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A New Sparid Fish of Genus Sparidentex (Perciformes: Sparidae) From Coastal Waters of Pakistan (North Western Indian Cean).

Byline: Shabir Ali Amir, Pirzada Jamal A. Siddiqui and Rafaqat Masroor

Abstract.- A new species of seabream, Sparidentex jamalensis sp. nov., mainly inhabiting the mangrove swamps, is described from eleven specimens, 148-224 mm SL, collected from coastal areas of Sindh, Pakistan. It has been invariably confused with Sparidentex hasta, also Ccurring in the North Western Indian Cean. Sparidentex jamalensis sp. nov. differs from Sparidentex hasta and from nominal species placed within the genus Sparidentex, by the following combination of characters: body depth 37-41% , head length 33-38% caudal peduncle length 18-20% in standard length; 3 1/2 scale rows between the 5th dorsal-fin spine base and lateral-line , 3 1/2 scale rows between the9th dorsal-fin spine base and lateral-line, second anal-fin spine distinctly stouter and longer than third spine ratio of2nd anal-fin spine and 3rd anal-fin spine is 1.3-1.7 steep profile of snout , presence of black vivid spot at the beginning of pectoral-fin and diffused black blotch at the beginning of pored lateral-line scales, six canine teeth in both jaws, 45-47 lateral line scales, dorsal-fin rays XI, 11, white pelvic-fins and grayish black anal-fin.

Key words: Sparidentex jamalensis sp. nov., Sparidentex hasta, North-western Indian Cean.

INTRODUCTION

The genus Sparidentex Munro 1948 is currently a monotypic genus that contains a single valid species, namely Sparidentex hasta. Two nominal species, Petrus belayewi Hora and Misra,1943 (reported from Iraq) and Coius datnia Hamilton, 1822 (reported from Ganges River mouth, India), present similar morphological characteristics to the genus Sparidentex (i.e. canine teeth in front of their jaws and no molariform teeth). This has induced different authors to place them in the genus Sparidentex (Bauchot and Smith,1983; Iwatsuki and Carpenter, 2006, 2009; Iwatsuki et al., 2013). Nevertheless, the formal recognition and validity of these two species is still questionable and needs to be resolved (Iwatsuki and Heemstra,2010).The type specimens of C. datnia, described by Hamilton, 1822 are not known (Iwatsuki and Carpenter, 2006). Dor (1984) and Ataur Rahman (2003) considered C. datnia as a synonym of Acanthopagrus latus. Interestingly, in an earlier study Ataur Rahman (1989) considered C. datnia as a valid species of Acanthopagrus. Also, Bleeker(1877) and Munro (1948, 1949) considered C. datnia to be a species of Acanthopagrus and Kottelat (1986, 2000) placed it in synonymy with A. latus because of its yellow pelvic and anal fins resembling the latter species. However, the absence of molar teeth noted in the original description and a fine plate strongly support the placement of C. datnia in the genus Sparidentex (Bauchot and Smith, 1983; Iwatsuki and Carpenter, 2006; Kume and Yoshino, 2008; Iwatsuki and Heemstra, 2010; Iwatsuki, 2013).Nearly the same problematic situation exists for P. belayewi Hora and Misra 1943 (type lCality: Rivers and Hors, Iraq; type specimen no.; F13628/1, Zoological Survey of India). Das (2003) considered this species as a synonym of Acanthopagrus berda while Iwatsuki and Carpenter (2006) and Kume and Yoshino (2008) mentioned it as a valid species of Sparidentex because of lack of molariform teeth, but the validity of P. belayewi is not yet certain (Iwatsuki and Heemstra, 2010).In various earlier studies (Bianchi, 1985; Hoda, 1988; Amir et al., 2013), two distinct Sparidentex species have been erroneously confused under a single scientific name S. hasta. Here we describe a new species of Sparidentex from the coastal waters of Pakistan, mainly inhabiting the mangrove swamps.MATERIALS AND METHODS

