Printer Friendly

A Rare Case of Severe Congenital RYRl-Associated Myopathy.

1. Introduction

Congenital myopathies are a group of rare inherited diseases, defined by hypotonia and muscle weakness, that usually present at birth or early childhood, in association with characteristic morphological defects. They are caused by genetic mutations of the structural proteins of skeletal muscle and present variable inheritance: dominant, recessive, or X-linked [1, 2].

Mutations in a single gene may be associated with different clinical and histological findings, and the same clinical or histological conditions may be due to mutations in different genes [3]. Phenotypic findings include severe neonatal-onset, mild forms with nonprogressive weakness, and muscle hypotonia with later onset.

The old classification of congenital myopathies was mainly based on histological features observed in the muscle biopsy [1, 3]: myopathies with "rods" (nemaline myopathies), myopathies with centralized nuclei (myotubular and centronuclear myopathies), myopathies with fiber type disproportion, and myopathies with "cores" (oval areas in the muscle cells) [4, 5]. The last ones are the most common forms of congenital myopathies, in particular the "central core" myopathy (CCD). The most known CCD is the autosomal dominant inherited form caused by mutations localized in three hot spots in the ryanodine receptor 1 gene (RYR1), associated with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) and clinically characterized by minor hypotonia and nonprogressive weakness. Recessive mutations are located throughout the entire RYR1 gene and characterized by a more severe and progressive clinical presentation with neonatal-onset and significant generalized muscle weakness [6-8].

Commoner myopathy disorders presenting in fetal or neonatal period are shown in Table 1.

2. Ryanodine Receptor 1 Gene (RYR1)

RYRs are a family of intracellular calcium ([Ca.sup.2+]) release channels that allow rapid release of [Ca.sup.2+] from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) into the cytosol, crucial for heart and skeletal muscle contraction. Three mammalian isoforms (RYR1, RYR2, and RYR3) exhibit subtype-specific tissue expression patterns. RYR1 is predominant in skeletal muscle while RYR2 is exclusively expressed in cardiac myocytes. RYR3 is involved in skeletal muscle development but the exact role is still unclear and studies based on murine knockout propose an involvement in learning and memory [9].

The ryanodine receptor 1 gene maps to chromosome 19q13.2 and encodes the skeletal muscle isoform of a calcium-release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (RyR1) [6, 10]. It has been involved in both dominant and recessive congenital myopathies and it plays a central role in excitation-contraction coupling, causing altered excitability and/or changes in calcium homeostasis in muscle cells [11-14].

RYR1 and RYR2 function is controlled by Cav1.1, also known as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR). During the potential action, the Cav1.1-coupled RYR1 channels release the SR [Ca.sup.2+] required for muscle contraction. During depolarization, RYR1 is inactivated by a Ca + mediated mechanism and Cav1.1 returns to a closed state. Conformational changes in the DHPR induce RYR1 opening. [Ca.sup.2+] release is subsequently decreased during depolarization by [Ca.sup.2+]-induced inactivation of RYR1, a negative feedback mechanism, and eventually terminated by membrane repolarization, which drives the return of Cav1.1 to a closed and resting state by reversing the activation of the Cav1.1 voltage sensor [15, 16].

Recent advances suggest that abnormal excitation-contraction coupling may be a common theme in the congenital myopathies [17].

The central role of RYR1 in regulating [Ca.sup.2+] release elucidates the relationship between muscle pathologies and mutations in this gene. The main channelopathies due to mutation in RYR1 are susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (MSH) and central core disease (CCD). Mutations in RYR1 are also associated with other myopathies as multiminicore disease (MmD), nemaline myopathy, and centronuclear myopathy.

The most mutations in RYR1 linked to MH and/or dominant CCD are missense substitutions and are conserved in three "hot spots" located in the N-terminal (aminoacid residues 2,163-2,458; exons 1-17), central (amino acid 35-614 2,163-2,458; exons 39-46), and C-terminal regions (aminoacid residues 4,550-4,940; exons 90-104) in the aminoacid sequence of RyR1 [8, 18]. However, many mutations are located outside these hot spots. MSH is usually associated with mutations in N-terminal and central regions and it is inherited in a dominant way. CCD can be transmitted in dominant or recessive manner. Dominant mutations are frequently located in the hot spots, especially in C-terminal region, while recessive mutations are distributed throughout the entire coding sequence and are correlated to earlier and more severe presentation. Recessive mutations can be missense, which result in the production of a functionally deficient RyR1 protein (loss of function) or hypomorphic mutations (nonsense, frameshift, and splice), which cause reduction of RYR1 expression (lowering mRNA levels) with marked reduced or absent protein expression. In recent studies, evidences of recessive mutations are increased by the reason that until recently RYR1 was not screened entirely, but the analysis was limited to the hot spots regions [7, 18].

