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A Preliminary Checklist of the Orchid Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) of Ecuador.

1. Introduction

Orchid bees are a conspicuous and a fascinating group of Neotropical bees, in which males have noteworthy behavior related to gathering aromatic compounds from orchids and other sources [1]. The bees increasingly are objects of study in different fields such as ecology [2, 3], chemical ecology [48], conservation [9-11], evolution [12], and taxonomy [13-17]. Such research contributes to an understanding of general bee biology and how neotropical ecosystems function.

More than 252 species have been described, and many synonymized, since early descriptions by Linneaus (1758) under the genus name Apis [18]. Several species lists have been published at regional levels [18-21] and the country level, Brazil [19, 21-28], Peru [19, 29, 30], Panama [19, 31, 32], Bolivia [33], Colombia [19, 34], Mexico [35], Nicaragua [36], Honduras [37], and Venezuela [19].

Ecuador is well known as a megadiverse country with an outstanding diversity of organisms and ecosystems and considered important for conservation proposes, e.g., the Tumbes-Choco-Magdalena region and the tropical Andes [38,39]. At the same time, from the species records examined here and from biogeographic analyses of other apidologists, e.g., [13,40], it is clear that the NW of Ecuador is quite similar to Central America, while Amazonian Eastern Ecuador and the Andes have some different species. Additionally, among the well-studied Ecuadorian palms, although most species are Andean compared to other regions, 60% of them are from adjacent lowlands; i.e., they are not Andean endemics [41].

Here we update the taxonomic base of knowledge on Ecuadorian euglossines. Only two publications had reported, in general, species for Ecuador. Ramirez et al. [19] report 62 species and Moure et al. [18] report 63. Recent articles treat the taxonomy of the orchid bees of Ecuador, mainly focusing on the description of new species, Euglossa samperi [42]; Euglossa natesi [43]; Euglossa williamsi [44], Euglossa celiae, and Euglossa subandina [45]. As part of our continuing study of euglossines in Ecuador and elsewhere, while not listing unnamed species here (as for Meliponini, see [46], or Euglossini, [47]) we attempt to bring euglossine taxonomy up to date, particularly in western South America, and include limited discussion of taxonomic problems.

2. Methods

2.1. Material Examined. All material examined from museums came from the following institutions:

INABIO: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, QuitoEcuador.

MZUA: Museo de Zoologia de la Universidad del Azuay, Cuenca- Ecuador.

NMNH: National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC - USA.

QCAZ: Museo de Zoologia de la Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador, Quito-Ecuador.

STRI: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (DW Roubik collection), Balboa, Panama.

Additional data came from the following institutions:

AMNH: Amercian Museum of Natural History, New York, USA.

DZUP: Departamento de Zoologia, Universidad Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Brasil.

FLMNH: Florida Museum of Natural history, Gainesville, USA.

ZSM: Zoologische Staatssammlung Munchen, Munchen, Germany.

2.2. Field Work. Several locations in the country had been visited in most of the provinces of Ecuador during the last decades, mainly by DW Roubik and also by PS Padron and RB Picon (Figure 1). Orchid bees were collected in bait traps or collected using hand nets at baiting stations, using chemical attractants such as cineole, eugenol, skatole, vanillin, PDMB (p-dimethoxybenzene), methyl salicylate, and methyl cinnamate, during the day at different periods between 08,00 and 17,00 h.

The species list is presented by subgenus and species following the systematic arrangement proposed by Moure et al. [18], so it does not include the recently named subgenus of Euglossa, Alloglossura, which will be subject to further evaluation [17], nor a proposed name Hybomelissa for the Exaerete group containing E. frontalis [48]. The species determinations were based upon comparative study of type and other material at NMNH and in the collections of DW Roubik and RL Dressler, at STRI and at the Florida Museum of Natural History, particularly collections made by DW Roubik from French Guiana, Panama, Costa Rica,l and Ecuador. Diagnostic reference photographs also were consulted for euglossines of French Guiana (Discover Life, https://www .discoverlife.org/mp/20p?see=I_DWR, and the NMNH euglossine types, https://biogeodb.stri.si.edu/bioinformatics/ roubik_bees/). We attempt to treat determinations made by others as likely correct, unless we had additional information, and acknowledge that some of the above cited reference material, or identifications, may be erroneous.

2.3. Species Richness. A total of 2322 distribution records were georeferenced, localities were plotted using DIVA-GIS 7.5 [49], and the species richness was calculated.

3. Results

The preliminary checklist presented here contains 115 species distributed among the genera, 1 species in Aglae, 68 species in Euglossa, 23 in Eufriesea, 18 species in Eulaema, and 5 species in Exaerete. The list is arranged by genera and subgenera (when formally designated), and species are listed alphabetically, with specimen label information or the literature references. For each label or collection, available information included types, number of specimens, province, locality, elevation, latitude, longitude, date of collection, collector, museum, and reference.

Checklist of Orchid Bees from Ecuador

Tribe Euglossini Latreille, 1802

Genus Aglae Lepeletier & Serville (1825)

(1) Aglae coerulea Lepeletier & Serville, 1825

Records: 1, Napo, Portoyacu, 700 m, D. Velastegui, INABIO; 1, Pastaza, QCAZ; 1, Pastaza, Villano Taranguro, 342 m, 1 22.6670 S, 77 22 91 O, 35345, J. Naranjo, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, Rio Cananda, 400 m, 0 28 45, 77[degrees]11 51 O, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Avila Viejo, 750, QCAZ; Esmeraldas, Choco Region, [50]; 1, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

Genus Eufriesea Cockerell (1908)

(2) Eufriesea buchwaldi (Friese, 1923) Records: [18].

(3) Eufriesea auripes (Gribodo, 1882)

Records: 1, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(4) Eufriesea chrysopyga (Mocsary, 1898)

Records: [18]; 1, QCAZ; 17, Orellana, Yasuni, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Est. Rio Huiririma, 220 m, 0 38 LS 75 54 LW, QCAZ; 1,500 m, QCAZ; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1380 m, -2.126813, -78.089803,26/XII/2016, S. Padron, P. Picon, C. Maldonado, J. Falcon, MZUA.

(5) Eufriesea combinata (Mocsary, 1897)

Records: Morona Santiago, Res. Biologica El Quimi, 1671 m, McPhail trap, Julio 2017, A. Suarez-Torres. INABIO.

(6) Eufriesea concava (Friese, 1899)

Records: Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(7) Eufriesea duckei (Friese, 1923)

Records: Guayas, Balzapamba-Guayaquil, [13,19].

(8) Eufriesea excellens (Friese, 1925)

Records: Holotype, Guayas, Guayaquil, [13, 19]; Guayas, Guayaquil, [18, 51].