The eleven specimens of the new species were collected from various lCalities of Pakistani coast (see Type series below). The new species was compared with six specimens of Sparidentex hasta collected from West Wharf Fish Harbour and from Korangi Creek in Karachi (Table I). All fishes were preserved in crushed ice and transported to the laboratory of Center of Excellence in Marine Biology (CEMB), University of Karachi. Morphmetric and meristic data of these specimens was carried out at CEMB. For overall comparison with the specimens of S. hasta and S. jamalensis sp. nov., data of Petrus belayewi and Coius datnia were used from their original description papers. Counts and measurements follow Hubbs and Lagler (1964) and Amir et al. (2013). Lateral-line scales were not included in counting the number of scales between dorsal fin and lateral-line. Rudimentary gill-rakers were included in the total count of gill-rakers. Standard length is abbreviated as SL, total length as TL. A value was used for the second anal-fin spine/third anal-fin spine length (abbreviated as2AS/3AS) (Iwatsuki, 2013). All the acronyms used are as follow: CEMB, Pisces, Centre of Excellence in Marine Biology, University of Karachi, Pakistan; PMHH, Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Sparidentex jamalensis, new speciesType seriesHolotypePMNH no. 52062, 206 mm SL, West WharfFish Harbour, Karachi (245057.08" N;665838.27" E), gillnet, 09th Ctober, 2013.

ParatypesTen specimens (148-224 mm SL); PMNH no.52063, West Wharf Fish Harbour, Karachi, gillnet,09th Ctober, 2013; CEMB-P2012-0555 to CEMB- P2012-0563 (nine specimens), Keti Bunder, Sindh (240929.28" N; 672512.72" E), gillnet, 21thJune, 2010.

DiagnosisThe following combination of characters of Sparidentex jamalensis distinguishes this species from its congeners: dorsal-fin rays XI, 11; anal-fin rays III, 8; scale rows between the fifth dorsal-fin spine base and lateral-line 3 1/2; scale rows between the ninth dorsal-fin spine base to lateral-line 3 1/2 ; scale rows below first dorsal spine to the lateral-line4 1/2; scale rows below the lateral-line 12 1/2, poredlateral-line scales 45-47; body depth 37-41% SL, head length 33-38% SL, snout 10-12% SL, caudal peduncle length 18-20% SL; six enlarged fang-like slightly curved conical teeth at anterior portion of both jaws, two or three villiform teeth rows in lower jaw and three to four villiform teeth rows on upper jaw, outermost teeth in posterior portion after the caniform teeth distinctly conical and largest from parallel rows of small villiform teeth; second anal- fin spine distinctly stouter and longer than thirdanal-fin spine, the ratio of 2nd anal-fin spine / 3rdanal-fin spine is 1.4; total gill-rakers 15-18 (lower limb+mid+upper limb 8-10+1+6-7); head and body silvery-black; presence of black vivid spot at the beginning of pectoral-fin and diffused black blotch at the beginning of pored lateral-line scales; pelvic, anal and caudal fins dusky greyish black (Fig. 1).

DescriptionCounts and measurements of the holotype and 10 paratypes are given as percentage of SL in Table I. Characteristics stated in the diagnosis are not repeated.Body relatively deep and compressed; mouthsomewhat oblique; lips thick; snout pointed, two

Table I.-###Comparison of counts and morphometric data of Sparidentex jamalensis sp. nov., S. hasta and S. belayewi.

###Measurements are expressed as percentages of standard length.

###Sparidentex jamalensis sp. nov.###Sparidentex hasta###Sparidentex belayewi

###Holotype PMNH no.###Paratypes

###52062###PMNH no. 52063,###PMNH. 50412-50414###Hora and Misra

###n= 1###CEMB-P2012-0555-###CEMB-P2012-0565-###(1943)

###63,###67,###n= 1

###n= 10###n= 6

Counts:

Dorsal-fin rays###XI, 11###XI, 11###XI, 11-12###XII, 11

Anal-fin rays###III, 8###III, 8###III, 8###III, 8 1/2

Pectoral-fin rays###15###15###15###15

Pelvic-fin rays###I,5###I, 5###I,5###I,5

Pored lateral-line scales###45###45-47###47-48###46+6

Scale rows between fifth dorsal-fin spine base###31/2###31/2###51/2###51/2

and lateral-line

Scale rows between ninth dorsal-fin spine###31/2###3 1/2 -4###5-5 1/2###-

base and lateral-line

Scale rows above/below lateral-line###4 1/2 /12###3 1/2-4 /12 1/2###5 1/2 /12 1/2###5 1/2 / 13 1/2

Scale rows on cheek###6###6-7###6-7###6

Scale rows on opercle###6###6###5###-

Gill-rakers (upper +angle+lower)###7+1+10###6-7+1+8-10###7+1+8-9###9 in lower limb, rest

###not provided

Standard length (mm)###186###148-224###209-300###201

Proportions (% SL):

Body depth (highest)###37.6###37-41(40)###34-37 (35)###42

Body depth at first anal-fin spine origin###35###32-38 (36)###31-33 (32)###-

Head length###33.3###33-38 (35)###32-33 (32.5)###29

Body width at pectoral-fin base###16###15-19 (17)###15-18 (16)###-

Snout length###10###9-12 (11)###9.6-10 (10)###9

Orbit diameter###8###8-10 (9)###6.5-7.8 (7)###7

Dermal eye opening###7###7-8 (7.5)###5-6.4 (5.9)###-

Bony interorbital width###8.0###8-9 (8.5)###7.2-8.5 (8)###8

Interorbital width with membrane###9.2###8-10 (9)###7.6-9.7 (9)###-

Upper jaw length###13.1###9-14 (13)###11-12 (12)###-

Caudal peduncle depth###12.6###12-14 (13)###11-13 (12)###-

Caudal peduncle length###20.0###18-20 (19)###21-23 (22)###-

Predosal length###40.3###40-44(42)###37-40 (39)###-

Preanal length###71.5###64-72 (66)###58-71 (65)###-

Prepelvic length###38.7###39-43 (41)###36-37 (36.5)###-

Dorsal-fin base length###51.5###51-56 (53)###49-53 (51)###-

Anal-fin base length###17.0###15-18 (16)###14-16 (15)###-

Caudal-fin length###27###22-27 (26)###24-26 (24)###26

Pelvic spine length###15.6###14-18 (15)###12-14 (13)###-

First pelvic ray length###24.7###22-26 (24)###22-24 (23)###-

Pectoral-fin length###35.0###30-37 (35)###31-34 (32)###-

First dorsal-fin spine length###6.5###5-7 (6)###4.5-5.9 (5.2)###5

Second dorsal-fin spine length###9.7###9-12 (10)###8-10 (9.5)###8

Third dorsal-fin spine length###13.4###12-14 (13)###12-13 (12.8)###11

Fourth dorsal-fin spine length###15.6###13-16 (15)###13-19 (15)###13

Fifth dorsal-fin spine length###16###13-16 (15)###12-15 (14)###-

Sixth dorsal-fin spine length###15###13-15 (14)###12-14 (13.5)###-

Last dorsal-fin spine length###12.4###10-12 (11)###10-12 (11)###-

First dorsal-fin ray length###14.0###11-14(11)###11-13 (12)###11

First anal-fin spine length###5.8###3-6 (6)###4-12 (6)

Second anal-fin spine length###19.4###17-26 (20)###12-14 (13)###13

Third anal-fin spine length###13.4###13-15 (14)###11-13 (13)###11.4

First anal-fin ray length###15.0###11-18 (15)###12-16 (14)###-

Suborbital width (least)###4.3###4-5 (4)###4.9-6 (5.5)###-

Posteriormost jaw###10.8###10-14 (12)###9-11 (10)###-

2AS/3AS###1.44###1.3-1.7 (1.4)###1-1.2 (1.1)###1.2

474###S.A. AMIR ET AL.

