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A Reading in Temporal Poetics: Wallace Steven's "Domination of Black".

In Theory of the Lyric (2015), Jonathan Culler laments the now long-standing New Critical view of the poem as dramatic monologue, as the representation of the action of a fictional speaker, a persona, whose situation and motivation one needs to reconstruct.
   Students are asked, when confronting a poem, to work out who is
   speaking, in what circumstances, to what end, and to chart the
   drama of attitudes that the poem captures ... Of course, many great
   poems in the English tradition are dramatic monologues, and it is
   possible to read other lyrics in this way, but even in those cases
   this model deflects attention from what is more singular, most
   mind-blowing even, in those lyrics, and puts readers on a prosaic,
   novelizing track ... This model gives students a clear task but it
   is extraordinarily limited and limiting. It leads to neglect of the
   most salient features of many lyrics, which are not to be found in
   ordinary speech acts--from rhythm and sound patterning to
   intertextual relations. (2)


As Culler notes, recent literary theory has done little to redress this situation. In contemporary criticism, lyric, as a major focus of concern, has been supplanted by the novel. "Important theorists," Culler says, "have failed to develop a rich theoretical discourse about lyric, or of poetry in general, for that matter ... We lack an adequate theory of the lyric" (2-3).

Out of respect for the genre and empirical accuracy, Culler's Theory of the Lyric goes on to elaborate on this point, over and over, but without suggesting a solution to the problem, either. Poems are strongly ritualistic/ formal, Culler reminds us, making the most of repetition, rhythm, and other types of distinctive and memorable language (novel words, deviant syntax, puzzling symbolic complexes, odd rhetorical tropes and schemes, etc.). But Culler has little to offer about how we should deal with these forms. So he settles for a minimalist, if not entirely agnostic, theoretical position. Poems, he claims, are like songs. They should not be interpreted/understood at all but only memorized and "reperformed" (37). If the distinctive sounds, rhythms, structures, and meanings in poetry are related in some way, and therefore understandable/interpretable, both among themselves and with each other, those relations are beyond us, and should remain there.

I agree almost entirely with both Culler's view of poetry and the failure of the profession as a whole to come to terms with this view. But, unlike Culler, I do not settle for a minimalist theoretical position on this issue. In fact, just the opposite. For over thirty years now, I have been developing a theory of poetry that accounts in strong ways for just those things like sound, rhythm, syntax, and repetition (and their interrelation) that more novelistic and dramatic views of poetry have omitted. (1) The essence of this theory of poetry is a new conception of poetic rhythm and its relation to poetic form; so I call this theory "temporal poetics," given it is rhythm that creates our feelings of subjective time, and these feelings of subjective time, I claim, are what animate and organize poetic form.

Students of poetry have always been interested in the voice, how it moves rhythmically from syllable to syllable, stress to stress. But for whatever reason, this tradition has always given vocal movement a very regular, one-dimensional, and minimal representation (e.g., poetic feet, with foot substitution, etc.), while claiming that all more regular movement is just an abstract norm of this vocal movement and all less regular movement is not rhythmic at all. This conception of rhythm can be useful for certain basic critical tasks, but is much too narrow and misleading to be of further theoretical or practical use. Actually, the movement of the voice (what linguists and music theorists call rhythmic grouping) is not at all one-dimensional, regular, and minimal but multileveled, variable, and complex. Similarly, the simpler and more regular movement that often accompanies the poetic voice (what music theorists would call meter) is not at all abstract and normative of the voice but gestural and cyclical, a felt pulsation that winds down in relatively fixed, alternating patterns that are directly opposed to the normative contours of the voice. All complex rhythms have more volatile linear and nonlinear components, too, what music theorists call prolongation and theme, respectively.

This critique of the prosodie tradition leads to a new conceptual framework for the study of poetic rhythm, a new definition of poetic rhythm. In the prosodie tradition, rhythm is a simplified tracking of the regular motion of the voice, and everything else is collapsed into this one thing (or neglected entirely). The implicit claim is that rhythm has some sort of unified temporal logic (i.e., isochronous repetition, iambic feet, or whatever) and everything else is a kind of significant/negligible variation from this temporal norm. Therefore, a poem's rhythm can be fully described by specifying (or assuming) this temporal norm and then cataloguing the deviations from it, whenever and wherever they might occur.

In temporal poetics, however, rhythm (and therefore subjective time) is not homogeneous and logically unified but multiple, divided, and dialectically conflicted. Rhythm is not one thing but four very different things in inherently tense, complementary interaction. I like to call these four different things the major components of rhythm. Each of these major rhythmic components creates a different sort of subjective time. Meter creates cyclical time, which is associated with sensation, perception, and physical ecstasy. Rhythmic grouping creates centroidal time, which is associated with the centered self and emotional expression. Prolongation creates linear time, which is associated with volition and action. And theme creates relative time, which is associated with thought, imagination, and memory. In this approach to prosody, rhythm is not just the regular movement of the voice but the concerted and conflicted movements of our major psychological faculties--sensation, emotion, volition, and thought; body, soul, will, and mind.