3. Clinical Report

The proband is a male newborn, the third son of Caucasian nonconsanguineous parents, born preterm at 34 weeks via caesarean section for polyhydramnios. He had an intrauterine growth restriction, with birth weight of 1690 g (<10th p) and length of 42 cm (<10th p); head circumference was 33 cm (=85[degrees]p). The newborn had two brothers who died in the neonatal period: a male (33 weeks), with bilateral clubfoot and exitus in the fourth day of life for respiratory failure, a female (33 weeks), without malformations but with exitus after 4 hours of birth. Both pregnancies were complicated by polyhydramnios, responsible for preterm caesarean section.

Severe hypotonia was noted after birth and perinatal period was remarkable for serious respiratory distress syndrome that required mechanical ventilation. Physical examination showed clubfoot, low-set ears with dysplastic lobes and dysmorphic antihelix, anteverted nostrils, arachnodactyly, low-set thumbs, bilateral clinodactyly of 5th finger of the hands, and varus foot. No anomaly was evident in thoracic auscultation and abdominal palpation. The neurological objectivity was characterized by persistent global hypotonia ("floppy baby"), generalized muscle weakness, hyporeactivity, absence of sucking reflex, tendon reflexes, and spontaneous motility, and minimal response of the distal and of the lower limbs after painful stimulation.

Complete blood count, C-reactive protein, serum electrolytes, renal function, lactic acid levels, ammonia levels, aminoacidemia, and PCR-research for CMV in urine were normal. Slight increase in AST (194 U/l), ALT (210 U/l), [??]GT (363 U/l), and CPK (356 U/L). Investigations including cranial ultrasound, fundus examination, cardiac and renal ultrasound, karyotype, and genetic testing for SMA-1 and SMARD were performed and they were normal.

Chest X-ray showed a displaced fracture of the middle third of the proximal femoral shaft with stumps straddle and a compound fracture of the middle third of the diaphysis of the left humerus and thin ribs.

EEG showed a discontinuous pattern of medium voltage, immature for chronological age of the patient.

EMG performed at 9 days of age at the level of the left tibial muscle revealed a myopathic pattern. Muscle biopsy, performed at the first day of life, in the femoral quadriceps, showed total absence of muscle tissue. Biopsy of deltoid muscle was not possible, because there was no muscle tissue at inspection. A second biopsy was needed, performed at 12 days of age in the triceps, which showed great histologic heterogeneity, including marked variability of the size of muscle fibers, atrophic fibers, fibrosis, adipose tissue infiltration, and increased connective tissue without cores, which may not be present in recessive RYR1 mutations.

Both enzyme histochemistry and electron microscopy were performed and they did not reveal cores.

Depending on the age of the patient, the proportion of nuclear centralization was normal. Immunohistochemical analysis did not reveal significant alterations of the muscle proteins.

It is important to remember that clinical severity may not correlate with the degree of histologic change.

The diagnostic procedure was completed with the complete exome sequencing of the proband and of his parents and his dead sister, thanks to the Guthrie Card.

Next-generation sequencing of our proband's complete exome revealed two variants in the RYR1 gene: NC 000019.9:g.38964345del (p.Gly1365Glufs*33) and NC 000019.9:g.39076790C>G(p.Phe4976Leu), sited, respectively, in exons 28 and 104. Sanger sequencing confirmed the results.

Segregation analysis performed by Sanger sequencing of exons 28 and 104 in the parents showed that they were disposed in two different alleles in trans: the mother inherited first mutation, while the second one had paternal origin. Thanks to the Guthrie Card of the birth screening, it was possible to extract dead sister's DNA and perform Sanger sequencing of exons 28 and 104, which showed the same result found in the proband. No biological samples were available for the first son.