(9) Eufriesea fragrocara (Kimsey, 1977)

Records: Napo, (Rio Apungora), September, [13]; 6, Orellana, Yasuno, QCAZ; [18, 19]; Napo, 1[degrees]24'S; 77[degrees]43'W, [52]; 1, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(10) Eufriesea longipennis (Friese, 1925) Records: Guayas, Guayaquil, [18].

(11) Eufriesea lucida (Kimsey, 1977)

Records: Napo, "El meme allure", Junio, [13,18,19].

(12) Eufriesea lucifera Kimsey, 1977

Records: Pichincha, Santo Domingo, [13,19]; Pichincha, [18].

(13) Eufriesea magrettii (Friese, 1899); synonym Eufriesea andina Friese, 1925

Records: 2, Zamora Chinchipe, Tundayme, 1281 m, 11 Oct 2016, F. Tobar, MEPN 9953, MH Yanouch, salicilato, INABIO.

(14) Eufriesea mussitans (Fabricius, 1787) Records: Bolivar, Balzapampa, [18, 53].

(15) Eufriesea nigrescens (Friese, 1923)

Records: Lectotype, Bolivar, Balzapamba, AMNH, [13]; Bolivar, Balsapamba (Balzapamba), [18,19, 51].

(16) Eufriesea ornata (Mocsary, 1896)

Records: 2, Orellana, Yasuno, QCAZ; 1, Pastaza, Puyo, QCAZ; 1, Pastaza, Puyo, 250m, QCAZ; [18, 19]; 1, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(17) Eufriesea opulenta (Mocsary, 1908)

Records: 1, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, STRI.

(18) Eufrieseapretiosa (Friese, 1903)

Records: Holotype, Tungurahua, Santa Inez, Ecuador, AMNH, [13]; Tungurahua, Santa Inez, [13]; Tungurahua, Santa Inez, [19,54]; Tungurahua, Santa Ines, [18, 51].

(19) Eufrieseapulchra (Smith, 1854)

Records: Pastaza, Puyo km 35 to Tena, 960 m, 29/02/1980, N.H. Williams NMNH; 57, Orellana, Yasuni, 280m, QCAZ; [19, 55]; 6, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(20) Eufrieseapurpurata (Mocsary, 1896)

Records: 2, Napo, Limoncocha (forest), 25/07/1971, D. L. Pearson, NMNH; 6, Orellana, Yasuno, 250 m, QCAZ; 6, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(21) Eufriesea superba (Hoffmannsegg, 1817)

Records: Los Roos, Palenque Station, April, [13, 19]; Los Rios, [18,56].

(22) Eufriesea surinamensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Records: 1, Guayas, Guayaquil, 43010, C. Dodson, NMNH; 2, Guayas, Guayaquil, NMNH; 14, Guayas, Guayaquil, 18/03/1960, G. Frymire, NMNH; 14, Guayas, la Lolita, 10/02/1960, G. Frymire, NMNH; 4, Los Roos, Quevedo, 22010, C. Dodson, NMNH; Los Roos, Montalvo, 28/02/1968, G. Frymire NMNH; Los Rios, Vic. Quebrada, march abril 1955, E. N. O' Rourike, NMNH; Guayas, Guayaquil, [13]; 1, 500 m, QCAZ; [18,19].

(23) Eufriesea theresiae (Mocsary, 1908) Records: [19]; Zamora, Rio Zamora, [18, 51].

(24) Eufriesea venezolana (Schrottky, 1913)

Records: Los Rios, Palenque River, [13, 18]; Guayas, Guayaquil, [13].

Genus Euglossa Latreille (1802)

Subgenus Euglossa Latreille, 1802

(25) Euglossa amazonica Dressler, 1982

Records: 3, Orellana, Yasuni, QCAZ; 2, Orellana, Coca, 700 m, 79 02 27 W 00 18 21S, QCAZ; 2, Morona Santiago, Chiwasa, LW 79 05 LN 00 05 18, QCAZ; 1, Morona Santiago, San Juan Bosco, 1050 m, -3,119898, -78,527502, II/2016, H. Garzon, MZUA; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1380 m, -2,126813, -78,089803, 25/XII/2016, S. Padron, P. Picon, C. Maldonado, J. Falcon, MZUA; 42, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(26) Euglossa analis Westwood, 1840

Records: 4, QCAZ; 63, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(27) Euglossa avicula, Dressler, 1982

Records: Napo, [19]; 4, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(28) Euglossa auricollis Friese, 1923 Records: [18].

(29) Euglossa auriventris Friese, 1925

Records: Syntype, Guayas, Guayaquil, [19, 53]; Guayas, Guayaquil, [18, 51].

(30) Euglossa bidentata Dressler, 1982

Records: 9, Esmeraldas, 300 m, LW 79 16 10 LN 00 17 00, QCAZ; 6, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(31) Euglossa championi Cheesman, 1929

Records: [19]; 1; Carnr, Ocarn, 600 m, 11-I-06, S. Padron, MZUA; [57].

(32) Euglossa charapensis Cockerell, 1917

Records: West of Ecuador, [58]; 1, 1601 m, QCAZ; [19]; 1, Loja, Malacatos, 1450 m, -4,224100, -79,262287, 31/XII/2016, P. Picon, S. Padron, MZUA; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1360 m, -2,125181, -78,088571, 18/V/2017, S. Padron, MZUA.

(33) Euglossa chlorina Dressler, 1982

Records: 1, Pichincha, 2000 m, 79 00 00 W 00 25 25 S, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Patricia Pilar, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(34) Euglossa cognata Moure, 1970

Records: 6, QCAZ; 2, Napo, Yuturi Lodge, Roo Napo, 359 m, 7912 W 00 28 N, QCAZ; [19]; Orellana, Yasuni, [59]; Napo, [59]; Alto Tambo, [18, 59]; 15, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(35) Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus, 1758) Records: [18].

(36) Euglossa cybelia Moure, 1968 Records: [19].

(37) Euglossa deceptrix Moure, 1968

Records: Ibarra (?), 1897, leg. W. F. H. Rosenberg, [60]; 1, El Oro, Pinas, 960 m, 26.2.-2.3.1982, leg. N. H. Williams, det. R. L. Dressler, [60]; 2, Lita, 17.8.1987, leg. det. R. L. Dressler, [60]; 1, Paramba, 3.1897, leg. F. H. Rosenberg, det. Bembe (Eg. cordata, det. Friese) [60]; 1, ZSM, [60]; Esmeraldas, Bilsa Biological Reserve ("Bilsa" hereafter), 0[degrees]20,816' N 79[degrees]42,659' W, [47]; 1, QCAZ; 4, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, August to December 2014, [47].

(38) Euglossa despecta Moure, 1968

Records: 1, Esmeraldas, Pitzara, QCAZ; 8, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, August to December 2014, [47]; 14, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(39) Euglossa dissimula Dressler, 1978

Records: 12, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, August to December 2014, [47].