The four rhythmic components in this theory of poetic rhythm are elegantly oppositional and/or complementary, so much so that their rhythmic qualities form a tight paradigmatic system. I like to work with eleven considerations: preferred position of prominent events, curve of energy, relational scope, structural volatility, event-event relation, subject-subject relation, subjectevent relation, semiotic relation, temporal figure, clock-time orientation, and cognitive process.

For instance, on these parameters, meter is subjective, iconic, and local; favors similar events and repetitive patterns; places its most prominent events initially; is fixed and falling, passive and retrospective, and encourages participation (and therefore builds social community). On the other hand, rhythmic grouping is more objective, global, and volatile; favors local emblematic differences (against a strong background of similarity); is strongly hierarchical and proportional; centers its prominences and therefore rises and falls; focuses on present time; and encourages analogical correspondences and reciprocal obligation. The other rhythmic components extend and complete these paradigmatic relations in similar ways. These oppositional/complementary rhythmic qualities can be gathered together and organized into a table, what I like to call the temporal paradigm.

The temporal paradigm is especially productive as a detailed key to formal correspondences among the diverse linguistic materials of the poem-grammatical, rhetorical, semantic, thematic, generic, and so forth. There are really four major literary genres (song/epos, lyric, prose fiction, and drama) and these might be best characterized in rhythmic terms. These four genres also correlate closely with the four master tropes (metaphor, synecdoche, metonymy, and irony) and the four major modes of emplotment (romance, comedy, tragedy, and satire). Grammatical form also falls into homologously quadratic paradigms (word, phrase, clause, sentence, etc.). And many have noticed the quadratic organization of archetypal images--the four seasons, the four elements, and so forth. Indeed, these insights into the quadratic organization of our sensibilities, the world, and their interaction go back to Pythagoras and were highly developed in medieval alchemy.

The correlations between the temporal paradigm, poetic language, and poetic contexts of use are enormous. I have been gathering them together for over two decades. I call the result of this labor the poetic paradigm.

This theoretical framework can yield strong poetic analyses that attend to what poems are (sound, rhythm, repetition, etc.), as Culler urges they should. Consider a brief example in "Domination of Black" by Wallace Stevens.

In "Domination of Black," Stevens gives us what he likes to call an "anecdote," a brief poetic allegory in which archetypal images and schemata coalesce into a symbolic story. The symbolic scene in a Stevens' "anecdote" is usually more ideal than real, more inner and psychological than outer and social. The intention is to not to create a believable scene but to use the scene to achieve a higher level of formal coherence and significance. In a Stevens' "anecdote," the other forms made available by rhythm, language, and rhetoric make similar contributions to the whole.

In the "anecdote" we are given in "Domination of Black," a speaker sits in a room at night by a fire. Outside, it is late autumn or early winter, and through the windows, the fallen leaves swirl in the wind. The light from the fire makes the shadows from the shapes of the leaves and dark hemlocks behind them swirl on the walls and ceiling of the room. Surreally, there are peacocks in the outdoor scene, adding even more movement and color. Although these colors are not mentioned, we can assume, given the season, that the leaves are red and brown, that the peacocks' tails are blue and green, and that the twilight and the dark hemlocks, lost in the lengthening shadows, are black. The peacocks, which are originally in the hemlocks, fly to the ground and cry. The speaker hears the cry and repeatedly returns to a memory of it.

In the middle of the poem, all of these images in the scene--the leaves swirling in the wind, the colors of the peacocks' tail, the rotating shadows in the room, the dark hemlocks in the twilight--coalesce, and the speaker becomes uncertain which is which. In the end, the speaker looks out the window and sees that the planets are also a part of this "gathering." The speaker sees that not just the dark hemlocks but black night itself is coming on and threatening to smother the scene. The speaker feels afraid and remembers the cry of the peacocks.

Stated flatly and literally, the major question posed by this "anecdote" is what becomes of the full feel and color of things, our social and emotional lives, when they are caught in the space between a creative imagination and individual memory, on the one hand, and lifeless substance and our sensory life, on the other. When the imagination is active and creative, it naturally sets our social and personal lives awhirl; when brute substance and our sensory life has its sway, our social and personal lives become an inhumane routine. In temporal terms, this dilemma is a straggle between the outer fringes of our sensibilities, cyclical and relative time, and our central temporalities, linear and centroidal time.

In the symbolism of the poem, emotion is represented by the unnamed colors that pervade the poem and by the barely present "I," who does not act but only feels, hears, sees, and remembers. Appropriately, lyric/emotional/ centroidal images in the poem are absent. The lyric "I" finds no ideal correlates in this scene but is relegated to the submerged background of rhetorical, linguistic, and rhythmic form.