Our proband is a compound heterozygous for the c.4094del G hypomorphic mutation and the c.14928C>G missense mutation.

The hypomorphic mutation, a frameshift deletion leading to a stop codon in the reading sequence (NC 000019.9:g.38964345del), is located in exon 28, thereabout the N-terminal region (but not in the N-terminal hot spot), and it has never been reported before, to our knowledge.

The missense mutation (NC 000019.9:g.39076790C>G) falls in exon 104 in the C-terminal region.

During the stay in NICU, his clinical conditions have been increasingly critical, with worsening respiratory failure and permanent ventilatory assistance until death, at one month of age.

4. Discussion

Core myopathies are characterized by regions in muscle fibers lacking histochemical oxidative and glycolytic enzymatic activity, reflecting absence of mitochondria that appear as "cores" on oxidative stains.

In RYR1 related dominant CCD, cores are large and with a longitudinal extension. In MmD, associated with recessive mutations, cores are shorter and both type I and type II muscle fibers are involved without a myofibrillar organization. The specific underlying process that causes the core formation is still unknown [15, 17, 19].

Dominant mutations have traditionally been associated with central CCD and/or susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia [8], while much less is known about recessive mutations and their mechanism of disease [20]. Core myopathy is probably the most common congenital myopathy but may still be underrecognized because the characteristic histopathological changes may not be present on biopsies at an early age because cores or other core-like areas may develop over time, with an age-related appearance [17, 19-21].

Recently Snoeck and colleagues analysed a cohort of 77 nonrelated patients affected by RYR1 related myopathies focusing on the evolution of phenotype throughout life. Even if some changes can be detectable from the first histopathological analysis, serial biopsies performed in the same patients revealed that other diagnostic and typical features, especially the presence of cores, occurred in later biopsies [22].

More than 300 mutations in RYR 1 have been associated with various forms of neuromuscular disorders with high variability in clinical and histological features, showing complex genotype-phenotype correlations associated with RYR 1 mutations [23-25]. Both dominant and recessive mutations of the RYR1 gene can result in a severe neonatal-onset phenotype. More clinical and histologic heterogeneity has been seen in patients with recessive RYR1 gene mutations, in which central cores are not obligatory histologic features. The absence of cores should not preclude consideration of a RYR1-associated myopathy, as age at biopsy and site of biopsy may influence the detection of classic cores.

The molecular mechanisms by which dominant versus recessive mutations lead to ryanodine receptor dysfunction and myopathy are not completely clear. Dominant mutations associated with CCD are clustered in the C-terminal portion of RYR1 and likely result in functional abnormalities of the intracellular calcium-release channel. In contrast, a clear clustering of recessive RYR1 mutations is not yet clearly apparent [21].

In 2012 Klein and colleagues have described a severe neonatal form associated with recessive mutations in the RYR 1 gene, characterized by severe clinical presentation, early onset, and significant generalized muscle weakness [7]. As previously reported, recessive mutations, associated with variable histological patterns and symptoms, can be located throughout all gene [14]. Recessive RYR 1 mutations can be both missense mutations compared to hypomorphic mutations. Missense mutations result in the production of a functionally deficient RyR1 protein. Hypomorphic mutations (nonsense, frameshift, and splice) cause reduction in the levels of mRNA and in protein expression, even if some residual RYR 1 function is indispensable for life [22, 26, 27]. Furthermore, some studies showed a statistically significant association between the presence of a hypomorphic mutation and a severe clinical picture. In congenital myopathies reduced total RYR 1 protein levels are an important disease mechanism that heralds more severe disease.

In 2013, Amburgey and colleagues studied genotype-phenotype correlations in recessive RYR-related myopathies, correlating type and location of the mutation to clinical and histopathologic presentation [24]. The presence of a hypomorphic allele, which can be found in any part of RYR1 gene, was clearly correlated to increased clinical severity and ophthalmoparesis. Conversely, nonhypomorphic mutations, particularly missense mutations, are more often located in the MH/CCD hotspots, particularly in the C-terminal one (hotspot 3). The analysis of nonhypomorphic mutations showed that they are usually correlated to a milder phenotype, except for those falling in hotspot 3, which are associated with a more severe phenotype, even at the heterozygous state [18].