(40) Euglossa dressleri Moure, 1968

Records: [19]; 18, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, August to December 2014, [49].

(41) Euglossa gaianii Dressler, 1982 Records: 1, Guayas, San Joaquin, QCAZ.

(42) Euglossa gibbosa Dressler, 1982

Records: 1, Holotype, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 20/07/1967, R. L. Dressler, NMNH; 1, Allotype, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 20/07/1967, R. L. Dressler, NMNH; 1, Pichincha, Palenque, QCAZ; 2, Pichincha, Santo Domingo - Quevedo, 220 m, 0 38 LS 75 54 LW, QCAZ; 3, Pichincha, Patricia Pilar, 389 m, 79 12 W 00 28 N, QCAZ; 2, Los Rios, Rio Palenque, 218 m, 75 52 W 00 36 S, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, Tonsupa, 517 m, 01 28.434 S 77 31.868 W; QCAZ; Santo Domingo, [59]; Pichincha, [18]; Santo Domingo, [18]; 1, Manabo, Jama Coaque, 300 m, -0,107904, -80,122931, 02/XII/2016, P. Picon, S. Padron, MZUA; [49]; 2, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(43) Euglossa hansoni Moure, 1965

Records: 2, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, [61]; 15, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, [61]; 21 Aug. 1967, [62]; 3 Jan. 1970, H. A. Hespenheide (Dressler coll.), [62]; 2, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 22/07/1967, R. L. Dressler, NMNH; 15, Esmeraldas, Bilsa Biological Reserve ("Bilsa" hereafter), 0[degrees]20,816' N 79[degrees]42,659' W, [47].

(44) Euglossa hemichlora Cockerell, 1917

Records: 1, Holotype, Paramba, Ecuador; NMNH, [53]; 3, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 20/07/1967, R. L. Dressler, NMNH; 4 Feb. 1971, H, Kennedy (Dresller coll. and to be distributed, [62]; 13, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, det. Bembe (Eg. heterosticta, det. R. L. Dressler), DZUP, [60]; 14, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 20.-22.7.1967, leg. R. L. Dressler det. Bembo, DZUP, [60]; Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 22/07/67, R. L. Dressler, [63]; Pichincha, Santo Domingo, [18, 45]; 1, Loja, Cabeza de Toro, 309 m, -80,30235, -4,294143, 26/VIII/2017, J. Falcon, J. Fajardo, P. Picon, S. Padron, MZUA; 1, Guayas, Guayaquil Espol, 100 m, -2,14829, 79,965824,16/XI/2016, P. Picon, S. Padron, MZUA; 19, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(45) Euglossa heterosticta Moure, 1968

Records: 1, QCAZ; 14, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(46) Euglossa ioprosopa Dressler, 1982

Records: 2, Orellana, Yasuni, QCAZ; 1, Morona Santiago, Macas, 620 m, QCAZ; 2, Napo, Coca, 750 m, QCAZ;

1, Morona Santiago, Chiwasa, 77 50 00 W 0 55 0 S, QCAZ; [64]; leg. Dressler, [18, 51]; 14, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(47) Euglossa iopyrrha Dressler, 1982

Records: 13, Orellana, Yasurn, 100 m, 79 26 6 W 1 6 42 S, QCAZ. 1, Orellana, Yasurn, 640 m, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Yasurn, Km 34, QCAZ; leg. Dressler, [51]; 12, Orellana, Yasurn, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(48) Euglossa maculilabris Moure, 1968

Records: 16/08/1972, E. W. Stiles, NMNH; 16, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, NMNH.

(49) Euglossa magnipes Dressler, 1982

Records: 1, QCAZ; 2, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(50) Euglossa milenae Bemba, 2007

Records: 1, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ; 24, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, August to December 2014; [18,19].

(51) Euglossa mixta Friese, 1899

Records: 4, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, 15/08/1967, R. L. Dressler, NMNH; 1, 250m, QCAZ; 141, Orellana, Yasuni, 500 m, 76 30 W 00 38 S, QCAZ; 8, Napo, Loreto Cotapino, QCAZ; 2, Napo,

Talag, 500 m, 76 30 W 00 38 S, QCAZ; 1, Guayas, Km 26 C. Cabanilla, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Yasuni, QCAZ; 2, Napo, Yuturi Lodge, RioNapo, QCAZ; [18]; 1, Morona Santiago, Cordillera del Condor, 1850 m, 078971 9597359, 18/III/06, S. Padron, MZUA; 37, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(52) Euglossa modestior Dressler, 1982

Records: 1, Morona Santiago, Chiwasa, QCAZ; 1, Tena, Shushufindi, Yasurn, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Archidona, QCAZ; 5, Orellana, Yasurn, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(53) Euglossa mourei Dressler, 1982

Records: 1, D. Roubik, NMNH; 3 males, Napo, Roo San Miguel, NMNH; 27/04/1988, D. Roubik, NMNH; 2, Napo, Tena Shushufindi, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Coca, QCAZ; 4, Orellana, Yasurn; QCAZ; Napo, [18]; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1380 m, -2,126813, 78,089803, 26/XII/2016, S. Padron, P. Picon, C. Maldonado, J. Falcon, MZUA; 28, Orellana, Yasurn, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(54) Euglossa nigropilosa Moure, 1965

Records: Bolivar, Balzapamba, NMNH; 20/07/1967, R. L. Dressler, NMNH; Tunguragua, 700 - 1400 m, NMNH; Tungurahua, Topo, 700 -1400 m, NMNH; 1, Tungurahua, Rio Verde, 600 m, 78 27 18 W 00 50 24, QCAZ; 1, Cotopaxi, Las Pampas, 250 m, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, 250 m, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; Bolivar, Balzapamba, 16/01/1960, C. Jativa, NMNH; Tunguragua, 700 - 1400 m, Dr. C. H. Dodson, [65]; Tungurahua, [18]; 1, Morona Santiago, El Paraoso, 1630 m, -3,299298, -78,589826, 05/XII/2015, S. Padroon, MZUA; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 2,126813, -78,089803,26/XII/2016, S. Padron, P. Picon,

C. Maldonado, J. Falcon, MZUA; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1380m, -2,126813, -78,089803,26/XII/2016, S. Padron, P. Picon, C. Maldonado, J. Falcon, MZUA.

(55) Euglossa platymera Dressler, 1982

Records: 1, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(56) Euglossa pleosticta Dressler, 1982

Records: 2, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(57) Euglossa retroviridis Dressler, 1982

Records: 2, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(58) Euglossa securigera Dressler, 1982

Records: 2, QCAZ; [19]; 1, Orellana, Yasurn, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(59) Euglossa tridentata Moure, 1970

Records: 4, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 20/07/1967, R. L. Dressler, NMNH; 1, 250 m, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Patricia Pilar, QCAZ; 4, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, [18,19]; 1, Loja, Cabeza de Toro, 309 m, -80,30235, 4,294143, 26/VIII/2017, J. Falcon, J. Fajardo, P. Picon, S. Padroon, MZUA; 2, Manabo, Jama Coaque, 300 m, 0.107904, -80,122931,02/XII/2016, P. Picon, S. Padron, MZUA.