The strongest expression of this lyric "I" comes from the linguistic prosody, the voice. Despite its relatively subdued movement and language, the intonation of "Domination of Black" is exclamatory/rise-fall, an effect that is encouraged by the dense repetition in the text, which makes each new reference a revelation that stands out against a static background (the following lines from the poem, here and in following pages, are not necessarily in their original order, and are quoted here for illustrative purposes).
   At night, by the fire,
   The colors of the bushes
   And of the fallen leaves,
      ^
   Repeating themselves,
    ^
   Turned in the room,
                      ^
   Like the leaves themselves
                ^
   Turning in the wind.
   Etc.


Emotional expression is evident in other aspects of language, too, but usually in structures even more submerged than prosody, for instance, sound. "Domination of Black" is not rhymed, but it is heavily assonantal ("night"-"fire"-"like"-"striding"-"cry"-"I"-"twilight"; "leaves"-"repeating"-"peacocks"; "came"-"they"-"flames"-"tails"-"afraid"; "boughs"-"down"-"ground"-"loud"-"how"; "heavy"-"hemlocks"-"remembered"-"swept"-"against"-"felt"; "turned"-"turning""were"-"heard"; "just"-"was"-"color").

Emotion in less submerged structures, such as syntax and rhetoric, is rare. There are only three adjectives in the poem ("loud," "afraid," and "heavy"). There are some reflexive pronouns ("themselves" is repeated five times), but ironically, the antecedents of these reflexive pronouns are colors and leaves rather than people. There are a couple of copular clauses ("I felt afraid," "Was it a cry against the twilight ... ?"), but only one with an adjectival complement ("I felt afraid"). The only touch of emotive expression in the rhetoric is a dense use of partitive structures (the cry of the peacocks, the boughs of the hemlocks, etc.).

Rhythm only contains touches of lyricism, too. The text is divided into three visual stanzas, with the central stanza larger that the peripheral two. After an initial, two-beat anacrusis, higher levels of metrical beating in the poem form four five-line, caudated stanzas and one five-beat, caudated line ("Like the leaves themselves / Turning in the Wind. / Yes").
   At night, by the fire, (anacrusis)

   The colors of the bushes And of the fallen leaves,
   Repeating themselves, Turned in the room,
   Like the leaves themselves Turning in the wind. Yes:
   but the color of the heavy hemlocks Came striding.
   And I remembered the cry of the peacocks.

   Etc.


The most subliminal formal patterning in the poem might be thought of as lyric, although it is difficult to assess the strength of this numerological effect. "Peacocks," "leaves," "wind," "like," "I," and "cry" are all repeated exactly five times.

Linear forms, emblematic of social life and action, are also thin. The location of the speaker in the poem, "the room" where the images converge and mingle, is linear, as are the converging and mingling images themselves: "the wind," "the leaves," "the bushes," and "the planets." The prominence of hearing in the poem is also actional ("the cry of the peacocks," "the loud fire"). Some of the nonlinear images also take on linear/actional roles in the poem, just as some of the linear images take on nonlinear roles (more on this later). "The heavy hemlocks" and "night" "c[o]me striding," and "black" threatens to "dominate" the scene. If the peacocks in the poem, those amalgams of green and blue, metaphysics and aesthetics, are poets, the cry of the peacocks is poetry.

The problem with the "scene" in "Domination of Black" is not that action has disappeared, but that linear images, emblems of social agents, are beset by cyclical and relative forms, and therefore are unable to maintain linear attributes and actions. The poem is flooded with verbs ("Repeating," "turning", etc.), mesmerizingly so, but these verbs are all nonlinear in their qualities--intransitive ("turned," "swept," "came", "striding," "gathered"), reflexive ("repeating themselves"), copular ("felt"), and copular-adverbial ("were like"), or if transitive, nonagentive ("remembered," "heard," "saw," "felt"). This limiting of effective action in the poem is made poignant by definite reference ("the bushes," "the leaves," "the hemlocks," "the peacocks," etc.), which places the speaker in reality and makes the listener a knowing companion of the speaker in this reality--but without the ability to act. The intonation at the beginning of the poem, before it becomes consistently exclamatory/rise-fall, reflects these pragmatics by being fall-rise, a linear, continuation contour:
     v                v
   At night, by the fire,
                        v
   The colors of the bushes
                        v
   And of the fallen leaves,


I also read the opening of the other two visual stanzas with this fall-rise intonation:
                         v
   The colors of their tails ...
              v
   Out of the window, ...


The linearity of the text is also heightened by the poem's metonymies, which substitute perceptual effect for perceptual cause ("the heavy hemlocks," "the loud fire,"); and the one emphatic, accelerating anadiplosis in the final stanza ("I saw how night came, / Came striding like the color of the heavy hemlocks"), which sets up the speaker's confession of fear in the poem's penultimate line.

The forms that invade and usurp the textures of the emotive and the social are the cyclical and relative, the forms of body and mind, sensation and imagination.

The cyclical forms of the body provide the sensory substance that is whipped up by the imagination. Like emotive forms, these cyclical rhythms have very little representation in the symbolic "scene" in the poem. They are submerged in rhetorical, linguistic, and rhythmic forms. The peacocks fly "down to the ground"; the hemlocks are "heavy"; and the whole scene turns and turns, "repeating itself" in a mesmerizing whirling. These give us glimpses of the rhythms of the body, but little more.