Measurements are expressed as percentages of standard length.

nostrils just in front of eyes, anterior nostril small and rounded and posterior one long oval; upper jaw protruding slightly in front of lower jaw; maxilla reaching to below mideye level (pupil or center of orbit); at front of each jaw, 6 enlarged, fang-like, conical teeth, outer series of lateral teeth conical and compressed with parallel rows of villiform teeth; least suborbital depth much shorter than eye diameter, six or seven transverse rows of scales on cheek and six (5-7) on opercle; anterodorsal profile ascending somewhat sharply from mouth to eyes then gently just above eye; dorsal profile of fish body somewhat arched; anteriormost margin of mouth somewhat pointed (Fig. 2c); no scales on preopercular flange, its posterior margin weakly serrated; low scaly sheath on soft dorsal and anal-fin ray bases; dorsal-fin spines strong, fourth and fifth longest; first anal-fin spine visibly shorter than orbit diameter; second anal-fin spine clearly longer than longest (fourth) dorsal-fin spine; third anal-fin spineshorter than second anal-fin spine; pectoral-fin long, its length subequal or slightly greater than head length, tip nearly reaching to anal opening (in some paratypes up to anal-fin spine base); pelvic-fin spine longer than snout length; first ray of pelvic-fin intruded and clearly longer than second anal-fin spine; caudal-fin forked, the upper lobe is slightly longer and relatively more pointed.

Color (from fresh specimens)Head and dorsal part of body dull olive silvery, becoming silvery-white up to belly; scales with dark margins forming faint lines dorsally on body; dorsal-fin and anal rays grey, soft rays hyaline, membranes of the dorsal and anal fins aredusky grey; pectoral fins light yellow to whitish anddistinctly stouter and longer than third spine, the

pelvic fins light greyish to whitish; a black spot at average of ratio of 2nd anal-fin spine / 3rd anal-fin

pectoral axil and a diffuse spot at beginning of lateral-line; caudal-fin dusky and posterior margin darker. Color of holotype and paratypes is similar.

DistributionThis species is currently known only from coastal waters of Pakistan. It is highly probable that this species may Ccur in the coastal waters of northern Arabian Sea, India and Persian Gulf.

EtymologyThe specific epithet jamalensis refers to Prof. Dr. Pirzada Jamal Ahmed Siddiqui, whose support and contributions to the work on marine fauna of Pakistan is immense and noteworthy.

ComparisonThe comparison of Sparidentex jamalensis sp. nov. with Sparidentex hasta (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1830) and two other less studied sparid species, Sparidentex datnia (Hamilton, 1822) and S. belayewi (Hora and Misra, 1943) confirm that Sparidentex jamalensis is a new species. S. jamalensis differs from Sparidentex hasta (Fig. 3) in the following combination of characters: higher body depth (37-41% vs 34-37% SL) and head length (33-38% vs 32-33% SL), lower suborbital depth (4-5% vs 5-6% SL), lower caudal peduncle length (18-20% vs 21-23% SL); scale rows between the 5th dorsal-fin spine base and lateral-line 3 1/2 (vs 5 1/2), scale rows between the 9th dorsal-fin spine base andlateral-line 3 1/2 (vs 5 1/2), second anal-fin spine spine is 1.3 - 1.7 (vs 1-1.2 ) (Figs. 1-3; Table I).Sparidentex jamalensis sp. nov. is separable from Sparidentex datnia in dorsal and pelvic fin counts. S. jamalensis has XI, 11 and I, 5 dorsal and pelvic fin counts, respectively, whereas S. datnia has XII,10, and I, 6; somewhat white pelvic-fins (versus yellow pelvic-fins) and greyish black anal-fin (versus yellow anal-fin).The comparison of Sparidentex jamalensis sp. nov. with the original description of S. belayewi highlighted differences in many diagnostic characters, as shown in Table I. In S. jamalensis, the scales between fifth dorsal-fin spine base to lateral- line counts 31/2 vs 51/2 in S. belayewi. The head length is relatively lower in S. jamalensis, ranging from 2.7-3.0 times and 3-4 times in SL and TL, respectively whereas 3.4 times and 4.3 times in SL and TL, respectively in S. belayewi. Diameter of eye contained 4.1-4.3 times in head length in S. jamalensis versus 3.8 times in head length in S. belayewi. Six enlarged canine teeth exist in both jaws in S. jamalensis whereas 6 in upper jaw and 4 in the lower jaw in S. belayewi.