(60) Euglossa variabilis Friese, 1899

Records: 1, Paramba, NMNH; April 1998, D. W. Roubik, [66]; 7, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, DZUP, [60]; Guayas, 1, Guayaquil, leg. Buchwald, (Eg. cordata, det. Alfken 1904), det. Dressler, [60]; 1, El Oro, 16 km SSE Buenavista, 16.4.1989, leg. Dressler, Whitten and Williams, det. Bembo, [60]; 1, Los Rios, Roo Palengue Station, 5.4.1972, leg. C. H. Dodson, MC, det. Bembo, [60].

Subgenus Euglossella Moure, 1967

(61) Euglossa apiformis Schrottky, 1911

Records: Zamora, 5-7/III/1982, N. H. Williams 89 [handwritten on the underside], [45]; Zamora Chinchipe, [18].

(62) Euglossa bigibba Dressler, 1982

Records: 1, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Yasuno, March 2018, D.W. Roubik.

(63) Euglossa cyanura Cockerell, 1917

Records: [18]; 2, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, August to December 2014, [47].

(64) Euglossa granti Cheesman, 1929

Records: 1, Imbabura, Lita, 320 m, QCAZ; 16 Aug. 1972, Dressler, 1982; 13-27 April 1998, D. Roubik; coll. No 33.

(65) Euglossaperfulgens Moure, 1967

Records: 1, Orellana, Yasunoi, 220 m, 0 38 LS 75 54 LW, QCAZ.

(66) Euglossa singularis Mocsaary, 1899

Records: 1,250 m, QCAZ;[19]; Morona Santiago, [18]; Napo, [18]; Pastaza, [18]; Zamora Chinchipe, [18]

(67) Euglossa viridis (Perty, 1833)

Records: 13-27 April 1998, D. Roubik, Roubik, 2004; 1, QCAZ; [18]; 2, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

Subgenus Glossura Cockerell, 1917

(68) Euglossa allosticta Moure, 1969

Records: 12, Orellana, Yasuni, 750 m, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Yasuno, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, Pitzara, QCAZ; [19]; Eastern Ecuador, [59]; 1, Manabo, Jama Coaque, 300 m, -0,107904, -80,122931, 02/XII/2016, P. Picoon, S. Padroon, MZUA; 32, Esmeraldas, MacheChindul Ecological Reserve, August to December 2014, Botsch, et al., 2017; 2, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(69) Euglossa asarophora Moure & Sakagami, 1969

Records: [19]; Esmeraldas, [67]; 14, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, August to December 2014, [47].

(70) Euglossa flammea Moure, 1969

Records: 1, Imbabura, Lita, INABIO; [19, 20]; 28, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, August to December 2014, [47].

(71) Euglossa ignita Smith, 187

Records: 31, Orellana, Yasuno, QCAZ; 3, Napo Tena, Shushufindi, Yasuno, 09 47 56.7 W 66 36 10.7 W, QCAZ; 136, Orellana, Yasuno, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Yasuno, QCAZ; 1, Morona Santiago, Chiwasa, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Tena, Misahualli, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Loreto, QCAZ; 2, Napo, Yuturi Lodge, Roo Napo, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Jatum Sacha, 270 m, 0 32 54S 76 2118 W, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Taracoa, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Coca, QCAZ; 3, Napo, Limoncocha, 16/08/1972, E. W. Stiles, NMNH; [18]; 12, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(72) Euglossa imperialis Cockerell, 1922

Records: 1, Napo, Misahualli, 29132, Joseph J Anderson, NMNH; Napo, P. Santa Cecilia, 25-31/03/1969, P. Spangler, NMNH; 1, Napo, Taraicoa, QCAZ; 201, Napo, Yasunoi, 250 m, QCAZ; 16, Orellana, Yasunoi, 250 m, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Yasuni, 250 m, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Yasuni, QCAZ; 4, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(73) Euglossa lugubris Roubik, 2004

Records: 3, Napo, Yasuno National Park, leg. Roubik, [51]; Napo, [18]; 1, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(74) Euglossa natesi Parra, Ospina-Torres & Ramirez, 2006

Records: 1, Paratype, Esmeraldas, km 17 Lita-Alto Tambo, 730 m, 19/05/1976, J. Cohen, NMNH; Esmeraldas, [18].

(75) Euglossa occidentalis Roubik, 2004

Records: 1, Holotype, Napo, Yasuni National park, 1327 April 1998, D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; 12, Paratypes, Orellana, Parque Nacional Yasuni, Sept. 2001, E. Baus D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; 3, Paratypes, Napo, Yasuno National park, 13-27 April 1998, D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; 16, Paratypes, Orellana, PUCE SC Yasuno, 250m, 76[degrees]24'19" W 00[degrees]40'32 S, 18- 23 Feb. 2001, D. Roubik & E. Bous, QCAZ, [68]; Orellana, Parque Nacional Yasuni, nov. 1998, E. Bous D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; Orellana, Shushufindi Yasuni, 500 m, 76[degrees]30'W 00[degrees]38' S, 3 Aug. 1999, F. Palomeque, QCAZ, [68]; 2, Paratypes, Orellana, Loreto Cotapino, 640 m, 22 May 1999, F. Palomeque, QCAZ, Donoso, et al., 2009; Napo, Talag, 600 m, W 77[degrees]54' S01[degrees]03', 12 Jun 99, H. Zumorraga, QCAZ, [68]; 2, Paratypes, Orellana, Parque Nacional Yasunoi, dic. 2001, E. Baous D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; 17, Paratypes, Orellana, Parque Nacional Yasunoi, dic. 2002, E. Baous D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; Orellana, E.C. Yasuni, 250 m, 00[degrees]40'S 76[degrees]23'W, 20 Nov 1999, L. Torres, [66]; Paratype, Orellana, Yasuni Universidad Estacioon, 36923, D. Roubik, NMNH; 18 Jan. 1990, [43]; 1, Orellana, Yasuni, 250 m, QCAZ; Napo, [18]; 15, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(76) Euglossa orellana Roubik, 2004

Records: 1, Holotype, Napo, Yasuni National Park, 1327 April 1998, D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; 132, Paratypes, Orellana, Yasuni National Park, 13-27 April 1998, D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; 7, Paratypes, Orellana, Tena Shushufindi Yasuni, 500 m, 76[degrees]30' W 00[degrees]38'S, 03 Aug. 1999, F. Palomeque, QCAZ, [68]; Napo, Tena Misahualli Jatun Sacha, 550 m, 77[degrees]30'W 01[degrees]03'S, 23 Oct. 1999, P. Carrera, QCAZ, [68]; 5, Paratypes, Napo, E.C. Yasuni, 250 m, LW78[degrees]58' LS00 56, 22 Apr. 1998, F. Palomeque, QCAZ, [68]; 2, Paratypes, Napo, Loreto, 9 Aug. 1991, D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; 189, Paratypes, Orellana, PUCE SC Yasuni, 250 m, 76[degrees]24'19" W 00[degrees]40'32 S, 18-23 Feb. 2001, D. Roubik and E. Baus, QCAZ, [68]; Pichincha-Napo, Taracoa S. Abedravo, 18-V-84, QCAZ, [68]; 2, Paratypes, Napo, Yuturi Lodge Roo Napo, 0[degrees]32'54"S 76[degrees]2'18" W, 270 m, 20 Mar. 1999, R. Brooks, QCAZ, [68]; 108, Paratypes, Orellana, Parque Nacional Yasuno, dic. 2002, E. Baus D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; 49, Paratypes, Orellana, Parque Nacional Yasuni, Sept. 2001, E. Baus D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; 47, Paratypes, Orellana, Yasuni Nat. Park Catholic Univ. Station, Aug 7-17 2004, D. Roubik, QCAZ, [68]; 5, Paratypes, Orellana, Yasuni Universidad Estacioon, 27/04/1988, D. Roubik, NMNH; 100, Paratypes, Orellana, Yasuni, QCAZ; Pastaza, Tewaeno 32km sw of Tzapino, 19/05/1976, J. Cohen, NMNH; Napo, Yasuni National Park, [18]; 2, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1380 m, -2,126813, -78,089803, 26/XII/2016, S. Padron, P. Picon, C. Maldonado, J. Falcon, MZUA; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1360 m, -2,126813, 78,089803, 03/VI/2016, C. Maldonado, S. Padroon, MZUA; 14, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(77) Euglossa rufipes Rasmussen & Skov, 2006

Records: Napo, [18]; Pastaza, [18]. Rio Hollin, D. W. Roubik, 2018, QCAZ.

(78) Euglossa tiputini Roubik, 2004

Records: 1, Holotype, Orellana, Yasuni National Park, [19]; 2, Paratypes, Napo, Hacienda Ila, D. Velastigui, [19]; Paratypes, Napo, Hacienda Ila, 12-26-68, D. Velastegui, QCAZ, [68]; Napo, Talag, 400 m, 28 Dic. 1993, O. Torres, QCAZ, [66]; Napo, Yasuni National Park, [18].

(79) Euglossa viridifrons Dressler, 1982

Records: Paramba, 13-27 April 1998, D. Roubik, QCAZ, [66]; 1, Napo, Limoncocha, Feb. Apr. (1998, 2001), D. Roubik, [66];Napo, [18];2, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

Subgenus Glossurella Dressler, 1982

(80) Euglossa augaspis Dressler, 1982

Records: 4, Esmeraldas, 20 m, LW 78 59 39 LN 00 47 30, QCAZ; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1380 m, -2,126813, -78,089803, 26/II/2016, S. Padron, P. Picon, C. Maldonado, J. Falcon, MZUA; 11, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(81) Euglossa moratoi Nemasio & Engel 2012

Records: 1, QCAZ; 6, Orellana, Yasurn, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(82) Euglossa dodsoni Moure, 1965

Records: [19]; 1, Manabo, Jama Coaque, 300 m, 0,107904, -80,122931,02/XII/2016, P. Picon, S. Padron, MZUA; 65, Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, August to December 2014, [47].

(83) Euglossa fuscifrons Dressler, 1982

Records: 1, Holotype, Napo, Vera Cruz, 03/II/1969, D. Velastegui, NMNH, Dressler 1982; 2, Orellana, Loreto Cotapino, 220 m, 0 38 LS 75 54 LW, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Talac, 938 m, 77 69 LW 0128 LS, QCAZ; [19, 51]; Napo, [18]; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1380 m, 2,126813, -78,089803,26/XII/2016, S. Padron, P. Picon, C. Maldonado, J. Falcon, MZUA; Napo, Rio Hollin, 14.I.2012, [17]; 31, Orellana, Yasurn, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(84) Euglossa gorgonensis Cheesman, 1929

Records: Esmeraldas, Mache-Chindul Ecological Reserve, [59]; 1, Manabo, Jama Coaque, 300 m, 0,107904, -80,122931,02/XII/2016, P. Picon, S. Padron, MZUA.

(85) Euglossa laevicincta Dressler, 1982

Records: 1, Holotype, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, [51]; 6, Orellana, Yasuni, QCAZ; leg. Dodson, [51].

(86) Euglossa macrorhyncha Dressler, 1982

Records: 1, Holotype, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 22/07/1967, R. L. Dressler, NMNH; 1, Allotype, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 15/08/1967, NMNH; 20/ 07/1967, R. L. Dressler, NMNH; Pichincha, Santo Domingo, NMNH; Pichincha, [18]; 1, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(87) Euglossa prasina Dressler, 1982

Records: 2, Orellana, Yasurn, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Loreto Cotapino, QCAZ; Napo, [18]; 6, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(88) Euglossa samperi Ramirez, 2006

Records: 1, Holotype, Esmeraldas, Bilsa Biological Station, 500 m, 00[degrees] 21' N 79[degrees] 44' W, leg. Santiago Ramorez, QCAZ, [19]; 13, Paratypes, Esmeraldas, Bilsa Biological Station, 500 m, 00[degrees] 21' N 79[degrees] 44' W, leg. Santiago Ramorez, [42]; Donoso, et al., 2009; Esmeraldas, Bilsa Biological Station, 00[degrees]21'N 79[degrees]44'W, 500 m [18].

(89) Euglossa turbinifex Dressler, 1978

Records: 1, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 6 Aug. 1968, C. Dodson (Dressler coll.); 2, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 16 - 18 Feb. 1969, N. H. Williarns (Dressler coll.), [69]; 1, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, emerged from a nest collected by C. Dodson, no date (Dressler coll.), [19, 69].

(90) Euglossa williamsi Hinojosa-Diaz & Engel, 2011

Records: 1, Holotype, Napo, September 1987, Dressler, Wille, Whitten, Williams, FLMNH, [44]; December 26,1968, [66]; Napo, [18].