The more fixed and repetitive forms associated with the body and the senses well up from rhythm and percolate first into the poem's language and then into the poem's rhetoric.

Despite its free verse format, "Domination of Black" is strongly metrical and in being so, tetrameter, both reflexes of cyclical time. (I just mark the metrical tactus, the strongest level of beating).
   The colors of the bushes And of the fallen leaves,
        tactus
   Repeating themselves, Turned in the room,
      tactus
   Like the leaves themselves Turning in the wind. Yes:
          tactus
   but the color of the heavy hemlocks Came striding.
          tactus
   And I remembered the cry of the peacocks.
          tactus
   etc.


The visual form of the poem, while shaping our experience in other ways, heightens the 2 x 2, binary organization of this four-beat meter. Only seven of thirty-five visual lines are not two-beat, metrical lobes (or half lines). These two-beat lines give the poem a hypnotic alternation. Two of the metrical lines are also catalectic, another reflex of cyclical time. In a catalectic line, there are unvoiced tactical beats and therefore more beating that voicing:
   Full of the cry of the peacocks?
      tactus
   And I remembered the cry of the peacocks.
        tactus


The poem's syntax and discourse are also cyclical/physical. The poem is predominantly third person (e.g., "lhe colors of the bushes," etc.), past tense ("turned," "Came," "Were," "swept," "heard," etc.), intransitive ("swept," "flew," "gathered," "turned," "came," etc.), nominal ("night," "fire," "colors," "bushes," "leaves," "wind," "tails," "peacocks," "hemlocks," etc.), and paratactic (e.g., "I saw how the planets gathered ... I saw how night came ... "). The poem repeatedly plays with establishing a narrative movement given its many dynamic verbs, but it repeatedly folds back on itself in refrains (e.g., "And I remembered the cry of the peacock") and repetitions.

The repetitive texture of the poem is by far its most dominant quality. Over the course of the poem, thirty words are repeated; few words escape this pervasive recycling. "The" occurs forty-nine times; "of," eleven times; "Turning"/"turned," nine times; "in," eight times. As mentioned earlier, a long list of words appear five times: "Peacocks," "leaves," "wind," "cry," "like," and "I." "Hemlocks" and "color(s)" appear four times; "fire," three. The cyclical feel of many of these repeated words is then heighted further by the visual lineation, which creates further opportunities for both full repetition and anaphora (initial repetition).
   Turning in the wind,
   Turning as the flames
   Turning as the tails of the peacocks

   Turned in the room,
   Turned in the fire,
   Turned in the loud fire,
   Etc.


Cyclical as well is the repeated phrase "heavy hemlocks," which is closely alliterated (while few others are), and it is just these hemlocks (and night) that are mythically personified and "come striding" so ominously to smother the scene. From "heavy hemlocks," alliteration seems to thicken up and fan out in all directions: "color"-"came,"-"cry"; "like""leaves"; "themselves"-"striding." The third stanza, in its recycling of what precedes, adds "how" to the "heavy"-"hemlocks" alliteration, as well as "felt"-"afraid."

The countervailing textures to these cyclical rhythms of the body are relative rhythms, the rhythms of the memory and the imagination. Unlike the cyclical rhythms that they oppose, these relative forms are not at all submerged. They dominate the scene and account for much of its imagery. These rhythms are capacious enough to include the blue "tails of the peacocks" and "black" "night", the "boughs of the hemlocks" and the "turning" "flames" of the "fire." Unlike the simple, conjunctive, and repetitive rhythms that they oppose, these relative textures are complex, disjunctive, and variational. They are not falling and initializing but rising and peripheralizing.

Unlike the cyclical rhythms that they oppose, these relative rhythms work from the top down, starting in meaning and percolating from there into rhetoric, language, and rhythm. Rhetorically, these rhythms take the dense repetition supplied by cyclical forms and set it awhirl in variations. The ultimate instance of this is the varying prepositions and prepositional phrases in the poem: "At night," "by the fire," "of the bushes," "in the room," "out of the window," "against the twilight," "like the leaves themselves," and so forth. Prepositions and prepositional phrases are peripheral items in the syntax, and Stevens uses them with exhaustive concentration and variation. The use of "of" prepositional phrases is the best example ("of the bushes," "of the fallen leaves," etc.).

Relative rhythms in the text bend repetition into variation in a number of other ways--by varying tense (e.g., "turned," "turning") or number (e.g., "colors," "color"); by incremental addition (e.g., "in the wind," "in the twilight wind"; "Turned in the fire," "Turned in the loud fire") or substitution ("Turned in the room," "Turned in the fire"); by lexical conversion ("I heard them cry," "Was it a cry") or syntactic transformation ("I remembered the cry of the peacocks," "I heard them cry--the peacocks").

