Printer Friendly

A STEP-BY-STEP GUIDE TO LINGUISTIC STUDIES IN PHONOLOGICAL THEORIES.

Fonologia, fonologias: uma introducao (2017) [Phonology, Phonologies: An Introduction, edited by Dermeval da Hora and Carmen Lucia Matzenauer, comprises studies on Phonological Theories. The work is dedicated to Gisela Collischonn (in memoriam), admirable phonologist, who so prematurely left us. In the Introduction the editors promise to take the reader to the "world of sounds", understood both as the substance of human languages as well as a unit of their respective grammar. The eleven chapters that make up the book are structured around six questions (1):

1. What is--Phonology (2)?

2. What does--Phonology study?

3. How to analyze linguistic phenomena using--Phonology?

4. Could you give me an example?

5. What are the main research lines?

6. What should I read to know more?

In the first chapter, "Fonologia Estruturalista" [Structuralist Phonology], by Juliene Pedrosa and Rubens Lucena, the Saussurean concept of langue is seen as a foundation for later formalizations of phonological theories. Specifically, regarding Structuralist Phonology, the authors introduce the founding theorists and the fundamental aspects of the study of a language. When analyzing phenomena of the language, the authorsrefer especially to Brazilian linguist Joaquim Mattoso Camara Jr. and, consequently, bring as examples phenomena involving consonant and vowel sounds of Portuguese.

The second chapter, "Fonologia Gerativa" [Generative Phonology], by Seung Hwa Lee, starts with a presentation of the main theoretical assumptions of Generative Phonology (a branch of Generative Grammar). In it, the author discusses topics such as 1) the major theorists in the field of Generative Phonology, 2) the definition of what it is and 3) the scope of its study. The author emphasizes the main objective of the theory (to make explicit the linguistic knowledge/faculty of the speaker-listener of each language) as well as its product (the construction of a phonological grammar of a language that could describe the phonological knowledge of the speaker-listener of that language in terms of the system of rules). In order to exemplify a linguistic phenomenon in the light of the theory, Lee discusses the idea and the rules involving a conspiracy process, by using the sound alternations of Portuguese archiphoneme /S/. Finally, there is a systematic elaboration on Generative Phonology. Therefore, the chapter is a valuable contribution towards the description and explanation of the phonological knowledge of the speaker/listener.

The third chapter, "Teoria dos Tracos" [Distinctive Features Theory], was produced in partnership between Carmen Lucia Matzenauer and Ana Ruth Moresco Miranda. The authors initially provide a historical overview of theory and subsequently (in a very objective and clear way) familiarize the reader with the minimum units forming the internal structure of segments as well as the two approaches to features: i) attributes of segments, and ii) autosegments. It should be emphasized that such perspectives are originally linked to different theoretical models, the first referring to the Classical Generative Model, the second to the Autosegmental Model. By fulfilling data produced by Brazilian children, the authors offer examples that illustrate the dynamics of the phonological grammar of Brazilian Portuguese. It is finally stressed that distinctive features have an important descriptive and explanatory power. Hence the importance of theoretical knowledge for the advancement of studies of the phonological component of linguistic systems. Carefully written and reader-friendly, this chapter harmonizes the transition from linear to nonlinear models, (3) which will be fully approached in the five chapters following it.

The fourth chapter, by Dermeval da Hora and Ana Vogeley, introduces "Fonologia Autossegmental" [Autosegmental Phonology]. This nonlinear approach provides the basics for a multidimensional understanding of phonological processes. The way the reader can benefit from the descriptions, with multi-layered arrangements of phonological representations with respect to the suprasegmental aspects, for example, is remarkable. Thus, the authors devote a part of the chapter to prosodic phenomena. Although Autosegmental Phonology is considered a theory and not just a descriptive model, it is important to understand its mode of representation (tree diagrams), the conditions under which phonological rules and processes are established, and the principles of its functioning. The authors, then, assign another part of the chapter also to these topics. Finally, the coordination of the components of the articulatory apparatus during the production of sounds in speech is dealt with using data extracted from Portuguese.