While the hypomorphic mutation of the proband has never been reported before, the missense mutation is reported in 1000 Genome Browser as extremely rare in the general population and in ClinVar database (rs 368874586) as having pathogenic/likely pathogenic significance. In their study about exome sequencing of 500 family with undiagnosed conditions, Farrel and collaborators reported this mutation associated with an unexpected inborn genetic disease with autosomal recessive inheritance [28].

5. Conclusions

A high index of suspicion and appropriate genetic testing can help in diagnosis of specific type of congenital myopathy. An appropriate diagnosis results in better genetic counselling and also opens possibilities for prenatal diagnosis.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6184185

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

[1] C. A. Sewry, "Pathological defects in congenital myopathies," Journal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility, vol. 29, no. 6-8, pp. 231-238, 2008.

[2] P. M. Rodriguez Cruz, C. Sewry, D. Beeson et al., "Congenital myopathies with secondary neuromuscular transmission defects; A case report and review of the literature," Neuromuscular Disorders, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1103-1110, 2014.

[3] R. Attali, S. Aharoni, S. Treves et al., "Variable Myopathic Presentation in a Single Family with Novel Skeletal RYR1 Mutation," PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 7, p. e69296, 2013.

[4] K. N. North, C. H. Wang, N. Clarke et al., "Approach to the diagnosis of congenital myopathies," Neuromuscular Disorders, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 97-116, 2014.

[5] S. Treves, H. Jungbluth, F. Muntoni, and F. Zorzato, "Congenital muscle disorders with cores: the ryanodine receptor calcium channel paradigm," Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 319-326, 2008.

[6] J. Rocha, R. Taipa, M. Melo Pires, J. Oliveira, R. Santos, and M. Santos, "Ryanodine myopathies without central cores --Clinical, histopathologic, and genetic description of three cases," Pediatric Neurology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 275-278, 2014.

[7] A. Klein, S. Lillis, I. Munteanu et al., "Clinical and genetic findings in a large cohort of patients with ryanodine receptor 1 gene-associated myopathies," Human Mutation, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 981-988, 2012.

[8] R. Robinson, D. Carpenter, M.-A. Shaw, J. Halsall, and P. Hopkins, "Mutations in RYR1 in malignant hypertheraiia and central core disease," Human Mutation, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 977-989, 2006.

[9] M. J. Betzenhauser and A. R. Marks, "Ryanodine receptor channelopathies," Pflugers Archiv--European Journal of Physiology, vol. 460, no. 2, pp. 467-480, 2010.

[10] N. Monnier, I. Marty, J. Faure et al., "Null mutations causing depletion of the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1) are commonly associated with recessive structural congenital myopathies with cores," Human Mutation, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 670-678, 2008.

[11] M. S. Phillips, J. Fujii, V. K. Khanna et al., "The structural organization of the human skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene," Genomics, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 24-41, 1996.

[12] J. H. Hwang, F. Zorzato, N. F. Clarke, and S. Treves, "Mapping domains and mutations on the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor channel," Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 644-657, 2012.

[13] A. Ferreiro, N. Monnier, N. B. Romero et al., "A recessive form of central core disease, transiently presenting as multi-minicore disease, is associated with a homozygous mutation in the ryanodine receptor type 1 gene," Annals of Neurology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 750-759, 2002.

[14] H. Zhou, N. Yamaguchi, L. Xu et al., "Characterization of recessive RYR1 mutations in core myopathies," Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 15, no. 18, pp. 2791-2803, 2006.

[15] E. O. Hernandez-Ochoa, S. J. P. Pratt, R. M. Lovering, and M. F. Schneider, "Critical role of intracellular RyR1 calcium release channels in skeletal muscle function and disease," Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 6, 2016.

[16] M. W. Berchtold, H. Brinkmeier, and M. Muntener, "Calcium ion in skeletal muscle: its crucial role for muscle function, plasticity, and disease," Physiological Reviews, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 1215-1265, 2000.

[17] J. R. Nance, J. J. Dowling, E. M. Gibbs, and C. G. Bonnemann, "Congenital myopathies: An update," Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 165-174, 2012.