Subgenus Glossuropoda Moure, 1989

(91) Euglossa intersecta Latreille, 1817

Records: 53, QCAZ; 88, Orellana, Yasunoi, QCAZ; 5, Napo, Tena Misahualli Jatun Sacha, 640 m, QCAZ; 71, Orellana, Yasunoi, 804 m, QCAZ; 3, Sucumbios, Cuyabeno, 350 m, QCAZ; 4, Orellana, Estacion Chiruisla, QCAZ; 36, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(92) Euglossa rugilabris Moure, 1967

Records: 12, Orellana, Yasuno National Park, Feb., Apr. (1998, 2001), D. Roubik, [66]; Orellana, Yasuno National Park, 13-27 April 1998, Roubik, NMNH; 2, QCAZ; 12, Orellana, Yasuno National Park, [18, 70]; 14, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

Genus Eulaema Lepeletier (1841)

Subgenus Apaulaema Moure, 1950 [71]

(93) Eulaema boliviensis Friese, 1898 Records: 1, Quito to Napo, [18,19, 72].

(94) Eulaema cingulata (Fabricius, 1804); synonym pseudocingulata Oliveira 2000)

Records: 1, Sucumboos, Roo Aguarico, 550 m, 77 30 W 01 03 S, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Palmitopamba, QCAZ;

1, Pichincha, Playa Rica, QCAZ; 5, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, QCAZ; 2, Esmeraldas, Castel novo, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; 2, Los Roos, CCRP, 550 m, QCAZ; 2, Napo, Coca, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; 1, Los Rios, Palenque, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, San Miguel de los Bancos, 218 m, 75 52 W 00 36 S, QCAZ; 1, Los Roos, Quevedo, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; 10, Orellana, Yasuno, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Misahuallli, 250 m, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; 2, Cotopaxi, Gausaganda La Mana, 250 m, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; 1, Cotopaxi, Otonga, QCAZ; 1, Los Roos, San Carlos, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, Durango, QCAZ; 1, Carchi, Via a Lumbaquo Tulcan, 250 m, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, [19]; Pichincha, Santo Domingo, [59]; Orellana, Yasuno, [59]; Loja, Vilcabamba, (nov), [18,51]; Bolivar, Balzapamba, [72]; Pichincha, Nanegalito- Reserva Inti Llacta, 1800 m, [73].

(95) Eulaema marcii Nemasio, A. (2009); synonym cingulata?

Records: 12, Orellana, 300 m, 75 11 W 00 59 S, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Tinalandia, 08 52 31 S 72 46 55 W, QCAZ; 2, Pichincha, Pedro Vicente Maldonado, QCAZ; 1, Napo, El Reventador, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, Zapallo, QCAZ; 2, Pichincha, Puerto Quito, QCAZ; 1, Loja, Valladolid, QCAZ; 1, Cotopaxi, Otonga, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Yasuno, QCAZ; 1, Sucumboos, Shushufindi, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, Roo Canande, QCAZ; 1, Morona Santiago, El Paraiso, 1630m, 3,299298, -78,589826, 11/VI/2015, S. Padroon, MZUA; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1380m, -2,126813, 78.089803, 26/XII/2016, S. Padroon, P. Picoon, C. Maldonado, J. Falcon, MZUA; 4, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(96) Eulaema mocsaryi (Friese, 1899)

Records: 95, Orellana, Yasunoi, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Coca, QCAZ; 20, Orellana, Yasunoi, QCAZ; [18, 19]; Pichincha, Nanegalito- Reserva Inti Llacta, 1800 m, [73]; 6, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(97) Eulaema napensis Oliveira, 2006

Records: 1, Holotype, Napo, Jumandi, [74]; 1, Napo, Jumandi, [71]; 1, Orellana, Archidona, Jumandi, [51]; 7, 640 m, QCAZ; [18]; 1, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(98) Eulaema nigrifacies Friese, 1898

Records: Napo, [53]; Pichincha, Quito, [18,75].

(99) Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, 1841

Records: 1, Pichincha, Niebli, 250 m, QCAZ; [76].

(100) Eulaema peruviana (Friese, 1903)

Records: 2, Orellana, Nuevo Rocafuerte, 250 m, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; [18, 19]; 2, Orellana, Yasuno, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(101) Eulaema polychroma (Mocsary, 1899)

Records: 28, Guayas, Valdivia, 17/04/1960, C. Dodson, NMNH; 2, Manaboi, Mt. Chiriste, 19/01/1960, G. P. Frayning, NMNH; Manaboi, Portoviejo, 25051, Pedro Alcivar, NMNH; Guayas, Nobol 5.5 km N, 30 m, 12/01/1978, Wayne N Mathis, NMNH; Guayas, Guayaquil, 28/03/1960, L. Jativa, NMNH; 1, Pichincha, Jerusalem, 270 m, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Palmeras, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Cumbaya El arbolito, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Guallabamba, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, QCAZ; 1, El Oro, Pinas, 600 m, 22/VII/04, S. Padron, MZUA; [18,19].

(102) Eulaema speciosa (Mocsary, 1897)

Records: Pichincha, Santo Domingo, 25 de Julio 1967, R. L. Dressler, NMNH; 1, Morona Santiago, Macas, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, San Miguel de los Bancos, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Mindo, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Puerto Quito, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, Durango, QCAZ; 6, Napo, Avila Viejo, 10 09 07 S 63 55 41 W, QCAZ; 1, Sucumbios, Reventador, QCAZ; [18,19].

Subgenus Eulaema Lepeletier, 1841

(103) Eulaema bombiformis (Packard, 1869)

Records: 1, Holotype, Quito to Napo, [72]; Balzapamba, [53]; Quito to Napo, [69]; Quito to Napo, [75]; 3, Orellana, Yasuni, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Est. Roo Huiririma, 1000 m, 77 23 W 00 15 N, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, Reserva Rio Canande, 17.00 S 39.36 W, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Chiruisla, QCAZ; 2, Pastaza, Villano K10, 631 m, 79 1 LW LS 00 5, QCAZ; 2, Sucumbios, Cuyabeno, 350 m, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Pozo Daimi, 2578 m, 78 25 W 00 17 S, QCAZ; 1, Carchi, Via a Lumbaqui Tulcan, QCAZ; 2, Orellana, Loreto Cotapino, 220 m, QCAZ; 18, Yasuno, 220 m, QCAZ; [19]; Pichincha-Napo, (probably en route to Napo river), [18, 51]; 2, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(104) Eulaema bomboides (Friese, 1923

Records: 1, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, Dressler, [77]; 1, Los Rios, Rio Palenque Station, Dressler, [19, 77]; Bolivar, Balsapampa (Balzapampa), [51]; Bolivar, Balsapamba, [18].

(105) Eulaema chocoana Ospina-Torres & SandinoFranco, 1997

Records: Esmeraldas, [78]; 1, 700 m, QCAZ.

(106) Eulaema leucopyga Friese, 1898

Records: 1, Carchi, El Placer, 500 m, 76 30 W 00 38 S, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Endesa, 610 m, 77 48 W 00 54 S, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, San Miguel de los Bancos, 1500 m, 78 17 42 W 01 23 54 S, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, QCAZ; 4, Esmeraldas, Rio Canandi, 250 m, 00 56 S 75 24 W, QCAZ; [18,19].