The visual form of Stevens' short line, free verse is a natural source of variation, too. Most of the visual lines are metrical lobes (or half lines), but in an entirely unexpected way, seven lines are longer, sometimes fall metrical lines, sometimes something else:
   Yes: but the color of the heavy hemlocks
   And I remembered the cry of the peacocks.
   Just as they flew from the boughs of the hemlocks
   Turning as the tails of the peacocks

   Full of the cry of the peacocks?
   Came striding like the color of the heavy hemlocks
   And I remembered the cry of the peacocks.


At times, the "scissoring" of the meter by the visual form gets complex. For instance, "Yes:" occurs as a coda (a fifth beat) at the end of the third full metrical line but at the beginning of the eighth visual line.

Metrical Form:
   Like the leaves themselves Turning in the wind. Yes:
      tactus


Visual Form:
   Like the leaves themselves
   Turning in the wind,
   Yes:


The four-beat meter that is not at all cyclical in details. It is not a quantitative or melismatic meter, with many subtactical levels, carefully measuring the voice. It has no subtactical levels at all, just a tactus, and therefore sweeps along freely, like a conversational meter, with little attention to sonic substance and weight. It is more intonational than syllabic and therefore, in its own way, significantly relativistic as well.

Relative rhythms in the language, both in prosody and syntax, build to a crescendo in the center of the text, as cyclical and relative textures collide. Statements turn into questions ("Was it a cry against the twilight ... ?"). Conjunction becomes disjunction ("Or against the leaves themselves"). The simple sentencing earlier on in the text becomes a tangle of spiraling complexity, and intonation bends upward into rising contours that rise higher and higher, straining to maintain themselves over the extended and convoluted flow of the syntax:
               /
   Turning as the tails of the peacocks
                  /
   Turned in the loud fire,
              /
   Loud as the hemlocks
                 /
   Full of the cry of the peacocks?


This centering of relativistic textures is ironic. Centering is lyric, emotive. Relativistic rhythms are just the opposite: decentered, reflective. Here at the center of the text, the imagination repositions the emotional life of the speaker and turns the organization of the traditional lyric inside-out, centering what is naturally/psychological peripheral, and relegating with is naturally/psychologically central to the periphery.

Richard Cureton

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

RICHARD CURETON is recently retired from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. He has taught rhythmics, linguistics, rhetoric, stylistics, and modern American poetry since 1981, and is the author of Rhythmic Phrasing in English Verse (1992). His essay concerning Temporal Poetics, and titled "Rhythm, Temporality, and 'Inner Form'" appeared in Style 49.1 (2015).

NOTE

Thank you to Penguin Random House for permission to quote Stevens's poem.

(1.) Culler (162) acknowledges my work in rhythmics and poetics and gives a brief summary. But because I continue to work on the theory, he speaks as though my basic principles are still unset and undemonstrated. "Whether the completed theory can successfully synthesize textual organization through an expanded concept of rhythm," he says, "remains to be seen." It is hard to understand what Culler is waiting for. I have been teaching the theory in the classroom for over twenty years, and I now have several dozen published essays, comparable to this essay, that outline my theoretical claims and provide complete analyses using these theoretical claims. For my work in rhythmics, see Cureton Rhythmic Phrasing and "Meter and Metrical Reading." For the latest overview of my work in poetics, see Cureton "Inner Form" and the other work cited there.

WORKS CITED

Culler, Jonathan. Theory of the Lyric. Harvard UP, 2015.

Cureton, Richard D. Rhythmic Phrasing in English Verse. Longman, 1992.

--. "Meter and Metrical Reading in Temporal Poetics." Thinking Verse, vol. 2, 2012, pp. 112-237.

--. "Rhythm, Temporality, and 'Inner Form'." Style, vol. 49, no. 1, 2015, pp. 78-109. Stevens, Wallace. The Collected Poems. Knopf, 1978.
Table 1: The Temporal Paradigm

Temporal       Cyclical        Centroidal
Features

Event-event    Similarity      Difference-in-
relation                       similarity

Temporal       Occurrence      Correspondence
figure         Repetition      Prominence
               Succession      Proportion

Subject-       Participation   Obligation
subject
relation

Subject-       Subjective      Objective-in-
event                          subjective
relation

Semiotic       Icon            Emblem
relation

Cognitive      Reaction        Affection
process        Passive         Reciprocal

Clock time     Past            Present
orientation

Relational     Proximate       Local
scope

Event          Initial         Medial
position

Curve of       Fall            Rise-fall
energy

Structural     Fixed           Constrained
volatility

Temporal       Linear          Relative
Features

Event-event    Similarity-     Difference
relation       in-difference

Temporal       Transition      Connection
figure         Direction       Distinction
               Implication     Simultaneity

Subject-       Cooperation     Individuality
subject
relation

Subject-       Subjective-     Objective
event          in-objective
relation

Semiotic       Index           Symbol
relation

Cognitive      Exploration     Creation
process        Active          Improvisatory