The fifth chapter, "Teoria Lexical" [Lexical Theory], written by Leda Bisol, addresses phonological theory concerning words as regards to two types of components, i) the lexical component and ii) the postlexical component. This theory, which is grounded on generative models of analysis, integrates phonology and morphology in the lexical component. Therefore, prosodic entities, the syllable, enunciation, the processes of word formation and the elements of a word are examined in a singular way. The author also highlights the key aspects of lexical theory, the ordering of rules and their effect on the serial model. Finally, there is a cyclical analysis of a Portuguese word composed by a root and a thematic vowel.

The sixth chapter, "Fonologia Metrica" [Metrical Phonology], by Jose Magalhaes and Elisa Battisti, is aimed at the organization and formalization of relations of prominence (ranging from the smallest, such as the syllable, to larger ones, such as clauses) in the phonological domain). Although Metrical Phonology studies the system of relative prominence of a language as a whole or in terms of its accentual pattern, some theoretical assumptions, objects and processes of investigation are given special attention. For example, the formation of a structure with binary components by means of relative prominence hierarchically organized is one of the issues of application of the theory. In order to exemplify the models of analysis described in the chapter, the authors work with Latin, Portuguese and other natural languages.

The seventh chapter, "Fonologia Prosodica" [Prosodic Phonology], by Luciani Tenani, highlights the interface between Phonology and other components of grammar. The author points out that Prosodic Phonology stands as a formal theory about prosodic structures, which can be defined by the identification of information on the syntactic or morphological qualities which are relevant to characterize the domains of application of phonological rules. After showing that there can be no necessary isomorphism among the constituents, the author calls attention to the plurality of proposals for prosodic hierarchies. Regardless of the various proposals, it is possible to adopt a set of procedures for analysis in the light of Prosodic Phonology. By using data drawn from Portuguese, the author exemplifies such procedures and reflects especially on accentual shock in the language.

The eighth chapter, written by Ubirata Kickhofel Alves, deals with "Teoria da Silaba" [The Syllable Theory]. The chapter begins with a discussion of the challenge of characterizing the syllable. The author extends the difficulty to the representational level, to the formal mechanisms of analysis of the syllabication process in a language as well as to universal constraints on syllabication. Specifically, in relation to the representational structure in Syllable Theory, three sets of proposals are presented for its characterization: i) the autosegmental structure, ii) the tree-diagram structure and iii) the moraic structure. Linguistic phenomena can be analysed by adopting more than one approach. Some analyses may be carried out, for example, taking a rule-based approach, or a syllabic-model approach or a constraint-based approach. It should be emphasized that, in addition to the different approaches, it is necessary to consider the distribution segments into the syllable, following universal principles of syllabification. A set of principles is presented in the chapter. Finally, the author points out that studies that look into the syllabic structure of the system are still an inexhaustible source of investigation. This chapter also marks the end of the section on non-linear theories in the book, which now turn to the model created in the 1990s: Teoria da Otim(al)idade. [Optim(al)ity Theory].

In the ninth chapter, entitled "Teoria da Otimidade" [Optimality Theory], by Luiz Carlos Schwindt and Gisela Collischonn, the theory that had a major impact especially on phonological studies is introduced. According to the authors, this theory can be considered a development of the Generative Theory, in terms of formal descriptions and the search for universals. However, a methodological differentiation can be noticed when it is compared to the generative models that preceded it. From the beginning of the chapter, the authors fulfil examples to initially elucidate the theory. The first example is within the scope of the syllabic structure of Portuguese. As the analysis of the syllabic structure is prioritized in this chapter, the essential properties of the phonological model are highlighted. It is important to emphasize that the task of the Optimality Theory is to promote the mapping of linguistic forms which have been effectively realized together with their underlying forms. Undoubtedly, the theory brings advances to phonological analysis, but there are problems, too. At the end of the chapter, the authors reflect on some of these problems.

