their jobs. In this regard, myriad factors were found to play a pivotal role in job dissatisfaction of doctors.  It is suggested that these overriding factors, which impact performance of doctors be addressed at all tiers. Consequently, boosted satisfaction at work will warranty better health care delivery and patient welfare, which is the utmost goal of every health care institution. 
Suggestions to Improve Job Satisfaction among Doctors
1. Make efforts to increase facilities like provision of safe drinking water, proper air conditioning of OPDs and proper security in OPDs, casualty and emergency wards.
2. Freedom to choose desired method of working and attention should be paid to suggestions given by doctors.
3. Proper division of work and responsibility.
4. Most important is the financial support. Dignified pay for the job of doctors must be implicated.
5. Humanitarian concern for doctor's personal issues must be considered.
Appreciating and rewarding doctors for their good work and encouraging them for sincere work must be considered.
The collected information from the sample was analysed using statistics and presented in terms of frequency, percentage and depicted with diagrams.
Satisfaction/ dissatisfaction of professionals from their job is an important issue that influences their health, progress, performance and development and it may also affect their serving institution/ employer/ organisation. In this context, the physician's satisfaction/ dissatisfaction from their job becomes more decisive because it directly affects health care system of any country, which is associated with vital issues of its people. [5,6] Hence, disclosures of physician's condition is also important and of utmost interest for every institution. The physiology of individual's satisfaction/ dissatisfaction is a multi-regulatory phenomenon, which depends on various factors like individual's perception, environment, opportunities, etc., and is therefore complex to understand. Hence, a systematic and scientific procedure was sought that could explain these complexities. Two studies have discussed physician's characteristics influencing patient adherence to medical treatment, which leads to reduction in the quality of patient care. Keeton et al focused on the identification of the predictors for satisfaction/ dissatisfaction of physicians. [6,7] Other studies have evaluated reason of strike attempts by German physicians and satisfaction and dissatisfaction of Egyptian physicians. These studies disclose many facts and work as an alarming system. For example, low level of satisfaction (dissatisfaction) from job may cause high level of stress, which could eventually be detrimental to physical/ mental health and quality of life. [7,8] Hence, dissatisfaction from job may lead to increase in conflict, absenteeism, low patient care rate and reduction in quality and quantity of work. Physician's job satisfaction is interrelated to patient's satisfaction, patient's compliance and continuity of care. Studies also reveal that dissatisfaction induces lower productivity and increased turnover, which eventually raises costs of the medical services. 
Various studies have been conducted throughout the world under different setups. All these studies focus not only to estimate level and proportion of satisfaction/ dissatisfaction among physicians, but also to identify indicators/ predictors that governed its physiology. The present study was conducted among Indian physicians to assess the level of satisfaction from their job, as also to identify the factors influencing. 
Healthcare system is a labour intensive sector. Over the years, it has undergone a dramatic change as a result of razor edge competition, technological advancement, knowledge transfer, escalating cost and concomitant demand for better patient care services. Job satisfaction is one of the most important determining factors of enhanced efficiency, productivity and also quality of work within an organisation. The phenomenon of job satisfaction has been inversely associated with absenteeism, stress, exhaustion and increase turnover. Dissatisfaction affects patient rated quality of care and is strongly related to early retirement and cutback of working hours. Studies on this subject matter remain scanty in the Indian settings where shortage of health, manpower and high burden of disease are prevalent.
Little attention has so far been paid to the influence that a change in working conditions and the professional self-image of doctors has on healthcare provision for patients and on how attractive the job of a doctor is perceived to be. The term "physician factor" subsumes such doctor related factors, which are of central importance for work and job satisfaction. [9,10]
Hospital doctors in district hospital of Kalaburagi are less satisfied than their colleagues in other private and corporate hospitals. Many results have come into picture like those working in health and family welfare department are more dissatisfied when compared to doctors working in medical education department. Improvement of job satisfaction and working conditions should be achieved via effective regulation of working hours and improvement of recognition for medical work regarding monetary and non-monetary factors, such as payment and positive feedback for good work. The limitation of this study is that it did not consider the effect of health professional monetary gain to their job satisfaction. Therefore, further study to determine the effect of health professional monetary gain to their job satisfaction is highly recommended. Secondly, the data are self-reported, therefore only the doctors know his or her level of satisfaction.
 Sharma M, Goel S, Singh SK, et al. Determinants of Indian physicians' satisfaction & dissatisfaction from their job. Ind J Med Res 2014; 139(3):409-17.
 Jaiswal P, Gadpayle AK, Singhal AK, et al. Job satisfaction among hospital staff working in a Government Teaching Hospital of India. Med J of Dr. D.Y. Patil University 2015; 8(2):131-7.
 Gothe H, Ann-Dorothee Koster, StorzGermany P. Job satisfaction among hospital doctors in Norway and Germany. A comparative study on national samples. Scand J Public Health July 2009; 37(5):503-8.
 DiMatteo MR, Sherbourne CD, Hays RD, et al. Physicians' characteristics influence patients' adherence to medical treatment: results from the medical outcomes study. Health Psychol 1993; 12(2): 93-102.
 Haas JS, Cook EF, Puopolo AL, et al. Is the professional satisfaction of general internists associated with patient satisfaction? J Gen Intern Med 2000; 15(2): 122-8.
 Keeton K, Fenner DE, Johnson TR, et al. Predictors of physician career satisfaction, work-life balance, and burnout. Obstet & Gynecol 2007; 109(4):949-55.
 Jahrami H, AlShuwaikh Z, Panchasharam G, et al. Job satisfaction survey of healthcare workers in the psychiatric hospital. Bahrain Med Bull 2011; 33:19-23.
 Weng HC, Hung CM, Liu YT, et al. Associations between emotional intelligence and doctor burnout, job satisfaction and patient satisfaction. Med Educ 2011; 45(8):835-42.
 Hills D, Joyce C, Humphreys J. Validation of a job satisfaction scale in the Australian clinical medical workforce. Eval Health Prof 2012; 35(1):47-76.
 Melville A. Job satisfaction in general practice: implications for prescribing. Soc Sci Med Med Psychol Med Sociol 1980; 14A(6):495-9.
Ruqia Asna Rabah (1), Farqana Qushnood (2), Shakeel Ahmed Khan (3), Bal Chandra Joshi (4)
(1) Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, GMS, Kalaburagi.
(2) Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, GMS, Kalaburagi.
(3) Paediatrician, Department of Paediatrics, Al Noor Hospital, Kalaburagi.
(4) District Surgeon, District Hospital, Kalaburagi.
'Financial or Other Competing Interest': None.
Submission 26-08-2017, Peer Review 30-09-2017, Acceptance 05-10-2017, Published 12-10-2017.
Dr. Ruqia Asna Rabah, H. No. 5-800, Roza (K), Pachapura, Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Caption: Figure 1. Showing Percentage of Satisfaction regarding Physical Work Condition. Out 50 Doctors, 72% were Not Satisfied and 28% were Satisfied.
Caption: Figure 2. Graph showing Percentage of Doctors having Freedom to Choose Desired Method of Working. Out of 50 Doctors, 84% were Not Satisfied and 16% were Satisfied.
Caption: Figure 3. Graph showing Percentage of Attitude of Fellow Workers. Out of 50 Doctors, 86% were Satisfied and 14% were Not Satisfied.
Caption: Figure 4. Graph showing the Amount of Responsibility. Out of 50 Doctors, only 10% were Satisfied and 90% were Not Satisfied.
Caption: Figure 5. Graph showing Doctor's Satisfaction to Immediate Boss. Out of 50 Doctors, the Satisfaction to Immediate Boss was found to be 50% and Unsatisfied Doctors were found to be 50%.
Caption: Figure 6. Graph showing Inter- and Intra-Departmental Management. Out 50 Doctors, 44% were Satisfied and 66% were Not Satisfied.
Caption: Figure 7. Graph showing Doctor's Satisfaction regarding their Pay. Out of 50 Doctors, 90% were Not Satisfied and only 10% were Satisfied.
Caption: Figure 8. Graph showing Satisfaction Rate regarding Working Hours. Out of 50 Doctors, only 8% were Satisfied and Rest others 92% were Not Satisfied.
Caption: Figure 9. Graph showing the Opinion regarding Chances of Promotion. Out of 50 Doctors, 34% were Satisfied and 66% were Not Satisfied.
Caption: Figure 10. Graph showing Rate of Satisfaction to Suggestions given by Doctors. Out of 50 Doctors, 14% were Satisfied and 86% were Not Satisfied.
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|Title Annotation:||Original Research Article|
|Author:||Rabah, Ruqia Asna; Qushnood, Farqana; Khan, Shakeel Ahmed; Joshi, Bal Chandra|
|Publication:||Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences|
|Date:||Oct 12, 2017|
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