(107) Eulaema meriana (Olivier, 1789)

Records: 13, Napo, Limoncocha, 14/06/1977, D. L. Vincent, NMNH; Napo, Lago Agrio 2 km N, 26 de Septiembre 1975, A. Langley, NMNH; Pastaza, Puyo, 8 de febrero 1976, Spangler, et al., NMNH; Napo, Limoncocha, 16/08/1972, E. W. Stiles, NMNH; Dressler, 1979; 1, Napo, Tarapa, QCAZ; 1, Campanacocha, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, QCAZ; 86, Orellana, Yasuno, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Yuturi Lodge, Roo Napo, QCAZ; 5, Napo, Loreto, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, Quininde, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Pedro Vicente Maldonado, QCAZ; 1, Los Rios, Quevedo, QCAZ; 1, Sucumbios, Cuyabeno, QCAZ; 1, Pastaza, Loracachi, QCAZ; 1, Los Rios, San Carlos, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Lago Agrio, QCAZ; 45, Napo, 600 m, 1[degrees] 02 8 77[degrees] 40 W, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Est. Rio Huiririma, 500 m, QCAZ; 1, Pastaza, Via Tena Puyo, 1800 m, QCAZ; 33, QCAZ; [18, 19]; Pichincha, Nanegalito- Reserva Inti Llacta, 1800 m, [73]; 1, Azuay, Sarayunga, 530 m, -3,315218, -79,582313, 10/XI/2016, P. Picoon, S. Padroon, MZUA; 1, Morona Santiago, San Juan Bosco, 1050 m, -3,119898, -78,527502, II/2016, H. Garzoon, MZUA; 4, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(108) Eulaema parapolyzona Oliveira, 2006

Records: Napo, Limoncocha (forest), 16/07/1971, D.L. Pearson, NMNH; 2, Napo, Limoncocha, 16/08/1972, E.W. Stiles, NMNH; 2, Orellana, Yasuni, 100 m, 02 14 49 S 79 39 37 W, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Coca, 250 m, QCAZ; Napo, [18]; 2, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(109) Eulaema tenuifasciata (Friese, 1925)

Records: Napo, Limoncocha, 15 de Junio 1977, P. J. Spangler D. R. Givens, NMNH; 1, Napo, Tena Talag, 269 m, 76 11 S 00 01 S, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Coca Palmoriente, QCAZ; 1, Morona Santiago, Macas, 1000 m, 77 23 W 00 15 N, QCAZ.

(110) Eulaema sororia Dressler & Ospina-Torres, 1997

Records: 1, Holotype, Esmeraldas, Oeste de Lita, 14-18 Agosto 1987, [19,79]; Esmeraldas, Oeste de Lita, 14-18 Agosto 1987, Dressler, Hills, Whitten, Williams, Leg. KU, [80]; Esmeraldas, [18].

Genus Exaerete Hoffmannsegg (1817)

(111) Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Records: 2, Guayas, Guayaquil, NMNH; 1, A. Cartyright Donor, NMNH; San Rafael, 100 m oeste, F. Campos, NMNH; 1, Purchased Kny Scheerer Co NY, NMNH; [18,19]; 2, [80].

(112) Exaerete frontalis (Guarin, 1844)

Records: 1, Cotopaxi, Guasanda, La Mana, 500 m, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Coca, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Tena Shushufindi, 500 m, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Archidona, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, P. V. Maldonado Rio Pizar, 280 m, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, Borbon, 25 m, 7858W14 N, QCAZ; 8, Orellana, Yasuni, 250 m, QCAZ; Los Rios, Rio Palenque Biological Station Quevedo, 14/03/1979, Joseph J. Anderson, NMNH; 1, Napo, Limoncocha, 16/08/1972, E. W. Stiles, NMNH; [18,19,59]; 1, Morona Santiago, Wapula, 1380 m, -2.126813, -78.089803, 26/XII/2016, S. Padron, P. Picon, C. Maldonado, J. Falcon, MZUA; 1, Morona Santiago, San Juan Bosco, 1500 m, -3,119898, -78,527502, 18/VIII/2016, S. Padron, H. Garzon, MZUA; 1, Manabi, Jama Coaque, 300 m, -0,107904, -80,122931,02/XII/2016, P. Picon, S. Padron, MZUA; 6, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

(113) Exaerete lepeletieri Oliveira & Nemasio, 2003

Records: 1, Napo, Limoncocha (Yard), 26165, D.L. Pearson, NMNH; 1, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, QCAZ.

(114) Exaerete smaragdina (Guarin, 1844)

Records: 1, Tena, Shushufindi, Yasuni, 500 m, QCAZ; 1, Guayas, Guayaquil, QCAZ; 2, Napo, Tena Talag, 750 m, QCAZ; 3, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, QCAZ; 1, Esmeraldas, km 6 Lita San Lorenzo, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Puerto Quito, QCAZ; 1, Loja, Malacatos, QCAZ; 1, Los Rios, San Carlos, 100 m, 79 26 6 W 1 6 42 S, QCAZ; 1, Orellana, Loreto Cotapino, 640 m, QCAZ; 1, Los Rios, Palenque, QCAZ; 1, El Oro, Buenaventura, Pinas, 620 m, S. Padron, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Avila Viejo, 750 m, QCAZ; 1, Napo, Archidona, 77 50 00 W 0 55 0 S, QCAZ; 26, Orellana, Yasuni, 250 m, QCAZ; 1, Pichincha, Santo Domingo, QCAZ; 1, Los Roos, Quevedo, 4 de abril/1960, C. Dosdson, NMNH; 1, Esmeraldas, San Lorenzo, 24/03/1979, Jos. J. Anderson, NMNH; 1, Los Roos, Roo Palenque Biological Station 40 km Quevedo, 14/03/1979, J. Anderson, NMNH; Pastaza, Puyo (22 km W), 28373, D. R. Givens, NMNH; Pastaza, Santa Clara, 30/06/1976, P. M. Turner,NMNH; [19]; Orellana, Yasuno, [18,59,80]; 4, Loja, Malacatos - Ceibopamba, 1500 m, -4,167369, -79,300962,02/III/2017, P. Picon, S. Padron, MZUA; 1, Loja, Malacatos, -4,198158, -79,262703, 03/XI/2016, P. Picoon, S. Padroon, MZUA.

(115) Exaerete trochanterica (Friese, 1900)

Records: [19]; 1, Orellana, Yasuni, Julio 2017, D.W. Roubik, QCAZ.

4. Discussion

With 115 species reported for Ecuador, our results almost double the number known from previous work [19] (62) and [18] (63 species). In a medium elevation area of north central Peru [81] there may be similar species richness, but as we suggest below, the highest species diversity occurs, as in many groups, in NE Ecuador.