RemarksIn Pakistan, all sparid fishes are commercially important, including Sparidentex species, and fetch high prices in the lCal fish markets at Karachi. The lCal fishermen identify two different forms of Sparidentex hasta. One form is lCally called "Dathi" (i.e., Sparidentex hasta) and is relatively higher in price among all other sparid fishes. The other form is lCally known as "Kukri" which we here refer to Sparidentex jamalensis sp. nov. that is sold in fish markets with normal prices as other sparid fishes but quite cheaper than S. hasta. The distinctly stouter second anal-fin spine, clearly visible in the illustration of Sparidentex hasta (see Fischer and Bianchi (1984) and Bianchi (1985)) support the hypothesis that these two species have been confused since long time.Iwatsuki et al. (2013) reports the secondrecord after the original description of S. belayewi from Omani waters. Surprisingly, the specific name of S. belayewi is erroneously reported as S. belaywesi. They also did not provide detailed description and photographs of this important specimen. Standard length of the holotype of P. belayewi presented by Hora and Misra (1943) in the original description is 201 mm whereas Iwatsuki and Heemstra (2010) reported that the holotype of Petrus belayewi (ZSI-F 3628/1) measured 193mm SL, which might be due to the shrinkage of specimen in preservative solution for a long time.

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF SPARIDENTEX

(Information on C. datnia and P. belayewi was extracted from their original descriptions).

1. Dorsal-fin spines XI, rays 11; anal-fin membrane black ..2- Dorsal-fin spines XII, rays 10; anal-fin membrane yellow................................................................ S. datnia2. Scale rows between fifth dorsal-fin spine base and lateral- line 31/2; second anal-fin is longer than third anal-fin spine...................................................S. jamalensis- Scale rows between fifth dorsal-fin spine base and lateral-line 51/2; second anal-fin is subequal to third anal-fin spine.....................................................................33. Highest body depth 34-37 % in SL; 47-48 pored lateral- line scales ...................................................S. hasta- Highest body depth 42 % in SL; 52 pored lateral-line scales.................................................... S. belayewi

Comparative material examinedSparidentex jamalensis: PMNH. 52062 (holotype), 186 mm SL, sex not determined, West Wharf Fish Harbour, Karachi, gillnet, 09th Ctober,2013; PMNH. 52063, 206mm SL, lCality data same as holotype; CEMB-P2012-0555 to CEMB- P2012-0563 (ten paratypes), 148-224 mm SL, Keti Bunder, Sindh, gillnet, 21th June, 2010. Sparidentex hasta: PMNH. 50412-50414 (3 specimens), 209-300 mm SL, West Wharf Fish Harbour, Karachi, gillnet, 09th Ctober, 2013; CEMB-P2012-0565 to CEMB-P2012-0567 (3 specimens), 224-300 mm SL, Korangi Creek, Karachi, gillnet, 21th June, 2010.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This work was produced as a result for completion of PhD studies of the first author. We are greatly indebted to Dr. Peter N. Psomadakis, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) for his technical and moral support during his official visit to Pakistan on his assignment for revising and updating the field guide on the marine resources of Pakistan. A great deal of technical support was provided by Dr. Yukio Iwatsuki and Fumiya Tanaka during their call-up visit to CEMB, Karachi University, partially funded by Higher Education Commission, Government of Pakistan through Visiting Scholar Programme. We also feel pleased to mention the support of Mr. Badr Usmani and Dr. Waseem Khan of Marine Fisheries Department, Karachi, which was indeed of great significance. We would also like to express our gratitude to Mr. Ibad-ur-Rehman, Field Assistant, Pakistan Museum of Natural History, for his untiring efforts during the laboratory work. We also thank to William Eschmeyer for providing the original paper of Petrus belayewi.

REFERENCES

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Author:Amir, Shabir Ali; Siddiqui, Pirzada Jamal A.; Masroor, Rafaqat
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Apr 30, 2014
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