Clock time     Future          Relative
orientation

Relational     Regional        Global
scope

Event          Final           Peripheral
position

Curve of       Fall-rise       Rise
energy

Structural     Volatile        Free
volatility

Table 2: The Poetic Paradigm

Temporality        Cyclical                Centroidal

I. Psychological and Neurological

Sociobiology       Colonial invertebrate   Social insect

Neurology          Hind/reptilian brain    Mid/mammalian brain

Faculty            Perception/body         Feeling/emotion

Sense              Touch                   Smell/taste

Vision             Primal sketch           Full sketch

Phylogeny          Australopithecus        Homo habilis

Ecology            Mineral                 Vegetable

Ontogeny           Child                   Youth

Psychopathology    Manic-depressive        Psychosis

II. Historical and Cultural

Western culture    Ancient (-1100)         Medieval/Renaissance
                                           (1100-1750)

Philosophy         Formism                 Organicism

Economy            Hunting/gathering       Agriculture

Religion           Polytheism              Monotheism

Social economy     Tribalism               Feudalism

Settlement         City                    State

Social status      Family/kinship          State/peer

Writing            Orality                 Chirography

Logic              Conduction              Deduction

Temporality        Past/traditional        Present/apocalyptic

Government         Monarchy                Aristocracy

Spatial art        Sculpture               Architecture

Temporal art       Dance                   Music

Social ethic       Communal fate           Personal duty

Personal ethic     4 wisdom                Faith

                   3 justice               Obedience

                   2 temperance            Charity

                   1 courage               Purity

III. Literary and Rhetorical

Genre              Epic                    Lyric

Work               Song                    Poem

Reader             Language                Character
position

Creative           Dictation               Revelation
process

Trope              Metaphor                Synecdoche

Sound scheme       Alliteration            Assonance & rhyme

Grouping           Fall                    Rise-fall

Meter              Tetrameter              Pentameter

Divisioning        Stanzaic                Paragraphed

Prolongation       Extensional             Chiastic

Syntactic          Anaphora                Antistrophe
scheme

Discourse          Paratactic              Logical

Semiotic           Iconic                  Emblematic
relation

Structure          Repetition              Pattern

Position           Initial                 Medial

Figuration         Opposition              Unity

                   Contrast                Resolution

Pattern            Concentric              Geometrical

Process            Repetitive              Repetitive

                   Proleptic               Climactic

                   Contradictory           Closed

                   Fixed                   Shaped

IV. Prosodie and Syntactic

Level              Paralanguage            Prosody

Word stress        Weak                    Tertiary

Prosodie foot      Moraic foot             Syllabic foot

Prosodie           Clitic phrase           Phonological phrase
hierarchy

Syllable           Onset                   Rhyme

Intonation         Fall                    Rise-fall

Temporality        Cyclical                Centroidal

Syntactic level    Word                    Phrase

Sentence           Complexing              Rank shift
relations

Cohesion           Repetition              Substitution

Rank shift         Compounding             Incorporation

Sentence types     Simple                  Compound

                   Declarative             Exclamative

Transformation     Preposing               Postposing

Speech acts        Statement               Exclamation

Complexing         Apposition              Conjunction

Clause             Subjectivization        Predication
constituency

Clause             Subject                 Predicator
constituents

Clause pattern     Intransitive            Copular

Transitivity       Monotransitive          Complex-transitive

Mood               Indicative              Subjunctive

Adverbial          Adjunct                 Subjunct

Phrase             Head                    Modifier
Structure

Word class         Noun                    Adjective

Phrase type        Noun                    Adjective

Verbal             Voice                   Aspect
func-tions

Voice              Passive                 Middle

Aspect             Perfective              Imperfective

Tense              Past                    Present

Modality           Necessity               Obligation

Word formation     Compounding             Derivation

Function words     Conjunction             Interjection

Conjunction        Coordinating            Subordinating

Reference          Generic                 Specific

Person             3rd                     1st

Number             Generic                 Singular

V. Semantic and Thematic

Archetypal         Earth                   Sun
themes/images
                   Spring                  Summer

                   Earth                   Water

                   Morning                 Noon

                   Child                   Youth

                   Spring                  Brook/stream

                   Heaven                  Eden

                   White                   Green/yellow

                   Mineral                 Vegetable

                   East                    South

                   Sunrise                 Day (light)

                   Gut                     Heart

                   Seed/bud                Flower/leaf

                   Dew                     Rain

                   Asexual                 Homosexual

                   One                     Two

                   Quantity                Quality

                   Body                    Feeling/soul

                   Touch                   Taste/smell

                   With                    From

                   Gold                    Silver

                   Awaken                  Daydream

                   Mother                  Son

                   Gluttony                Lust

                   Foundation              Walls/roof

                   Kitchen                 Dining room

                   Pig/bear                Dog/lion

                   Maze                    Circle

Temporality        Cyclical                Centroidal

                   God                     Christ/Son

                   King/president          Church

                   Body/child              Garden/farm/house

                   Athlete/general         Saint/priest

                   Beginnings              Middles

                   Wall                    Steeple

                   Cell                    Tissue

                   Stone                   Wood

                   Mountain                Valley

                   Grass                   Flower

Temporality        Cyclical                Linear

I. Psychological and Neurological

Sociobiology       Colonial invertebrate   Higher mammal

Neurology          Hind/reptilian brain    Left cortex

Faculty            Perception/body         Will/action

Sense              Touch                   Hearing

Vision             Primal sketch           2V2-D

Phylogeny          Australopithecus        Homo erectus

Ecology            Mineral                 Animal

Ontogeny           Child                   Adult

Psychopathology    Manic-depressive        Neurosis

II. Historical and Cultural

Western culture    Ancient (-1100)         Nineteenth century
                                           (1750-1900)

Philosophy         Formism                 Mechanism

Economy            Hunting/gathering       Industry

Religion           Polytheism              Naturalism

Social economy     Tribalism               Capitalism

Settlement         City                    Nation

Social status      Family/kinship          Class/citizen

Writing            Orality                 Typography

Logic              Conduction              Induction

Temporality        Past/traditional        Future/utopian

Government         Monarchy                Republic

Spatial art        Sculpture               Painting

Temporal art       Dance                   Literature

Social ethic       Communal fate           Social progress

Personal ethic     4 wisdom                Intelligence

                   3 justice               Responsibility

                   2 temperance            Self-reliance

                   1 courage               Self-control

III. Literary and Rhetorical

Genre              Epic                    Narrative

Work               Song                    Prose fiction

Reader             Language                Audience
position

Creative           Dictation               Discovery
process

Trope              Metaphor                Metonymy

Sound scheme       Alliteration            Consonance

Grouping           Fall                    Fall-rise

Meter              Tetrameter              Variable

Divisioning        Stanzaic                Chaptered

Prolongation       Extensional             Anticipatory

Syntactic          Anaphora                Epistrophe
scheme

Discourse          Paratactic              Temporal

Semiotic           Iconic                  Indexical
relation

Structure          Repetition              Process

Position           Initial                 Final

Figuration         Opposition              Uncertainty

                   Contrast                Ambiguity

Pattern            Concentric              Asymmetrical

Process            Repetitive              Dynamic

                   Proleptic               Anticipatory

                   Contradictory           Blurred

                   Fixed                   Directed

IV. Prosodie and Syntactic

Level              Paralanguage            Syntax

Word stress        Weak                    Secondary

Prosodie foot      Moraic foot             Dipodic foot

Prosodie           Clitic phrase           Tone unit
hierarchy

Syllable           Onset                   Nucleus

Intonation         Fall                    Fall-rise

Temporality        Cyclical                Linear

Syntactic level    Word                    Clause

Sentence           Complexing              Cohesion
relations

Cohesion           Repetition              Pronominalization

Rank shift         Compounding             Subordination

Sentence types     Simple                  Complex

                   Declarative             Imperative

Transformation     Preposing               Discontinuity

Speech acts        Statement               Command

Complexing         Apposition              Correlation

Clause             Subjectivization        Transitivity
constituency

Clause             Subject                 Complement
constituents

Clause pattern     Intransitive            Transitive

Transitivity       Monotransitive          Ditransitive

Mood               Indicative              Imperative

Adverbial          Adjunct                 Conjunct

Phrase             Head                    Complement
Structure

Word class         Noun                    Verb

Phrase type        Noun                    Verb

Verbal             Voice                   Modality
func-tions

Voice              Passive                 Active

Aspect             Perfective              Progressive

Tense              Past                    Future

Modality           Necessity               Probability

Word formation     Compounding             Inflection

Function words     Conjunction             Pronoun

Conjunction        Coordinating            Correlative

Reference          Generic                 Definite

Person             3rd                     2nd

Number             Generic                 Plural

V. Semantic and Thematic

Archetypal         Earth                   Stars
themes/images
                   Spring                  Autumn

                   Earth                   Air/wind

                   Morning                 Evening

                   Child                   Adult

                   Spring                  River

                   Heaven                  Purgatory

                   White                   Red/brown

                   Mineral                 Animal

                   East                    West

                   Sunrise                 Sunset/dusk

                   Gut                     Hand/foot/arm

                   Seed/bud                Fruit

                   Dew                     Clouds

                   Asexual                 Heterosexual

                   One                     Three

                   Quantity                Relation

                   Body                    Action/will

                   Touch                   Hearing

                   With                    Into

                   Gold                    Bronze

                   Awaken                  Doze

                   Mother                  Father

                   Gluttony                Sloth/greed/anger/pride

                   Foundation              Door

                   Kitchen                 Living room

                   Pig/bear                Horse

                   Maze                    Line

Temporality        Cyclical                Linear

                   God                     Holy Ghost

                   King/president          Legislature

                   Body/child              City

                   Athlete/general         Ruler/senator/judge

                   Beginnings              Ends

                   Wall                    Room

                   Cell                    Organ

                   Stone                   Steel

                   Mountain                Plain/moor

                   Grass                   Bush/hedge

Temporality        Cyclical                Relative

I. Psychological and Neurological

Sociobiology       Colonial invertebrate   Human

Neurology          Hind/reptilian brain    Right cortex

Faculty            Perception/body         Memory/thought

Sense              Touch                   Sight

Vision             Primal sketch           3-D

Phylogeny          Australopithecus        Homo sapiens

Ecology            Mineral                 Human

Ontogeny           Child                   Elder

Psychopathology    Manic-depressive        Amnesia

II. Historical and Cultural

Western culture    Ancient (-1100)         Modern (1900-)

Philosophy         Formism                 Contextualism

Economy            Hunting/gathering       Information

Religion           Polytheism              Humanism

Social economy     Tribalism               Socialism

Settlement         City                    World

Social status      Family/kinship          Comrade

Writing            Orality                 Cybernetics

Logic              Conduction              Abduction

Temporality        Past/traditional        Relative/pragmatic

Government         Monarchy                Democracy

Spatial art        Sculpture               Photography

Temporal art       Dance                   Film

Social ethic       Communal fate           Individual rights

Personal ethic     4 wisdom                Creativity

                   3 justice               Spontaneity

                   2 temperance            Tolerance

                   1 courage               Flexibility

III. Literary and Rhetorical

Genre              Epic                    Dramatic

Work               Song                    Play

Reader             Language                Author
position

Creative           Dictation               Creation
process

Trope              Metaphor                Irony

Sound scheme       Alliteration            Pararhyme

Grouping           Fall                    Rise

Meter              Tetrameter              Free

Divisioning        Stanzaic                Arranged

Prolongation       Extensional             Fragmentary

Syntactic          Anaphora                Symploce
scheme

Discourse          Paratactic              Dialectical

Semiotic           Iconic                  Symbolic
relation

Structure          Repetition              Network

Position           Initial                 Peripheral

Figuration         Opposition              Multeity

                   Contrast                Difference

Pattern            Concentric              Multidimensional

Process            Repetitive              Static

                   Proleptic               Anticlimactic

                   Contradictory           Open

                   Fixed                   Undirected

IV. Prosodie and Syntactic

Level              Paralanguage            Semantics

Word stress        Weak                    Primary

Prosodie foot      Moraic foot             Word

Prosodie           Clitic phrase           Utterance unit
hierarchy

Syllable           Onset                   Coda

Intonation         Fall                    Rise

Temporality        Cyclical                Relative

Syntactic level    Word                    Sentence

Sentence           Complexing              Transformation
relations

Cohesion           Repetition              Ellipsis

Rank shift         Compounding             Parenthesis

Sentence types     Simple                  Compound-complex

                   Declarative             Interrogative

Transformation     Preposing               Fragmentation

Speech acts        Statement               Question

Complexing         Apposition              Comment

Clause             Subjectivization        Qualification
constituency

Clause             Subject                 Adverbial
constituents

Clause pattern     Intransitive            Adverbial

Transitivity       Monotransitive          Adverbial

Mood               Indicative              Infinitive

Adverbial          Adjunct                 Disjunct

Phrase             Head                    Specifier
Structure

Word class         Noun                    Adverbial

Phrase type        Noun                    Adverb/prep

Verbal             Voice                   Tense
func-tions

Voice              Passive                 Causative

Aspect             Perfective              Perfect

Tense              Past                    Relative

Modality           Necessity               Possibility

Word formation     Compounding             Conversion

Function words     Conjunction             Specifier

Conjunction        Coordinating            Comparative

Reference          Generic                 Proper

Person             3rd                     Generic

Number             Generic                 Mass

V. Semantic and Thematic

Archetypal         Earth                   Moon
themes/images
                   Spring                  Winter

                   Earth                   Fire

                   Morning                 Night

                   Child                   Elder

                   Spring                  Lake/ocean

                   Heaven                  Hell

                   White                   Black/blue

                   Mineral                 Mental/virtual

                   East                    North

                   Sunrise                 Dark

                   Gut                     Head

                   Seed/bud                Branch

                   Dew                     Snow

                   Asexual                 Bisexual

                   One                     Four

                   Quantity                Manner

                   Body                    Memory/thought

                   Touch                   Sight

                   With                    Away

                   Gold                    Iron/lead

                   Awaken                  Sleep/dream

                   Mother                  Daughter

                   Gluttony                Envy

                   Foundation              Window

                   Kitchen                 Bedroom

                   Pig/bear                Bird/cat

                   Maze                    Spiral

Temporality        Cyclical                Relative

                   God                     Anti-Christ/Satan

                   King/president          Courts

                   Body/child              Mind/personality/art

                   Athlete/general         Artist/performer

                   Beginnings              Peripheries

                   Wall                    Tower

                   Cell                    System

                   Stone                   Plastic

                   Mountain                Forest/woods

                   Grass                   Tree
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Author:Cureton, Richard
Publication:Style
Article Type:Critical essay
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 22, 2017
Words:5717
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