In Ecuador, the genus Euglossa is the most diverse, with 68 species, followed by Eufriesea 23, Eulaema 18, Exaerete 5, and Aglae 1 species. Fifty-two new species records are added for the country, compared to the most recent species list, in [18]. The new species records are distributed in four genera. Thirty-nine new species records are added for the genus Euglossa, 4 new species records for Eulaema, 9 new species records for Eufriesea, and 2 new species records for Exaerete (Table 1). There are at least 10 more undescribed species.

Finally, for the monotypic genus Aglae, here we added new distribution records for its conspicuous species A. coerulea Lepeletier & Seville, 1825, in Napo, Pastaza, and Esmeraldas Provinces, extending its known distribution to the Eastern Andes in Ecuador. Previously it was reported for Ecuador by [50] from the Choco Region in western Ecuador.

Our results show a clear richness pattern (Figure 1), with a concentration of species in the Amazon region. As noted by previous authors [13, 19, 40, 66] the northwest is similar to Mesoamerica and Panama. The Andean and inter-Andean region, between the Cordillera Occidental and Oriental, may hold endemic euglossines, but the overall similarity to Peru and Colombia does not permit such a view at present. The lower to medium elevation Andes region may, like the palms [41], hold the most species. For now, most Ecuadorian euglossines have been found east of the Andes, in the lowlands. This is perhaps the result of more intensive sampling there, especially at the Estacion Biologica Yasum. It is also clear that some areas are poorly sampled, especially the southern part of Ecuador. In those areas, such as the

Cordillera del Condor, Cerro Plateado, Zapotillo, and Zumba Regions, more new species records for the country will likely be found, as is now the case in Yasum forest, in the northeast.

Any single reported collection should, for the time being, be viewed with some skepticism and needing replication and confirmation. The single recorded specimens that differ from the gender of the designated holotype, for example, the male of Eufriesea combinata or Eufriesea theresiae [51], require further field work to validate. We see a need to emphasize that some species are quite difficult to identify and distinguish, likely due to mimicry, and phylogenetically close relatives that first separated by climate changes during glaciations, either on both sides of the Andes or in higher elevation areas, compared to lowlands. There are reasonably cryptic sibling or close relatives. For example, Euglossa chalybeata and E. piliventris, previously thought to be native to Ecuador, have yet to be found there, but in their place Euglossa orellana, E. occidentalis, and E. lugubris were described [65]. Similarly, Kimsey [13] pointed out the synonymy of Eufriesea andina with its senior synonym, Ef. magrettii, and the color polymorphism of the males in both this species and Ef. venezolana, which had confused previous taxonomic work. We find also very slight differentiation between two Eulaema and subgenus Apeulaema, although some of the reported males in Ecuador may in fact match those of French Guiana--the type area for Eulaema cingulata--and we have examined two from Eastern Ecuador that are different, one indistinguishable externally from Eulaema of Panama, which is now tentatively given the name Eulaema marcii, but which was described from Eastern Brazil. Further study of genitalic details would repay the effort.

https://doi.org/ 10.1155/2018/2678632

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Universidad del Azuay and its Research Funding Program 2016-2017 for the support to the fieldwork and the museum visits of Pablo S. Padroon and Ruben P. Picoon. Pablo S. Padroon wishes to thank Cristina Lalama for help databasing museum specimens and also Joso Falcon and Henry Garzon for help during fieldwork. The authors are also grateful to Albaro Barragon, Brian Harris, and Santiago Villamaroin for allowing them to examine specimens from the collections under their care at the QCAZ, NMNH, and INABIO, respectively. Finally they want to thank Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador for the Collecting Permits.

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Pablo S. Padron [ID], (1,2) David W. Roubik, (3) and Ruben P. Picon (1)

(1) Laboratorio de Entomologia, Escuela de Biologia, Ecologia y Gestion, Universidad del Azuay, Cuenca, Ecuador

(2) Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales del Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Seccion invertebrados, Quito, Ecuador

(3) Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Ancon, Balboa, Panama

Correspondence should be addressed to Pablo S. Padron; sebastianpadronm@yahoo.com

Received 15 July 2018; Accepted 2 October 2018; Published 22 October 2018

Academic Editor: Nguya K. Maniania

Caption: Figure 1: Species richness pattern observed for the Euglossini tribe in Ecuador based in 2332 collecting records.
Table 1: New species records added for Ecuador.

Genus                                      Species

Euglossa                          amazonica Dressler, 1982
                                    analis Westwood, 1840
                                   avicula, Dressler, 1982
                                  bidentata Dressler, 1982
                                  championi Cheesman, 1929
                                 charapensis Cockerell, 1917
                                   chlorina Dressler, 1982
                                     cybelia Moure, 1968
                                    deceptrix Moure, 1968
                                    despecta Moure, 1968
                                  dissimula Dressler, 1978
                                    dressleri Moure, 1968
                                   gaianni Dressler, 1982
                                     hansoni Moure, 1965
                                  heterosticta Moure, 1968
                                   iopyrrha Dressler, 1982
                                  maculilabris Moure, 1968
                                   magnipes Dressler, 1982
                                  modestior Dressler, 1982
                                  platymera Dressler, 1982
                                  pleosticta Dressler, 1982
                                 retroviridis Dressler, 1982
                                  securigera Dressler, 1982
                                   variabilis Friese, 1899
                                   bigibba Dressler, 1982
                                    granti Cheesman, 1929
                                   perfulgens Moure, 1967
                                  singularis Mocsary, 1899
                                   allosticta Moure, 1969
                              asarophora Moure & Sakagami, 1969
                                     flammea Moure, 1969
                                 imperialis Cockerell, 1922
                                   augaspis Dressler, 1982
                                moratoi Nemosio & Engel, 2012
                                     dodsoni Moure, 1965
                                 gorgonensis Cheesman, 1929
                                 laevicincta Dressler, 1982
                                  turbinifex Dressler, 1978
                                 intersecta Latreille, 1817
Eulaema                           nigrita Lepeletier, 1841
                        chocoana Ospina-Torres & Sandino-Franco, 1997
                                   marcii Nemeosio (2009)
                                tenuifasciata (Friese, 1925)
Eufriesea                          auripes (Gribodo, 1882)
                                  combinata (Mocsory, 1897)
                                   concava (Friese, 1899)
                                    duckei (Friese, 1923)
                                  magrettii (Friese, 1905)
                                  opulenta (Mocsary, 1908)
                                    pulchra (Smith, 1854)
                                  purpurata (Mocsary, 1896)
                                venezolana (Schrottky, 1913)
Exaerete                        trochanterica (Friese, 1900)
                            lepeletieri Oliveira & Nemesio, 2003
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Author:Padron, Pablo S.; Roubik, David W.; Picon, Ruben P.
Publication:Psyche (Cambridge, 1874)
Date:Jan 1, 2018
Words:9798
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