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EDINBURGH-BORN Richard Henderson has been announced as one of three scientists to win the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. He won the shared accolade for developing a way to create detailed images of the molecules that drive life. And he joins a long list of fellow Scots who've won Nobel Prizes. Physicist Ronald Drever narrowly missed out on being awarded the honour this year. He was involved in a project detecting gravitational waves and his three collaborators picked up the prize - but Prof Drever lost his life to dementia in March and the accolade can't be awarded posthumously. The prizes are awarded to those who have made outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. MARIA CROCE takes a look at some of the Scots Nobel laureates JAMES BLACK PHARMACOLOGIST Sir James Black developed two of the world's best-selling classes of prescription drugs.

The Fife-born scientist invented propranolol beta-blockers used against heart disease, and cimetidine, a drug used to treat stomach ulcers.

He was only 15 when he won a residential scholarship to St Andrews to read medicine.

He earned a fortune for the pharmaceutical industry over the years but he reportedly didn't gain much personal financial benefit.

But Sir James became joint winner of the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1988. He died at the age of 85 in 2010.

ALEXANDER TODD ALEXANDER Todd's fascination with science was sparked by experimenting with iron filings in a toy chemistry set when he was eight.

Biochemist Lord Todd, who was born near Glasgow, went on to win the 1957 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work in nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes.

His work on the structure of nucleic acids made a huge contribution towards the study of DNA and also worked on the structure and synthesis of vitamins.

He received many honours and served as chairman of the Government's advisory committee on scientific policy. He died in 1997, at the age of 89.

WILLIAM RAMSAY SIR William Ramsay discovered five new elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon, now known as the noble gases.

He made the discoveries between 1894 and 1898 - but as these new elements didn't fit on to the periodic table as it then existed, Ramsay added a whole new group.

The Glasgow-born scientist was awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1904 for his discovery of the noble gases - making him the first Brit to win the prize.

He died in 1916.

ALEXANDER FLEMING SIR Alexander Fleming was a joint winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 for discovering penicillin and how it could be used to cure infectious diseases.

He was born at Lochfield, near Darvel in Ayrshire, and studied medicine, serving as a physician during World War I. Through research and experimentation, he discovered a bacteria-destroying mould which he went on to call penicillin - which paved the way for the use of antibiotics in modern healthcare. He was 73 when he died in 1955.

JOHN MACLEOD PROFESSOR John Macleod was known for his work carbohydrate metabolism.

His collaboration on the discovery of insulin led to him sharing the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for 1923.

He was born near Dunkeld in Perthshire but moved to Aberdeen as his clergyman father had been transferred. He went on to study medicine at Aberdeen University.

JOHN BOYD ORR SIR John Boyd Orr was a teacher, doctor, biologist and politician, who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1949 for his humanitarian work.

Born in Kilmaurs, Ayrshire, he witnessed first-hand the effects of poverty on children when he taught at a school in a Glasgow slum.

After teaching, he turned to medicine and studied nutrition.

He was the first director-general of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). He died in 1971 at the age of 90.

CHARLES WILSON PHYSICIST and meteorologist Charles Wilson invented the cloud chamber, which won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927.

FRASER STODDART SCOTS-BORN chemist Sir Fraser Stoddart shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2016 for the design and synthesis of molecular machines.

Wilson who was born in Glencorse, Midlothian, worked at the observatory on Ben Nevis studying cloud formation.

RONALD ROSS J MICHAEL KOSTERLITZ AND DAVID THOULESS HIS research into malaria led to Ross winning the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902.

He then tried to reproduce this effect at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge.

Stoddart, 75, from Edinburgh, now lives in the States and met with then-president Barack Obama at the White House and also met with China's Prime Minister Li Keqiang.

A cloud chamber makes it possible to see ionizing radiation.

Although Ross was born in India and educated in England, he was the son of Scottish soldier Sir Campbell Claye Grant Ross.

JOHN Michael Kosterlitz was awarded the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics, along with fellow Scot David Thouless and Englishman Duncan Haldane, for their work on condensed matter physics.

After graduating in medicine, he returned to India in 1881 and spent the next two decades studying malaria.

Wilson had a crater on the Moon named after him as well as the Wilson Condensation Cloud formations that occur after large explosions.

Kosterlitz, 74, was born in Aberdeen and became a professor at Brown University in the US. Thouless, 83, was born in Bearsden, near Glasgow.

He was able to accurately demonstrate the life-cycle of the parasites of malaria in mosquitoes which won him the Nobel Prize.

They used advanced mathematical methods to study unusual states of matter.


GREAT MINDS Professor Ronald Drever, left, and Richard Henderson
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Publication:Daily Record (Glasgow, Scotland)
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Oct 6, 2017
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