The tenth chapter, "Teoria de Exemplares" [Exemplar Theory], written by Thai's Cristofaro Silva and Christina Abreu Gomes, introduces a representational model formulated, a priori, for the study of visual perception and categorization in the realm of Psychology. According to the authors, three aspects are within the scope of Exemplar Theory: i) phonetic detail, ii) the effects of frequency on mental representations, and iii) emergence and grammatical management of abstract representations. Experimental methodologies are grounded on the expectation of presenting empirical evidence so as to corroborate tendencies of generalization in abstract grammatical representations. In the context of the phenomenological analysis there is the examination of the effects of frequency and lexical similarity by means of research into the corpora of the language under study.

The eleventh and last chapter, "Fonologia de Laboratorio" [Laboratory Phonology], by Eleonora Cavalcante Albano, addresses a methodological position which can be applicable to any phonological theory. It is considered that the association between Phonetics and Phonology should be sufficiently clear to support experimental hypotheses. The method, which was developed at LabPhon Association (4), is intended for the scientific study of the elements of a spoken or signed language as well as of its organization, grammatical function and role in communication. According to the author, in this respect, the method shares the same objects of traditional Phonology (in terms of its system and phonic processes), but in a more particular way. Thus, phonetic detail plays an essential part in shedding new light on the the nature of phonic contrasts, for example.

Fonologia, Fonologias: uma Introducao (2017) fulfills its promise to offer the theoretical tools for the reflection on the phonological components of languages (especially Portuguese), as it describes the main phonological theories. Moreover, the book stands as a broad and dense study that allows for the understanding of phonological theories and methods, fostering debates and further developments. With the contribution of renowned Brazilian scholars and researchers, the book is readerfriendly from beginning to end, objectively offering more than the answers to the six questions around which its chapters are organised. Theoretical frameworks, issues and results are gathered together in this useful work, which certainly leads the reader to the "world of sounds."

CNPq (Grant 407836/2017-9)

CANGEMI, A. Um passo a passo para estudos linguisticos em teorias fonologicas. Alfa, Sao Paulo, v.63, n.1, p.219-223, 2019.

REFERENCES

CHOMSKY, N. The sound pattern of English. New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968.

GOLDSMITH, J. (ed.) Phonological theory: the essential readings. Malden: Blackwell Publishers, 1999.

HORA, D.; MATZENAUER, C. Fonologia, fonologias: uma introducao. Sao Paulo: Contexto, 2017.

NESPOR, M.; VOGEL, I. Prosodic Phonology. Dordrecht: Foris Publications, 2007. Obra original de 1986.

SELKIRK, E. Phonology and syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984.

Received on 28 February, 2018 Approved on 06 August, 2018

Ana Carolina CANGEMI *

* Sao Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Humanities and Sciences, Araraquara--Sao Paulo--Brazil. Professor of the Department of Linguistics. ana.cangemi@unesp.br. ORCID: 0000-0001-5395-9862

(1) Also including notes and references pertaining to each chapter.

(2) The underscored blank spaces preceding "Phonology" indicate the type of Phonology dealt with in the chapters, for example, Generative Phonology, Lexical Phonology, Prosodic Phonology, and so forth.

(3) The theoretical models of linguistic phonology are commonly divided into two groups: i) linear models (CHOMSKY, 1968) and ii) nonlinear models (SELKIRK, 1984; NESPOR;VOGEL, 2007; GOLDSMITH, 1999). Linear models regard speech as a linear combination of segments or distinctive features, that is, there is a one-to-one relationship between the segments and the matrices of feature values. Nonlinear models understand the phonology of a language as an organization in layers (hers). In this model, the one-to-one relationship is reviewed. Features can extrapolate (or not) a segment and they can also be linked to more than one unit, function alone or in association with them.

(4) From https://www.labphon.org/. Access on: 27 Feb. 2018.