[18] S. Wu, M. C. A. Ibarra, M. C. V. Malicdan et al., "Central core disease is due to RYR1 mutations in more than 90% of patients," Brain, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 1470-1480, 2006.

[19] J. M. Wilmshurst, S. Lillis, H. Zhou et al., "RYR1 mutations are a common cause of congenital myopathies with central nuclei," Annals of Neurology, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 717-726, 2010.

[20] J. A. Bevilacqua, N. Monnier, M. Bitoun et al., "Recessive RYR1 mutations cause unusual congenital myopathy with prominent nuclear internalization and large areas of myofibrillar disorganization," Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 271-284, 2011.

[21] D. Bharucha-Goebel, "Erratum: Severe congenital RYR1-associated myopathy: The expanding clinicopathologic and genetic spectrum (Neurology (2013) 80 (1584-1589))," Neurology, vol. 80, no. 22, p. 2081, 2013.

[22] M. Snoeck, B. G. M. van Engelen, B. Kusters et al., "RYR1-related myopathies: A wide spectrum of phenotypes throughout life," European Journal of Neurology, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1094-1112, 2015.

[23] N. B. Romero, N. Monnier, L. Viollet et al., "Dominant and recessive central core disease associated with RYR1 mutations and fetal akinesia," Brain, vol. 126, no. 11, pp. 2341-2349, 2003.

[24] K. Amburgey, A. Bailey, J. H. Hwang et al., "Genotype-phenotype correlations in recessive RYR1-related myopathies," Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, vol. 8, no. 1, article no. 117, 2013.

[25] H. Jungbluth, C. A. Sewry, and F. Muntoni, "Core myopathies," Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 239-249, 2011.

[26] N. Monnier, A. Laquerriere, S. Marret et al., "First genomic rearrangement of the RYR1 gene associated with an atypical presentation of lethal neonatal hypotonia," Neuromuscular Disorders, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 680-684, 2009.

[27] H. Zhou, H. Jungbluth, C. A. Sewry et al., "Molecular mechanisms and phenotypic variation in RYR1-related congenital myopathies," Brain, vol. 130, no. 8, pp. 2024-2036, 2007.

[28] K. D. Farwell, L. Shahmirzadi, D. El-Khechen et al., "Enhanced utility of family-centered diagnostic exome sequencing with inheritance model-based analysis: Results from 500 unselected families with undiagnosed genetic conditions," Genetics in Medicine, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 578-586, 2015.

Nicola Laforgia, (1) Manuela Capozza, (1) Lucrezia De Cosmo, (1) Antonio Di Mauro, (1) Maria Elisabetta Baldassarre, (1) Francesca Mercadante, (2) Anna Laura Torella, (3) Vincenzo Nigro, (3) and Nicoletta Resta (2)

(1) Neonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Department of Biomedical Science and Human Oncology, "Aldo Moro" University of Bari, Policlinico Hospital, Piazza Giulio Cesare n. 11, 70124 Bari, Italy

(2) Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, "Aldo Moro" University of Bari, Policlinico Hospital, Piazza Giulio Cesare n. 11, 70124 Bari, Italy

(3) Medical Genetics Laboratory, Department of Precision Medicine, "L. Vanvitelli" University of Campania, Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine (TIGEM), Naples, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Nicola Laforgia; nicola.laforgia@uniba.it

Received 12 February 2018; Revised 28 June 2018; Accepted 19 July 2018; Published 1 August 2018

Academic Editor: Balraj Mittal
Table 1: Commoner myopathy disorders presenting in fetal and/or
neonatal period.

Congenital               Histological        Clinical features
myopathies                 features

MYOPATHIES WITH          Presence of             Diaphragm
"RODS" (NEMALINE      nemaline bodies or      weakness, distal
MYOPATHIES)             rods (protein        weakness in lower
                         aggregates)            extremities,
                                                 congenital
                                              arthrogryposis,
                                             severe facial and
                                              bulbar weakness,
                                             severe hypotonia,
                                                    and
                                              hyporeactivity,
                                                progressive
                                                respiratory
                                                  failure

MYOPATHIES WITH
CENTRALIZED
NUCLEI

Myotubular              Muscle fibers        Severe prenatal or
myopathies                similar to         neonatal myopathy,
(XLMTM)               myotubes (normally       reduced fetal
                       observed at 8-15          movements,
                      weeks' gestation)       polyhydramnios,
                                                 swallowing
                                               difficulties,
                                             severe generalized
                                               hypotonia and
                                               weakness from
                                             birth, progressive
                                             ophthalmoparesis,
                                             severe respiratory
                                               insufficiency
                                                 requiring
                                             ventilator support

Centronuclear         High incidence of         Progressive
myopathies             centrally and/or      ophthalmoparesis,
                      internally placed      early respiratory
                      nuclei in rows in           failure,
                        muscle fibers           progressive
                                                craniofacial
                                                deformities

MYOPATHIES WITH       Type 1 fibers are       Low tone without
FIBER TYPE             consistently and            other
DISPROPORTION           significantly          distinguishing
                           smaller            characteristics
                      (hypotrophic) than
                        type 2 fibers.
                      Disproporzione del
                        calibro delle
                       fibre: fibre del
                        tipo 1 (fibre
                         lente) sono
                      piUpiccole (almeno
                      del 40%) rispetto
                        alie fibre del
                        tipo 2 (fibre
                           veloci)

MYOPATHIES WITH          Cores: well-
"CORES"               delimited, rounded
                       areas devoid of
                          oxidative
                      staining, located
                       in the cytoplasm
                        of the muscle
                           fibers.

Central core          Single and central      Decreased fetal
myopathy               cores in muscle        movement during
                            fibers           pregnancy, muscle
                                                pain/cramps,
                                             global hypotonia,
                                              weakness of the
                                              facial muscles,
                                              severe skeletal
                                               malformations,
                                             possible malignant
                                                hyperthermia

Multiminicore          Multiple, short            Neonatal
myopathy              areas of sarcomere     hypotonia, global
                       disorganization        muscle weakness,
                      containing reduced       delayed motor
                          numbers of            development
                       mitochondria in
                       skeletal muscle
                            fibers

Congenital                Genes Mutated             Inheritance
myopathies

MYOPATHIES WITH           TPM3 (1q21.3)               AD or AR
"RODS" (NEMALINE           NEB (2q22.3)                  AR
MYOPATHIES)              ACTA 1 (1q42.13)        AD or sporadic, AR
                          TPM2 (9p13.3)                  AD
                         TNNT1 (19q13.42)         AR(Amish private
                       KBTBD 13 (15q22.31)           mutation)
                          CFL2 (14q13.1)                 AD
                                                         AR

MYOPATHIES WITH
CENTRALIZED
NUCLEI

Myotubular                 MTM1 (Xq28)           Recessive X-linked
myopathies
(XLMTM)

Centronuclear             DNM2 (19ql3.1)                 AD
myopathies               MYF6 (12q21.31)                 AD
                         CCDC78 (16pl3.3)                AD
                          BIN1 (2ql4.3)                  AR

MYOPATHIES WITH           ACTA1 (lq42.1)                 AD
FIBER TYPE            Locus 2 (Xql3.1-q22.1)             AR
DISPROPORTION            SEPN1 (lp36.11)                 AR
                          TPM3 (lq21.2)                  AD
                           TPM2 (9pl3)                   AD
                         MYL2 (12q24.11)                 AR

MYOPATHIES WITH
"CORES"

Central core              RYR1 (19ql3.1)                 AR
myopathy                 SEPN1 (lp36.11)           AR or sporadic
                           TTN (2q31.2)                  AR
                           MYH7 (14ql2)                  AD

Multiminicore             RYR1 (19ql3.1)                 AR
myopathy                 SEPN1 (lp36.11)           AR or sporadic
                           TTN (2q31.2)                  AR
                           MYH7 (14ql2)                  AD
COPYRIGHT 2018 Hindawi Limited
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Case Report
Author:Laforgia, Nicola; Capozza, Manuela; de Cosmo, Lucrezia; Di Mauro, Antonio; Baldassarre, Maria Elisab
Publication:Case Reports in Genetics
Date:Jan 1, 2018
Words:3717
Previous Article:Birt-Hogg-Dube Syndrome Caused by a Novel Mutation in the FLCL Gene.
Next Article:Epileptic Encephalopathy and Cerebellar Atrophy Resulting from Compound Heterozygous CACNA2D2 Variants.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters