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A Review on effect of diethyl ether additive on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a diesel and biodiesel/vegetable oil fuelled engine.

INTRODUCTION

Development of the biofuels sector is a promising option for many developing countries. Given the impending energy crisis, they are much more vulnerable than wealthy countries and a serious challenges in the years to come more over; most southern countries do not have large investment capacities, so they have to find economical solutions to launch new economic activities in the energy production field. In this contest, biofuels production is a major opportunity, particularly where large arable land areas are agriculture, such as India [1-4]. One of the most advantageous branches in the biofuels sector is seen to be production of straight vegetable oil for direct use as fuel in diesel engines. There has been renewed interest in this activity in recent years, for stationary applications in the fields of agriculture, power generation industries. These sectors are major contribution of fuel oils, either high distillates, medium distillates or heavy fuel oils. This might be wholly or partially replaced with SVO and this solution may contribute to reducing the cost fossil fuels and limit greenhouse gas emissions [5-7].In the recent years, many initiations for the production of oilseed based biofuels (SVO and biodiesel) have emerged in south Asian countries. The most wide spread scheme adopted by project promoters is the local production of oilseeds and heir conservation into SVO by village scale extraction units or decentralized cooperative mills, to fuel local stationary engines. This scheme investments and offering much more flexibility in terms of production capacity compared with large scale centralized biodiesel production [8-11].At the beginning of these biofuels promotion campaigns, the concerns mainly focused on the agricultural part of the sector. In such a decentralized scheme, the processing conditions can be very difficult from one unit to another, leading to a wide range of oil qualities. Using vegetable oils of unknown quality as a fuel might risky and rapidly cause fatal mechanical damage to engines. Consequently, oil quality is a recurring issue that is impeding the development of the sector, since there is no standard defining what should be the quality characteristics of vegetable oils for fuel purposes in stationary engines [12-15]. Currently, no specific standard applies to vegetable oils for fuel uses, so by default they must comply with the quality standards of petroleum diesel fuel. At this movement, SVOs rarely meet the requirements of petroleum fuel standards. The analytical methods have been derived so far from these used in petroleum fuel standards, hence designed to characterize complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, while SVOs mainly consist of quite different chemical components, i.e triglycerides. Moreover, this doesn't comply with the needs of small scale oil extraction plants, which require a quick and low cost methodology to certify an acceptable quality of SVO for fuel use in stationary diesel engines [16-18]. SVOs are usually produced by mechanical extraction of oils from oil bearing biomass as feedstock. SVOs have a chemical composition that corresponds in most cases to a mixture of 95% triglycerides and 5% fatty acids, sterols, waxes and various impurities. The quality of SVO for fuel is strongly influenced by both the quality of the feed stock and the processing conditions, which need to be carefully managed to obtain high quality fuel [19-22].

SVOs can be conventially classified in four major categories according to their iodine value.

* Saturated oils: the iodine value is between 5 to 50. Examples copra, palm.

* Mono unsaturated oil: the iodine value is between 50 to 100. Examples groundnut, rapseed, olive oil.

* Di unsaturated oils: the iodine value is between 100 to 150. Example sunflower, soybean, corn.

* Tri unsaturated oils: the iodine value is over 150. Example flax, tung.

Generally, from a "quality" viewpoint, saturated oils offer better combustion (short ignition delay, short evaporation time, fewer deposits) than unsaturated oils combustion quality decreases with unsaturation. On the other hands saturated oils are more viscous at higher temperatures than their unsaturated counterparts. The existence of double bonds in anunsaturated fatty acids makes it more fluid than the corresponding saturated acid and lower its melting temperature [23-26]. The iodine value indicates the degree of unsaturation of oil (number of double bond triple bonds). It corresponds to the number of grams of iodine absorbed by 100g of fat or oil. The higher heating value of vegetable oil is a measurement to assess its energy content. The higher heating values of vegetable oils are slightly variable from one to another (36-40 MJ/kg) but higher than the pre-standard limit value of 36MJ/kg. The cetane number is recently constant with in a kind of vegetable oil and even between different kinds of oils (35-45MJ/kg). Therefore, measurement of the cetane number to ensure good quality SVO in stationary engines is pointless [27-29].

2. Svo Use In Dual Fuelling And Blends With Diesel Oil:

SVO or refined vegetables oils cannot used directly in direct injection diesel engines when such engines delivers upto half their normal power, they have average combustion temperature below 200[degrees]C. However, vegetable oil has a much higher flash point than diesel oil: 240[degrees]C for groundnut oils as opposed to 90[degrees]C for diesel oil. This meant that some of the oil droplets will not be evaporated but will sick to the walls resulting in tar deposits [30-32]. In indirect injection diesel engines with a swirl chamber, the average temperature in the pre-combustion chamber is around 500-600[degrees]C vegetable oils burn completely. As direct injection diesel engines are the most widely used to produce shaft power and electricity and in rural applications, it seems more appropriate to investigate their operation with SVO as fuel [33-36].

Biodiesel:

biodiesel derived from vegetable oils is also the promising alternative fuel to diesel engine due to the following,

* Biodiesel can be used in the existing engine without any modifications

* Biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable sources; it does not contain any sulfur aromatic hydrocarbons, metals or crude oil residues.

* Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel; emissions of carbon monoxide and soot tent to reduce.

Additives:

oxygenated additives that are to be mixed with biodiesel/ vegetable oil/ diesel fuel must have fuel proportions which can be appropriate for smooth running of diesel engines [37- 41].

3. Effect Of Additives On Combustion, Performance And Emission For Boidiesel:

Biodiesel blends with pure diesel can be safely used in diesel engine without any modification. The best results can obtain for blends containing biodiesel up to 20%. Further increase in biodiesel content introduces some additional problem in engine operation along with some rise in emissions. Researchers have directed their attraction towards improving the fuel characteristics by introducing some additives as oxygenates. Ni Zhang investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of a turbo-charged common rail diesel engine fuelled with diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends were tested in inline four cylinders, 17.2 compression ratio diesel engines. The investigation reports that the BSFC of diesel-biodiesel-DEE increases with increase of oxygenated fuel fractions. At the lower loads, the NOx emission of blended fuels exhibits little variation in comparison with the biodiesel fraction. The NOx emission slightly increases with increasing in the biodiesel fraction in diesel-biodiesel-DEE blends at medium loads. HC and CO emissions decrease with increasing oxygenated fuels fraction in these blends [42]. S. Sivalakshmi investigates the effect using DEE as additive to biodiesel (Neem oil methyl ether) on the combustion, emission and performance characteristics in an unmodified diesel engine at different loads and constant engine speed. The research concludes that peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate was higher for BD5 (5% by vol.) DEE blends biodiesel and NOx and HC emissions increases for BD5 than those of neat biodiesel [43]. C. Swaminathan investigations the performance and exhaust emissions characteristics of a CI engine fueled with biodiesel (fish oil) with DEE as additive. CO emission was very less when BFO (biodiesel fish oil) was compared to diesel and still less when additives added. HC emission was less than diesel in BFO and BFO with additives. This emission increases with increasing in load up to 60% load and then decreases for all the fuels and fuel blends. The reduction in percentage of CO2 emission was 57% for biodiesel with two percent DEE and 29% for BFO at load and 61.5% for diesel and 37.5% for BFO at maximum load. The results gave that the BTE was more for all loads when operated with BFO and BFO blends when compared with diesel. The percentage was more in 20% load (16%) and very less at 80% load (1%) [44]. D.C. Rakopoulus was conducted an experiments to evaluate the effect of using diesel fuel blends with DEE 24% by volume in direct injection "hydra" diesel engine. Cylinder pressure and temperature were reduced, HRR diagrams are delayed and the engine runs overall a little "leaner" at reduced heat losses, with the DEE blend compared to neat diesel fuel for all loads. Moreover, increase the DEE blends reports for unstable engine operation due to cyclic irregularity, ignition delay, coefficient of variation, cross correlation coefficients. There was no unstable operation of the engine at least for up to 24% addition of DEE in its blends with diesel fuel [45]. Obed M. Ali made study on (POME) oxygenated additive DEE was blend with palm oil biodiesel in the ratios of 2, 4, 6 and 8% has tested for their properties improvements. Adding 8% DEE to the POME results in fuel viscosity lower that the limit of EN14213 standard. Increasing DEE content in POME resulted in a statistically significant different in low temperature performance with a maximum decrease in pour point by 7[degrees]C at 8% DEE compare to POME [38]. Sadip S. Jawre investigates the effect of DEE as additive to biodiesel kusum ester (KME) on the performance and emission of diesel engine at different ratios fuel additives. The performance increases at high injection pressure, the results indicates that lower BSFC observed with 85% KME + 15%DEE as compared to ether blends. Smoke emission have decreased with addition of 5% and 10% additive but it decreased substantially with 15%DEE addition at full load [46].

Murat karabetas investigates the effect of using DEE as additive on the performance and emission of a diesel engine fuelled with CNG. In this study, DEE was blended with diesel fuel, which was used as a pilot fuel, at the volumetric ratios of 5% and 10%. When compared with diesel fuel, the use of dual fuel yields higher CO and HC emissions at all loads along with lower NO emissions except for high loads [47]. D.D. Nagdeoate experimentally investigated the effects of using DEE and ethanol as additives to biodiesel/diesel blends on the performance and emission of a direct injection diesel engine. NOx emissions are sensitive to oxygen content, adiabatic flame temperature, combustion temperature and spray characteristics. From the results the NOx emission slightly increased for ethanol blends fuels. It might be observed that HC emissions of DEE and ethanol were slightly higher than that of biodiesel and also the CO emission was lower for the additive fuels compared to neat diesel [48]. N. Vadivel was conducted an experimental study to evaluate the effect of using DEE as additive to biodiesel/diesel blend on the performance and emission of a direct injection diesel engine. BSFC of Mahua biodiesel blends has been 3.5% lower than that of neat diesel at 4 kg load. BTE for Mahua biodiesel and DEE blends has 2% and 4% higher than neat diesel at 6, 8kg load. 25% biodiesel and DEE blends has 42%, 18% lower opacity emissions than neat diesel at 6, 8kg load. At the full load CO emission decreases by 40% for 25% biodiesel fuel blends compared to neat diesel. The NOx emissions were decreases 33% at 4kg load when compared to diesel fuel [49]. M. Krishnamoorthi was optimize the direct injection, single cylinder diesel engine with respect to brake power, fuel economy and exhaust emissions through experimental investigation and response surface methodology (RSM). As far as the application in rural agricultural sector of a developing nation in concerned, such engines should preferable utilize alternative fuels of bio-origin. In this test, the mustard biodiesel and diesel blending with diethyl ether (DEE) in various ratios by volume were tested in CI Engine. The results shows that compared with neat diesel, there was slightly lower brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) for diesel-biodiesel-DEE blend. Strong reduction in emission was observed with diesel-biodiesel-DEE at various engine loads. Methyl ester of mustard biodiesel of 25% and DEE 5% blend with diesel gave best performance in terms of low smoke intensity, emissions of HC, CO, C[O.sub.2], and NOx [50]. M. Krishnamoorthi investigates the thermodynamic analysis of the existing diesel engine was conducted to evaluate the effects of using DEE as additive to mustard and diesel. The mustard biodiesel and DEE blending with diesel in different ratios by volume were tested in diesel engine. The aim of exergy analysis was to estimate the exergy destruction in each module as well as exergetic efficiencies. In the thermodynamic performance, 3.5kW diesel engines coupled with eddy current dynamometer. From the thermodynamic analysis, the maximum thermal efficiency of the engine was 29.6% for biodiesel blend at higher load [51]. M. Krishnamoorthi experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effects of using DEE as additive to waste fried oil/diesel blend on the performance and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine. The waste fried oil and diesel blending with DEE in the ratios of 0:100:0, 20:80:0, 30:70:0, 40:60:0, 15:80:5, 25:70:5 and 35:60:5 by volume were tested in CI Engine. The results shows that compared with neat diesel, there was slightly lower BSFC for diesel waste fried oil--DEE blend. Strong reduction in emission was observed with diesel-bio waste fried oil-DEE at various engine loads. waste fried oil at 25% and DEE 5% blend with diesel gave best performance in terms of low smoke intensity, emissions of HC, CO, C[O.sub.2], and NOx [52]. D.S. Akshatha carried out the performance evaluation of neem biodiesel on CI engine with DEE as additive. The fuel consumption of the engine was somewhat higher at low loads and speeds on fuel blends due to lower gross heat of combustion and mass of fuel consumed increases with increasing injection pressure. The BTE of Neem blends were lower than with diesel throughout the operation, the poor combustion characteristics of methyl ester due to high viscosity and poor volatility. When the injection pressure has been increased to 250bar the better mixing and proper utilization of air converted more heat into the useful work resulting in higher BTE of around 3.5%, with further increase in pressure to 290 bars, BTE tends to decrease. The emissions of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) were considerably reduced for all biodiesel and additive blends, as injection pressure has increased the emissions goes on decreasing due to complete combustion of fuels [53]. H.H. Masjuki, investigation was conducted for the improvement of jetropha biodiesel-diesel blend with the addition of 5-10% n- butanol and DEE by volume, 4 cylinder turbocharged indirect diesel engine. Effect of the additives was more prominent on the case of 10% additive blends rather than 5% additive blends. 10% DEE blends has 5.4% higher BSFC than diesel of lower calorific value and inferior atomization quality. The 10% DEE blend produced about 8.2% higher NO, 27.5% decrement in CO emission, 6.2% reduction in smoke opacity, 28% lower HC emission than neat diesel [54]. M. Pugazhvadivu conducted an investigation on a diesel engine fueled with biodiesel blends and diethyl ether as an additive. From the experimental results biodiesel blends produced a higher NOx emission compared to diesel. With B25 blend, the NOx emission was reduced by the addition of DEE at all load conditions. With B50, B75 and B100 blends, the NOx emission was lowered by the addition of DEE at low and medium loads. However, at high loads the NOx emission was higher relative to diesel; but lower compared to the corresponding fuel blend. The addition of 15% to 20% DEE was more beneficial in reducing NOx compared to 10% DEE. The addition of DEE resulted in a marginal deterioration of BTE and concluded that the addition of 15%-20% DEE to biodiesel blends would result in reduction of both NOx and smoke emission [55].G.Pranesh carried out Performance and Emission Characteristics of Blending DEE in Cotton Seed Oil Methyl Ester using a Direct Injection Diesel Engine. He concludes the BTE of Blend 25% DEE with Cottonseed oil operation has been found to be 27.73% as compared to 26.01% of pure diesel operation respectively. The CO emissions of Blend25% DEE with Cottonseed oil operation has been found to be 0.035ppm as compared 0.135 ppm of pure diesel operation respectively. The NOx of Blend 25% DEE with Cottonseed oil operation has been found to be 265 ppm as compared to 488 ppm of pure diesel operation respectively. The HC emissions of Blend 25% DEE with Cottonseed oil operation has been found to be 27 ppm as compared to 29 ppm of pure diesel operation respectively [56]. J.Sureshkumar reveals the experimental study on performance characteristics of CI engine fueled with biodiesel and its blends DEE.In this experimental work an oxygenated additive DEE was blended with palm oil bio-diesel (POME) in the ratios of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 35%, 40%, 45% and 50% and experimented in the C.I engine. By comparing the performance parameters and performance characteristics of all fuel blends, the fuel blend of 70%B.D+30%DEE given the best result over the all other fuel blends. Hence the fuel blend of 70%B.D+30%DEE is the best alternative fuel for Diesel [57]. J. Devaraj reveals the effect of variable compression ratio on performance and emission for a diesel engine fuelled with waste plastic pyrolysis oil blended with DEE. From the experimental results increasing trend in efficiency with increasing the concentration of DEE may be due to the lower heating value of waste plastic pyrolysis oil compared to that of diesel. At higher concentration of DEE, the increase in BTE may be due to the ability of DEE to reduce the surface tension or interfacial tension between two or more interacting immiscible liquids helped the better atomization of fuel, which improves the combustion and increase in compression ratio increases the NOx emission whereas the increase in DEE percentage decreases the formation of NOx [58]. D.Karthick conducted an experimental investigation was conducted to appraise and evaluate the performance, combustion and exhaust emission levels of different blends of diesel with jatropha oil (J) and DEE in a fully instrumented single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. With increase in applied load and maximum BTE at full load was 30.31% for J17+DEE 3% which was 7.3% higher than that of diesel. The NOx emission decreases when the compression ratio decreases but using of biodiesel increased NOxupto 10% because of higher cetane number. So reducing the compression ratio and using biodiesel gives almost same value of NOx as that of diesel by controlling that 10% increase in NOx but it produces less smoke [59]. K.Rajagopal conducted test, additive DEE has been added in three different proportions to B20 blended fuel to study the effect of additive on the performance and combustion of the diesel engine and the results conclude that the break thermal efficiencies of the diesel engine prove an increasing trend with both blended fuels and additive mixed blended fuels, slightly higher than the case of pure diesel fuel [60]. Kasiraman investigated the performance improvement of a diesel engine fueled by cashewnut shell oil (CNSO) on blending with oxygenates. The results were found that both 10% by volume of DEE, 10% volume of Dimethyl ether (DMC) with neat CNSO improve the performance of the engine. Among these two blends of oxygenates, DEE blend was better than DMC blend. The BTE of DEE 10% blend was 27.15% compared to DMC 10 blend's efficiency of 25.38 %. Neat CNSO operation has 23.1% of BTE. The ignition delay for DEE 10% blend reduces by 2 degree, DMC 10 blend reduces by 1 degree when compared to neat CNSO operation which has 12 degree of ignition delay. The NO emissions of DEE 10% blend was 1008 ppm and 985 ppm for DMC 10% blend, while neat CNSO emits 953 ppm. The smoke emission of CNSO was 4.27 BSU, where as it was 4.12 BSU and 4.17 BSU respectively for DEE10 blend and DMC10 blend. Pure diesel operation has 30.14% of brake thermal efficiency, 7 degree of ignition delay, 1118 ppm of NO emission and 3.64 BSU of smoke emission [61].

4. Effect Of Additives On Combustion, Performance And Emission For Vegetable Oil:

N. Vadivel conducted the optimization of the diesel engine fuelled with diesel- vegetable oil-DEE in various blend ratios. The experiments were conducted on constant speed and various load conditions. The optimized blend was determined by using mathematical models of response surface methodology at 25% SVO, 5%DEE and restof neat diesel. The formation of NOx, CO and HC emissions of SVO, DEE and diesel blends drastically decreased as 20%, 34% and 42% respectively [62]. M. Krishnamoorthi investigates the thermodynamic analysis of the existing diesel engine and evaluates the effects of using DEE as additive to vegetable oil and diesel. The SVO and DEE blending with diesel in various ratios by volume and tested in direct injection diesel engine at constant running speed. From the analysis, the maximum thermal efficiencies of the engine were 31.6% for SVO blend at higher load. Using data gathered from the experimental study, energy and exergy balances to the engine were performed for the either fuel [63]. R. Senthilkumar investigates the engine performance values such brake thermal efficiency, brake power, torque, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, NOx, Smoke density and fuel consumption have been investigated both of variation engine speeds--fixed load and fixed engine speed variation loads by changing the fuel injection pressure from 180, 200, 220 and 240 bar, the investigation revealed that the optimum pressure for jatropha and mustard oil with DEE as 220 bars. The objective of this study was the analysis of the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of the jatropha and mustard oil methyl esters and comparing with petroleum diesel in 25% biodiesel with 180bar injection pressure and 21[degrees] BTDC, 50% biodiesel with 200bar injection pressure and 23[degrees] BTDC injection timing, 75% biodiesel with 220bar injection pressure and 25[degrees] BTDC of injection timing and 100% biodiesel with 240bar injection pressure and 27[degrees] BTDC of injection timing on both Jatropha and mustard oil. The tests were carried out on a 4.4 KW, single cylinder, direct injection, Air-cooled diesel engine. The results of investigations carried out in studying the fuel properties of Jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) and Mustard oil methyl ester (MOME) its blend with diesel fuel from 0 to 80% load by percentage and in running a diesel engine with these fuel to reduction in exhaust emissions together with increase in brake power, brake thermal efficiency and reduction in specific fuel consumption make the blends of jatropha and mustard esterified oil (B75) a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and could help in controlling air pollution [64]. Muneeswaran conducted an experiment using cetane improvers for NOx reducing in the short term was the use of cetane improvers. This was because, some additives caused an increase in particulate emission which may severely limit the marketability of biodiesel and hence the cetane enhancers are the choices for experimentation in the reducing NOx emissions and at the same time with the use of some antioxidants basic quality of fuel could be enhanced for biodiesels. B20 blend with 3ml DEE produces 8.3% reduction in NOx emission and also significant reduction of HC, CO emissions. B70 blend with 3ml of DEE produces moderate reduction in NOx emission than B30 blends. From the experiments the B30 blend 0.003% of DEE has been selected as suitable cetane proportion to reduce the NOx emission in canola ester [65]. Raahul Krishna conducted an experimental investigation of blending DEE in karanja vegetable oil using a multi cylinder diesel engine. From the results BTE of 25% DEE blend with karanja oil operation has been found to be 26.73% as compared to 23.21% of karanja oil and 27.01% of pure diesel operation respectively. The CO emissions of 25% DEE blend withkaranja oil has been found to be 0.045ppm as compared to 0.05ppm of pure karanja oil and 0.035ppm of pure diesel. The NOx of 25% DEE blends with karanja oil operation has been found to be 265ppm as compared to 347ppm of pure karanja oil and 488ppm of pure diesel. The HC emission of 15% DEE blends with karanja oil operation has been found to be 27 ppm as compared to 44 ppm of pure karanja oil and 29 ppm of pure diesel operation. The fuel consumption of karanja oil have been reduced as percentage of DEE blends increased from 5% to 25% from 56.09 (gm/min) to 51 (gm/min) respectively as compared to 55 (gm/min) of pure karanja oil and 44 (gm/min) of pure diesel operation respectively [66].

Conclusion:

The present review, discussed the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of diesel and biodiesel/vegetable oil fuel blend with DEE additive. The conclusions drawn from the present study are the following points;

* If the fuel additive has been added in diesel and biodiesel/vegetable oil at appropriate proportion it will improve the engine performance and emission characteristics.

* Based on the performance, minimize the brake specific fuel consumption and improve the brake thermal efficiency, have found by adding the DEE additive to diesel-- biodiesel/vegetable oil. Based on the emissions, reduction in CO, CO2, PM and minimum increase in NOx biodiesel blend.

* Based on the combustion, reduction in ignition delay and peak cylinder pressure and increase in combustion duration is observed for diesel and biodiesel/vegetable oil blended with DEE additive.

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(1) Mr. M. Krishnamoorthi and (2) Dr. R. Malayalamurthi

(1) Research scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engg. & Tech., Coimbatore-641062,

(2) Associate professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Govt. College, of Tech., Coimbatore--641013,

Received 25 April 2016; Accepted 28 May 2016; Available 5 June 2016

Address For Correspondence:

Mr. M. Krishnamoorthi, Research scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engg.& Tech., Coimbatore-641062,

E-mail: krishnamoorthism@gmail.com.
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Author:Krishnamoorthi, M.; Malayalamurthi, R.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
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Date:May 30, 2016
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