SUBJECT INDEX

Agonism, p. 87

Antagonism, p. 87

Appraisal, p. 87

Brazilian Portuguese, p. 67

Cognition, p. 39

Comic strips, p. 119

Corruption, p. 87

Cronicas de Indias, p. 39

Curriculum, p. 189

Erasure, p. 141

Errors, p. 141

Fiction, p. 119

Gender, p. 161

History of Spanish lexicon, p. 39

Humor, p. 119

Imagination/fiction/fantasy, p. 39

Interaction, p. 141

Language acquisition, p. 119

Languages in contact, p. 39

Lexical coverage, p. 67

Lexical selection, p. 161

Lexis, p. 67

Media, p. 87

NLP dictionary, p. 67

Papiamentu, p. 11

PCN, p. 161

Pedagogical discourse, p. 161

Phonetics, p. 189

Phonology, p. 189

Political, p. 87

Popular newspapers, p. 67

Portuguese Language Teaching, p. 189

Relations of co-occurrences, p. 161

School Education, p. 189

School manuscript, p. 141

Sephardic Jews, p. 11

Sexuality, p. 161

Social and linguistic role, p. 11

Stereotype and semantic prototype, p. 39

Vocabulary, p. 67

Word recognition, p. 67

AUTHOR INDEX

ALENCAR, C. N. de, p. 87

ARAUJO, G. A. de, p. 11

BANDEIRA, M., p. 11

CANGEMI, A. C., p. 9a

FELIPETO, S. C. S., p. 141

FINATTO, M. J. B., p. 67

FREITAS, S., p. 11

GATTI, M. A., p. 119

GOMES, E. P. M., p. 87

GONZALEZ, C. G., p. 161

LAPORTE, E., p. 67

MIRANDA POZA, J. A., p. 39

RODRIGUES, S. G. C., p. 189

SA, C. M., p. 189

VALE, O. A., p. 67

VIEIRA, V. C., p. 161

PAPER SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS

Alfa: Revista de Linguistica

1. Editorial policy

ALFA--Revista de Linguistica the linguistics journal of the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), sponsored by the Research Provost, publishes papers authored by professors, researchers, and PhD students in co-authorship with professors and researchers from national and international institutions of learning, teaching and research. Maximum number of co-authors should be 3. Regular issues are organized in a "continuous flow" system, and special issues are edited according to the organizers' convenience. The journal publishes papers, book reviews, interviews and translations with a substantial contribution to any of the various branches of Linguistics.

Contributions in the form of articles should be original and unpublished and cannot be simultaneously submitted for publication in other journal. Only reviews of books published in Brazil in the last 2 years and abroad in the last 4 years should be submitted for publication in the journal. Translations should be preferably of scientific articles and book chapters published within twelve months of submission; interviews should be conducted with researchers with academic prestige acknowledged in Brazil and abroad.

All submissions are read by two anonymous referees. Authors' identities are not revealed to the referees. Should the judgment of the two referees be inconsistent, a third referee will be called in. Once the refereeing process is concluded, the review copies are sent to the author, or to the first author of co-authored papers, with the appropriate instructions.

Papers can be written in one of the following languages: Portuguese, English, French, Spanish, or Italian. In papers written in Portuguese, TITULO, RESUMO, and PALAVRAS-CHAVE should come before the body of the paper, and their English versions, TITLE, ABSTRACT, and KEY-WORDS, after it. In papers written in any of the other languages, the corresponding elements that come before the body of the paper should be written in the same language the paper was written; the corresponding elements that come after the body of the paper should be written in Portuguese for papers written in English and in English for papers written in French, Spanish, or Italian.

All articles are published in a bilingual format, with English necessarily as the second language version. Authors who submit for approval an article originally in English must, in case it is accepted, provide its version in Portuguese, following the same guidelines indicated for the English language. Only articles with accepted versions in Portuguese (or another chosen language) and English will be published. If both versions are not accepted, the article will not be published.

The journal editor reserves the right to return a manuscript if it departs from the style requirements. When applicable, a personal letter will be sent to the author, asking for improvements and adaptations.

Authors are responsible for the data and concepts expressed in the paper as well as for the correctness of the references and bibliography.

2. Online submissions

To submit a paper, authors must be registered on the journal's website. To register, create a login name and a password by clicking Acesso (Access) on the journal's website. After logging in, fill in the profile by clicking Editar Perfil (Profile Editing) and start the submission process by clicking Autor (Author) and then CLIQUE AQUI PARA INICIAR O PROCESSO DE SUBMISSAO (Click here to start the submission process). Follow the five-step submission process below:

Stepl. Confirm the agreement to the Journal Policies (Condicoes de submissao) and the Copyright Terms (Declaracao de Direito Autoral) by checking the appropriate boxes. Select either Artigo (Paper) or Resenha (Review paper). Save the form and go to step 2. Step 2. Enter metadata: first name, last name, e-mail, bio statement, and paper title are obligatory. Save the form and go to step 3.

Step 3. Upload the paper file. Go to step 4. Step 4. If necessary, upload supplementary files such as appendixes and annexes with research tools, data and tables, which should conform to the ethical standards of assessment, sources of information usually unavailable to readers, and pictures or tables that cannot be inserted into the text itself. Go to step 5.

Step 5. Confirm the submission.

After confirming the submission, authors will receive a confirmation e-mail from the journal editor. After submission, authors can follow the process up, from submission and acceptance, through assessment and final version preparation, to on-line publication.

After submission, articles will be assigned to reviewers by the Editorial Board or special issue editors. The journal's Editorial Board and Editors are responsible for the policy of paper selection, which is available at the link Sobre a Revista>Processo de Avaliacao por Pares (About the Journal>Peer Review Process).

3. Preparation of manuscripts 3.1. Presentation

Authors should ensure that their electronic copy is compatible with PC/ MSWord, and use Times New Roman, 12-point size. The page size should be set to A4 (21cm x 29.7cm), and the text body should be one-and-a-half spaced throughout. Leave 3 cm from the top of the page and on the left margin, and 2.0 cm from the bottom of the page and on the right margin. Articles should have a minimum of 15 pages and not exceed 30 pages, including bibliography, appendixes, and annexes. The text must meet the rules of Portuguese new orthographic agreement, which became mandatory in Brazil from January 2016. Two versions of the paper must be submitted: one containing the name and academic affiliation of author(s), and one in which all references to the author(s), including citations and bibliographical references are erased.

3.2. Paper format

The format below should be followed: Title. The title should be centered and set in bold CAPITALS at the top of the first page. Runover* titles should be single-spaced.

Author's name: The name of each author follows the title and should be given in full with the surname in CAPITALS and aligned to the right margin, on the third line below the title, with a footnote marked by an asterisk referring to metadata in the following order: acronym and full name of the institution to which author(s) is(are) affiliated, city, state, country, zip code, e-mail.

Abstract. The abstract, which must summarize the contents of the paper (goals, theoretical framework, results, and conclusion), should conform to the following: it should appear on the third line under the name(s) of the author(s), contain at least 150 and at most 200 words, be single-spaced, and, with no indentation for the first line, be preceded by the word ABSTRACT in CAPITALS in the same language of the paper,

Keywords. Each keyword (seven, at most) is followed by a period. They should be preceded by the word KEYWORDS in CAPITALS, and appear two lines below the abstract. The Editorial Board suggests that the keywords should match general concepts of the paper subject domain. Body of the paper. The body of the paper should be one-and-a-half-spaced throughout. It begins on the third line below the keywords.

Subsection titles. The subsection titles should be typeset in bold and aligned to the left margin. They should not be numbered. There should be two one-anda-half-spaced blank lines before and one one-and-a-half-spaced blank line after each subsection title. Acknowledgements. Acknowledgements should conform to the subsection title layout, and should be preceded by the word "Acknowledgements" set in bold.

Title in English. For papers written in Portuguese, French, Spanish and Italian, the title in English (with no capitals and no bold) should be placed two blank single-spaced lines after the paper text body. The abstract in English. For papers written in Portuguese, French, Spanish and Italian, the abstract in English should be typeset in italics, be preceded by the word ABSTRACT, typeset in italics and in CAPITALS, with no indentation for the first line, be single-spaced, and be placed three blank single-spaced lines after the title in English.

The keywords in English. For papers written in Portuguese, French, Spanish, and Italian, the keywords in English should be typeset in italics, be preceded by the word ABSTRACT, typeset in italics and in CAPITALS, and be placed three blank single-spaced lines after the abstract in English.

NOTE: For papers written in English, the title, abstract, and keywords referred to in 7, 8 and 9 above, respectively, should be written in Portuguese.

References. The subtitle References should be set in bold, with no indentation for the first line, and placed two blank single-spaced lines after the keywords. The reference list should be single-spaced and ordered alphabetically and chronologically (see 3.3.1 below), placed three blank single-spaced lines after the keywords in English. 12. Bibliography. The bibliography list, if essential, should come after the reference list. The word "Bibliography" should be set in bold, with no indentation for the first line, and placed three blank single-spaced lines after the reference list, aligned to the left. It will include all works not mentioned in the paper or in its footnotes.

3.3. Further instructions

3.3.1 Reference guidelines Both reference and bibliography lists should be ordered alphabetically by the last name of the first author. A single space should separate one reference item from the other. The names of the translators must be specified. Examples:

Books

AUTHIER-REVUZ, J. Palavras incertas: as nao coincidencias do dizer. Traducao de Claudia Pfeiffer et al. Campinas: Ed. da UNICAMP, 1998. CORACINI, M. J.; BERTOLDO, E. S. (Org.). O desejo da teoria e a contingencia da pratica. Campinas: Mercado das Letras, 2003.

LUCHESI, D. Sistema, mudanca e linguagem: um percurso na historia da linguistica moderna. Sao Paulo: Parabola Editorial, 2004.

Book chapters

PECHEUX, M. Ler o arquivo hoje. In: ORLANDI, E. P. (Org.). Gestos de leitura: da historia no discurso. Traducao de Maria das Gracas Lopes Morin do Amaral. Campinas: Ed. da UNICAMP, 1994. p.15-50.

Thesis and dissertations

BITENCOURT, C. M. F. Patria, civilizacao e trabalho: o ensino nas escolas paulista (1917-1939). 1998. 256 f. Dissertacao (Mestrado em Historia)--Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciencias Humanas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, 1998.

Papers in journals

SCLIAR-CABRAL, L.; RODRIGUES, B. B. Discrepancias entre a pontuacao e as pausas. Cadernos de Estudos Linguisticos, Campinas, n. 26, p. 63-77, 1994.

Online papers

SOUZA, F. C. Formacao de bibliotecarios para uma sociedade livre. Revista de Biblioteconomia e Ciencia da Informacao, Florianopolis, n.11, p. 1-13, jun. 2001. Disponivel em: <...> Acesso em: 30 jun. 2001.

Newspaper articles

BURKE, P. Misturando os idiomas. Folha de S. Paulo, Sao Paulo, 13 abr. 2003. Mais!, p.3.

EDITORA plagiou traducoes de classicos. Folha de S. Paulo, Sao Paulo, 4 nov. 2007. Ilustrada, p. 6.

Online publications

UNIVERSIDADE ESTADUAL PAULISTA. Coordenadoria Geral de Bibliotecas. Grupo de Trabalho Normalizacao Documentaria da UNESP. Normalizacao Documentaria para a producao cientifica da UNESP: normas para apresentacao de referencias. Sao Paulo, 2003. Disponivel em: <...>. Acesso em: 15 jul. 2004.

Paper in edited volumes, conference proceedings, and working papers

MARIN, A. J. Educacao continuada. In: CONGRESSO ESTADUAL

PAULISTA SOBRE FORMACAO DE EDUCADORES, 1., 1990. Anais ... Sao Paulo: UNESP, 1990. p. 114-118.

Films:

Macunaima. Direcao (roteiro e adaptacao) de Joaquim Pedro de Andrade. Filmes do Serro/Grupo Filmes/Condor Filmes. Brasil: 1969. Rio de Janeiro: Videofilmes, 1969. Versao restaurada digitalmente, 2004. 1 DVD (105 minutos), color.

Paintings, photographs, illustrations, drawings:

ALMEIDA JUNIOR. Caipira picando fumo. 1893. Oleo sobre tela. 17 cm X 23,5 cm. Pintura pertencente ao acervo da Pinacoteca do Estado de Sao Paulo.

PICASSO, Pablo. [Sem titulo]. [1948]. 1 gravura. Disponivel em: <http://belgaleria. com.br>. Acesso em 19 ago. 2015.

Music CDs (as a unit or tracks)

CALAZANS, T Teca Calazans canta Villa Lobos. Rio de Janeiro: Kuarup Discos, 1999. 1 CD.

CALAZANS, T. Modinha. In: CALAZANS, T Teca Calazans canta Villa Lobos. Rio de Janeiro: Kuarup Discos, 1999. 1 CD.

3.3.2. In-text references and quotations

For references in the text, the surname of the author should be in CAPITALS, enclosed in parentheses; a comma should be placed between the author's last name and year, e.g. (BARBOSA, 1980). If the name of the author is part of the text, only the year is enclosed in parentheses: "Morais (1955) argues ..."

Page numbers follow the year and are preceded by "p."; note a comma and a space between year and "p.", and between "p." and the number, e.g. (MUNFORD, 1949, p. 513).

References of the same author with the same year should be distinguished by using lower case letters in alphabetical order, e.g. (PESIDE, 1927a), and (PESIDE, 1927b). For references with one author and up to two co-authors, semi-colons are used to separate the surnames, e.g. (OLIVEIRA; MATEUS; SILVA, 1943); for references with more than two coauthors, the expression "et al." substitutes for the surnames of the co-authors, e.g. (GILLE et al., 1960).

Quotations longer than three text lines should be set in 11-point font size, and set out as a separate paragraph (or paragraphs) on a new line. The paragraph (or paragraphs) should be 4.0 cm from the left margin throughout, without any quotation marks. Quotations shorter than three text lines should be included in double quotation marks in the running text. Quotations from texts in foreign languages must be translated into Portuguese. Published translations should be used whenever possible. The original text should appear in a footnote.

3.3.3. Italics, bold, underlining and quotation marks

Italics: Use italics for foreign words, book titles int the body of the text, or for emphasis.

Bold: Use bold only in the title of the article and in the text headings and subheadings.

Underlining: Avoid using underlining. Quotation marks: can be used to highlight parts of the major works, such as titles of poems, articles, chapters. The major works should be highlighted in italics, as the statement above; quotation marks must be used in the body of the text for quotations of excerpts of works. Example: A linguistica e uma disciplina que "[...] se baseia na observacao dos factos e se abstem de propor qualquer escolha entre tais factos, em nome de certos principios esteticos e morais" (MARTINET, 1972, p.3).

3.3.4. Footnotes

Footnotes should be kept to a minimum and placed at the bottom of the page. The superscript numerals used to refer to a footnote com after any punctuation sign (comma, semicolon, period, question mark, etc.).

3.3.5. Figures

Figures comprise drawings, graphs, charts, maps, diagrams, formulas, models, photographs, x-rays. The identifying caption should be inserted above the figures, centered, preceded by the designation word designative (Chart, Map, Figure etc); if there is more than one, figures must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals using the same font and size of the body of the text. Indication of the source and other information necessary for its understanding should appear below the figure. Figures should be submitted as separate files, saved in the program in which they were generated. Maps, photographs and radiographs should also be submitted as separate files, high-resolution (300 dpi). Author(s) are responsible for image copyrights.

3.3.6. Tables and text frames

Tables should be used to present statistical information, and text frames should be used to summarize and organize textual information. The title is inserted above the table, centered, beginning with Table 1 in bold, followed by a hyphen and the title without emphasis, in the same font and size of the body text; the title of figures should be presented above the figure, centered, beginning with Figure 1 in bold, followed by a hyphen and the title without emphasis, in the same font and size of the body text. The numbering is consecutive, in Arabic numerals; if you need to specify the data source, it must be placed below the table or the table and the text aligned to the left. Tables should be built with the open side borders and no lines separating columns.

3.3.7. Appendixes and Annexes

When absolutely necessary to the text comprehension, and within the limit of 30 pages, Annexes and/or appendixes, following the subsection style, should be included in the end of the paper, after the references or bibliography.

3.3.8. Review format

The review should contain, at the beginning, the complete reference to the book being reviewed, including number of pages, in Times New Roman, 14 point size, single spaced, no title, no summary, no keywords. The name(s) of the review author(s), in 12 point size, must appear on the third line below the reference of the book reviewed, preceded by "reviewed by [name(s) of author(s)]". Names must be followed by an asterisk referring to a footnote containing the following information: full name and acronym of the institution to which the review author(s) belong; city; state; country; zip code; email. The text of the review should begin on the third line below the name(s) of the author(s) in Times New Roman, 12 point size 12 and spacing 1.5.

Page format is as follows: paper size: A4 (21.0x 29.7 cm); left and top margins 3.0 cm, right and lower 2.0 cm; minimum length of 4 and maximum of 8 pages, including bibliographic references and annexes and/or appendices; indentation: 1.25 cm to mark the beginning of the paragraph; spacing: 1.5.

3.3.9. Translation format

Translated articles are subjected to a peer review process, to decide on the opportunity and the convenience of their publication. They should follow the article format, where applicable. In the second line below the name of the author of the translated text, right-aligned, the name(s) of the translator(s) should appear in the following format: "Translated by [name(s) of the translator(s)]", with an asterisk referring to a footnote with the following information: full name and acronym of the institution to which the translator(s) belong; city; state; country; zip code; email. The translated text must be accompanied with a written authorization of the publisher responsible for the original publication.

3.3.10. Interview format

Interviews are subjected to a peer review process, which decides on the opportunity and the convenience of its publication. The format of the interview is the same required for articles, but the title should contain, besides the general theme, the expression "Interview with [interviewee name]", without emphasis, with an asterisk referring to a footnote containing a brief review of the biography of the interviewee, which clearly demonstrates her/his scientific relevance. The author(s) of the interview should follow, according to the rules established for articles.

3.3.11. English version

The author(s) of paper accepted for publication in Portuguese, French, Spanish or Italian must provide the English version of the text until the deadline shown in the e-mail notification of acceptance. The standards for citation of authors in the text and the references of the English version are the same as the ones in Portuguese. Alfa appoints reviewers to evaluate the English version of the article. The review is restricted to checking the quality of translation, i. e. adequation to the standard norms of English usage for research papers.

In case there are citations of works with an English-language edition, this edition should be used both in the text and in the references. In case there is no English edition, the quoted text should be translated into English, and the text in the original language of the edition used must be included in a footnote.

If the text contains figures scanned from advertisements in newspapers, magazines or similar midia, in Portuguese or another language, the English version of the text must be included in a footnote.

When the text contains examples the understanding of which involves the need to clarify morphosyntactic features, a literal version of them in gloss should be included, followed by the common English translation in single quotation marks. Example:

(1) isso signific-a um aument-o de vencimento-s (D2-SP-360) this mean-IND.PRS.3.SG a.M raise-NMLZ of salary-PL 'this means a raise in salary.'

Conventions for the glosses: The Leipzig Glossing Rules: conventionsfor interlinear morpheme-by-morpheme glosses, edited by the Department of Linguistics of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Bernard Comrie, Martin Haspelmath) and the Department of Linguistics at the University of Leipzig (Balthasar Bickel); available in http://www.eva.mpg.de/lingua/ resources/glossing-rules.php.

3.3.12. Copyright transfer--publication authorization

Following acceptance of the paper, the AUTHOR AGREES PROMPTLY TO ASSIGN COPYRIGHT to UNESP, which is granted permission to reproduce it and publish it in the journal. The terms "reproduce" and "publish" are understood according to their definitions in the Sections VI and I, respectively, of the Article 5 of the Law 9610/98. The PAPER is permanently available to be used in both print and electronic media, and readers have FREE-OF-CHARGE ACCESS through the Internet to read, download, copy, or print the FULL TEXTS of the PAPERS. This publication authorization is permanent, and UNESP is responsible for keeping the identification of the PAPER AUTHOR(S).

3.3.13. Privacy Policy

All names and addresses appearing in Alfa are used exclusively for the stated purposes of the journal and will not be made available for other purposes or to third parties.
COPYRIGHT 2019 Universidade Estadual Paulista
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2019 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Cangemi, Ana Carolina
Publication:Alfa: Revista de Linguistica
Article Type:Resena de libro
Date:Jan 1, 2019
Words:5851
Previous Article:THE PLACE OF PORTUGUESE PHONETICS/PHONOLOGY IN PORTUGUESE OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS OF SCHOOL EDUCATION.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters