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A NEW NEMATODE CAMALLANUS BOOMKERI SP. FROM THE FISH, CHANNA ORIENTALIS (OESTIECHTHYES: CHANNIDAES) IN FRESHWATERS OF PANJGUR, BALOCHISTAN.

Byline: A. Kakar, F. M. Bilqees, A. Iqbal , M. A. Panezai and G. E. S. Mukhtar

ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to investigate the helminth parasites of fish. During this study a new species of genus Camallanus Railliet and Henry, 1915 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) is described from specimens found in the swim bladder of Channa orientalis Bloch and Schneider, 1801 collected from River Gwarko in Panjgur (Balochistan).

This new species Camallanus boomkeri n. sp. differs from other reported forms of the genus on the basis of number of longitudinal ridges, body measurements and the caudal end of both sexes. It may also be differed in tridents nature, length of spicules and anal papillae number in males, and by the inflation of vulva lips in females and excretory pore position.

Key words: Nematode, Camallanus boomkeri n. sp., freshwater fish, Channa orientalis.

INTRODUCTION

The genus Camallanus was established by Railliet and Henry (1915) to include C. lacustris (Zoega, 1776). Species of the genus are widely distributed over the world. It has been studied that many species of this group of nematode are described from stomach or intestine of frog, turtle and most frequently from numerous fish species (Gupta, 1959; Yamaguti, 1961; Agrawal, 1967; Sood, 1989; Kuzmin et al., 2009).

To date, there are generally few data is available on morphology and systemic evaluation of Camallanus sp. in Pakistan. Previously only four species of the genus have been reported from freshwater fishes namely, C. xenentodoni (Khan and Yaseen, 1969) (based on only females) in Xenentodoni cancilla; C. vachaii (Wahid and Perveen, 1969) in Eutropiichthyes vacha; C. barragi (Zaidi and Khan, 1975) (based on only males) in Mastacembalus armatus; C. charsaddiensis (Siddiqi and Khattak 1984) in Channa gachua. However, Ashraf et al. (1977) reported the presence of Camallanus species in marine fishes of Pakistan.

The present study describes a new species of camallanid nematode found in the swim bladder during a parasitological fauna survey of perciform fish, Channa orientalis (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from River Gwarko, Panjgur. This is the first report of helminth parasite from swim bladder of C. orientalis and also new locality record. The specimens under study do not agree with descriptions of known species of the genus Camallanus (Railliet and Henry, 1915). Hence a new species Camallanus boomkeri n. sp. has been erected to accommodate the present specimens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Fishing and sampling site: In March 2008, fourteen C. orientalis (Pisces: Oestichthyes) were caught by baited traps in River Gwarko, Panjgur (26deg-14 to 27deg-18 N latitudes: 63deg-07 to 65deg-24E longitudes), southwest Balochistan. Fish were fixed in 10 % formaldehyde, measured (body length 9-14 cm) and also examined to find out if there were any nematodes.

Microscopy and mounting: The recovered nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol and then cleared in phenol-glycerin (1:3) for light microscopic (CH-4 Olympus Optical Co. Ltd. Japan) examination. Four males and 5 females were studied. These were mounted temporary in pure glycerin.

Illustrations and Measurements: Drawings were made with the help of Zeiss microscope drawing attachment (Leitz Wetlar Germany / 1.75 X). Measurements are taken from a compound microscope with the use of stage- micrometer and an ocular micrometer. All measurements are taken (length x width) in millimeters. Photographs of parasite specimens were taken by Camera-mounted Microscope (Leica Microsystems Wetzlar GmbH (MPS30-T630mA) made by Leica 86 (LGA), Germany).

Deposition of specimens: Parasite specimens (Holotype, allotype and paratypes) are deposited in the Helminthes Collection in the Museum of Zoology Department, University of Balochistan in Quetta, Pakistan. These are accessible to other researchers on request.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Camallanus boomkeri n. sp. (Figures 1-4) Type host: Channa orientalis Bloch and Schneider, 1801 (Channidae) Site of infection: Swim bladder Type locality: River Gwarko, Panjgur, southwest Balochistan Number of specimens: Nine nematodes including 4 males and 5 females from 5 fish, 14 Hosts were examined Prevalence and intensity: 5/14 (35.7%), 2-5 specimens per fish, mean (4) Holotype male: Voucher No. ZBU-N68 Allotype female: Voucher No. ZBU-N69

Description (based on 4 male and 5 female specimens): Slender worms: with blunt anterior and tapering posterior extremities. Body cuticle smooth. Males bear lateral alae found on regions of esophagus and near caudal end. Mouth opening narrow, slit-shaped, with three chitinous projections anteriorly obvious in male worms. Cephalic papillae and lateral amphids not observed.

Buccal capsule has identical lateral valves; each valve internally armed by 9 longitudinal ridges varied on length for both sexes. Posterior end of buccal cavity surrounded by thick, sclerotized ring (basal ring) supported by 2 prominent tridents having 3 prongs. Central prongs small, hardly visible. Esophagus divided into anterior muscular and posterior glandular portions. Glandular portion almost longer and broader than muscular ones. Intestine straight, wide. Nerve ring encircles the midregion of muscular esophagus in males: but in females, it encircles the anterior region of muscular esophagus. Deirids not prominent.

Excretory pore of both sexes preequatorial. Male worms presented two unequal spicules, relatively slender, rounded anteriorly and pointed posteriorly. Large (left) spicule one and half times longer than small (right) spicule. Caudal end with 12 pairs of (sessile) anal papillae, arranged as 7 preanal, 1 adnal and 4 postanal. Females vulva small with slightly elevated lips, postequatoruial. Muscular vagina directed posteriorly from vulva joining the uterus which contain numerous, smooth eggs. Tail small, tapering to bifid, spiny tips in both sexes.

Males (measurements for holotype and 3 paratypes):

Body length 2.1 (1.74-1.95), maximum width 0.1 (0.07- 0.09), buccal capsule 0.042 (0.032-0.039) x 0.065 (0.061- 0.063), basal ring 0.045 (0.04-0.043) x 0.02 (0.016- 0.019), tridents 0.029 (0.024-0.027) x 0.015 (0.01-0.013). Esophagus muscular 0.28 (0.23-0.26) x 0.06 (0.05- 0.057), glandular 0.33 (0.25-0.29) x 0.068 (0.061-0.065) in size. Length of both parts of esophagus 1: 1.33-2.03. Nerve ring and excretory pore at 0.127 (0.122-0.125) and 0.9 (0.5-0.7) respectively from anterior extremity.

Large spicule 0.32 (0.26-0.29) x 0.016 (0.013-0.015), small spicule 0.175 (0.168-0.171) x 0.12 (0.06-0.08). Spicular ratio 1:1.83 (1: 1.43-1:167). Tail 0.13 (0.09-0.11) mm long.

Females (measurements for allotype and 4 paratypes): Body length 2.23 (1.95-2.1), maximum width 0.14 (0.1- 0.13), buccal capsule 0.06 (0.03-0.05) x 0.054 (0.05- 0.053), basal ring 0.013 (0.008-0.012) x 0.034 (0.03- 0.033), tridents 0.027 (0.023-0.025) x 0.11 (0.007-0.01). Esophagus muscular 0.224 (0.19-0.222) x 0.043 (0.037- 0.041), glandular 0.28 (0.21-0.25) x 0.065 (0.06-0.063) in size. Length of both parts of esophagus 1: 1.08-1.27. Nerve ring and excretory pore at 0.124 (0.11-0.12) and 1.0 (0.7-0.9) respectively from anterior extremity. Vulva 0.023 (0.018-0.21) x 0.022 (0.007-0.021), anterior vulvar lip 0.012 (0.008-0.011) x 0.003 (0.001-0.002), posterior 0.014 (0.01-0.013) x 0.004 (0.001-0.003)|. Vulva at 1.12 (0.93-1.11) from posterior extremity. Vagina 0.09 (0.04- 0.07) x 0.023 (0.018-0.021). Eggs 0.023 (0.012-0.017) x 0.017 (0.01-0.015) in size. Tail 0.11 (0.05-0.09) mm long.

Railliet and Henry (1915) described the genus Camallanus to accommodate the nematodes from fishes. Ali (1956) erected a new genus Neocamallanus on the basis of absence of tridents. Yeh (1960 a, b) considered presence or absence of tridents as a variable character and therefore, regarded Neocamallanus to be synonym of Camallannus.

The presence of tridents, spicules and longitudinal ridges are the main characteristics of the genus Camallannus were suggested by Moravec (1973) and Gupta and Verma (1978). It is evident from the present study that only fourteen species of the genus reported worldwide lacks tridents (Table 1). The new nematode Camallanus boomkeri n. sp. strongly different from the fourteen species in the possession of tridents, smaller body size and bifid, spiny, tail ends in both sexes, and by vulva lips slightly elevated.

The present nematodes also different from all of them (except C. xeneontodoni, C. intestinalus, C. pernandoi, C. kulasirii, C. salmonae and C. gomtii,) by a lesser number (9) of longitudinal ridges, smaller buccal capsule and basal ring. Also, they distinguish from them due to shorter measures of spicules ratio (except C. intestinalus), glandular esophagus, nerve ring position, smaller number of postanal papilla pairs (except C. satyapali) and by curved, pointed distal tip of small spicules.

The present specimens may be distigueshed from C. charsaddiensis, C. intestinalus, C. kumaoni, C. atridentus, C. cancelai, C. satyapali and C. lucknowensis in the presence of two spicules and alae on males body. The description of C. xeneontodoni, C. pernandoi, C. pearsi and C. salmonae are known only from females.

Despite the differences with all above mentioned forms, the present specimens closely resemble C. vachaii and C. charsaddiensis by their males preanal papillae number and to C. cancilai, C. satyapali and C. gomtii by vulva position, egg shape and the female tail terminates in two spines respectively. Females of C. kulasirii are unknown. The present specimens also resemble C. barragi (Zaidi and Khan, 1975) (based on males only) to body length, trident frongs and number and shape of longitudinal ridges. They may be distinguished in spicular ratio and other features as given in table 1.

Moreover, the new nematodes also distinct from following species of Camallanus include C. cotti (Fujita, 1927); C. unispiculus (Khera, 1954); C. mastacembeli (Agrawal, 1967); C. fotedari (Rain and Dhar, 1972) C. varanasiensis (Agrawal, 1974); C. adamsi (Bashirullah 1974b); C. ophiocephali (Shendge and Deshmuk, 1977b) (based on males only); C. nandai (Gupta and Verma, 1978b); C. aurangabdensis (Soota, 1983) (based on males only); C. oxygasterae (Gupta and Bakshi, 1983) in that these had single spicules in males (except C. adamsi and C. fotedari) and lack same number of longitudinal ridges (except C. nandai, C. mastacembeli and C. unispiculus) found in the new nematodes.

They also may be easily distinct from present specimens because of larger body, buccal capsule and tridents: by the caudal morphology and longer tail in both sexes. In contrast, new nematodes resemble C. cotti, C. varanasiensis and C. oxygasterae in preanal papillae number and vulva located in posterior position. Similar position of vulva also found in C. fotedari. Also, they strongly resemble C. unispiculus, C. aurangabadensis, C. adamsi and C. mastacembeli in vulva position; length of left spicule; number of anal papillae; and the males with caudal alae respectively. Description of C. ophiocephali males is unknown.

Similarly, C. equispiculus studied by Sood (1968) showed strong differences with new nematodes in possessing equally long spicules: decreased anal papillae number, shortest distance of vulva to anterior end in females, increased number of buccal capsule ridges (Table 1.) and longer body in both sexes. However, C. equispiculus seem to resemble present nematodes in having excretory pore situated in anterior position (preequatorial) in both sexes.

By analyzing the present material with C. testudineusi (Gupta and Verma, 1978); C. jullundurensis (Gupta and Doggal, 1977); C. sweeti (Moorthy, 1937); C. thaparus (Sahey and Narayan, 1968); C. anabantis (Pears, 1933), found out that these nematodes differed not only due to bifurcated spiny tail tip absence, but also because of anal papillae number, the position of nerve ring, the shape and ratio of spicules length and the thick ring along longitudinal ridges.

The present material, however, resembled them in number and shape of ridges, relative position of vulva and excretory pore excluding C. thaparus (Table 1.) and the caudal alae which is lacking in C. testudineusi and C. jullundurensis males.

The studied specimens can be differentiated from Camallanus hypophthalmichthys Dogel and Akhmerov, 1959 (Moravec et al., 2004) described in China by the absence of 3 small caudal processes on the mail tail tip, the highest measurements of body length in both sexes, the greater number of ridges and anal papillae pairs, the size ratio of spicules and by the absence of amphids and deirids as well.

Once more, it differs from C. hypophthalmichthys in the presence of significantly shorter alae on males esophagus, shorter muscular and glandular parts of esophagus, and in having eggs instead of larvae in uterus and the vulva postequatorial. A part from above mentioned differences, it resembles new species in excretory pore position; shape of spicules and vulval lips morphology.

The new species C. boomkeri n. sp. when compared with materials from Europe, C. lacustris (Zoega, 1776) Moravec, 1994 and C. truncatus (Rudolphi, 1819) Moravec, 1994; North American C. ancyclodirus (Ward and Magath, 1916) Baker, 1979; C. oxycephalus (Ward and Magath, 1916) Stromberg and Crites, 1975 and from South American C. maculatus (Martins et al., 2007), these specimens had shown larger buccal capsule, greater number of longitudinal ridges and anal papillae (except C. ancyclodirus and C. oxycephalus) and the tail length in males. All most all traits may be differed, but tridents, smooth eggs in females of C. maculatus, postequatorial vulva and preequatorial excretory pore in C. lacustris and C. truncatus females (Table 1).

On the basis of differences of the present specimens compared with other species of Camallanus Railliet and Henry, 1915, it is concluded that the present materials are new to science for which the name Camallanus boomkeri is proposed in honor of Dr. Joop Boomker, who has great contribution in the field of Nematology.

Table 1. Comparison of forms of Camallanus species reported from various fish hosts and localities of world including Pakistan

###Papillae###Position of

###Trident

###Longi-###Pre-anal###Postanal

###Ad-anal

###Spicular ratio /###Shape of###Total

Parasite species###Fish host/ locality###tudinal###Excretory###Excretory

###spicules length###Vulva###eggs

###ridges###pore###pore

Camallanus vachaii###Eutropiichthys vacha###20-22###absent###1: 4.82###7###0###5###12###unknown###Pre-equatorial###unknown###unknown

Wahid and Perveen,###Pakistan

1969

C. xenontodoni Khan###Xenontodoni cancila###9###absent###Unknown###_###_###_###_###unknown###Equatorial###unknown###Rounded

and Yaseen, 1969###Bangladesh (East###smooth

###Pakistan)

C. barragi Zaidi and###Mastacembalus###9###present###1: 2.7###5###0###3###8###unknown###unknown###unknown###unknown

Khan, 1975###armatus Pakistan

C. charsaddiensis###Channa gachua###13-14###absent###0.42-0.43 single###7###2###6###15###unknown###All the female specimens are in larval

Siddiqi and Khattak,###Pakistan###left spicule###form.

1984

C. adamsi Bashirullah,###Channa straitus###19-20###present###1:1.62-2.84###5###2###5###12###Pre-###Pre-equatorial###Pre-###unknown

1974###Bangladesh###equatorial###equatorial

C. intestinalus###Channa straitus###23-24###absent###0.09-0.28 single###6-###2###3-###13-###Pre-###Pre-equatorial###Pre-###unknown

Bashirullah, 1974###Bangladesh###left spicule###8###6###14###equatorial###equatorial

C. pernandoi Yeh,###Channa punctatus###9###absent###Unknown###_###_###_###_###unknown###Post-###unknown###unknown

1960a###Sri Lanka###equatorial

C. kulasirii Yeh, 1960a###Channa punctatus###9###vestigial###1:2.21-2.66###6###0###6###12###unknown###unknown###unknown###unknown

###Sri Lanka

C. pearsi Yeh, 1960b###Rasbora daniconius###7###absent###Unknown###_###_###_###_###unknown###Pre-equatorial###unknown###unknown

###Sri lanka

C. salmonae###Salmo sp. India###15###absent###Unknown###_###_###_###_###unknown###Equatorial###unknown###unknown

Chakravarthy, 1942

C. atridentus Khera,###Channa punctatus###20###absent###0.07, 0.156###5###2###3###10###Pre-###Pre-equatorial###Pre-###unknown

1954###India###equatorial###equatorial

C. cancilai Gupta and###Xenontodon cancila###unknown###absent###0.08-0.10###8###0###6###14###Pre-###Post-###Pre-###unknown

Verma, 1978###India###equatorial###equatorial###equatorial

C. gomtii Gupta and###Channa punctatus###20###absent###1:4.72-5.0###6###2###5###13###Pre-###Pre-equatorial###Pre-###unknown

Verma, 1978###India###equatorial###equatorial

C. kumaoni Arya, 1978###Chrossocheilus lattius###18-19###absent###0.16-0.17 single###6###0###5###11###Pre-###Pre-equatorial###Pre-###unknown

###India###left spicule###equatorial###equatorial

C. satyapali Arya and###Barilius vagra India###12 15-###absent###0.12 single left###5###1###4###10###Post-###Pre-equatorial###Post-###smooth

Nama, 1993###16###spicule###equatorial###equatorial

C. nandai Gupta and###Nadus nadus India###9###present###0.053 single left###5###0###5###10###Pre-###Pre-equatorial###Pre-###unknown

Verma, 197###spicule###equatorial###equatorial

C. testudineusi Gupta###Anabas testudineus###9###present###1: 2.48-3.35###8###0###6###14###Pre-###Postequatorial###Pre-###unknown

and Verma, 1978###India###equatorial###equatorial

C. mastacembali###Mastacembelus###9###present###0.076-0.336 single###9###1###3###13###Pre-###Pre-equatorial###Pre-###unknown

Agrawal, 1967###armatus India###left spicule###equatorial###equatorial

C. (Zeylanema)###Rita rita India###6###present###0.43-0.51 single###7###2###4###13###unknown###Pre-equatorial###unknown###unknown

Kakaret

Kakar

varanasiensis Agrawal,###left spicule

1974

C. equispiculus Sood,###Heterpneustes fossilis###11 13###present###0.145###5###0###6###11###Preequatorial###Pre-equatorial###Pre-###unknown

1968###India###equal###equatorial

C. ophiocephali###Channa straitus India###11###present###0.29-0.32 single###5###2###6###13###unknown###unknown###unknown###unknown

Shendge and Deshmuk,###left spicule

1977

C. jullundurensis Gupta###Mastacembelus###9###present###1: 2.0###7###2###5###14###unknown###Pre-equatorial###unknown###unknown

and Doggal, 1977###armatus India

C. fotedari Raina and###Nemacheilus###15-25###present###1: 1.3-1.45###6-###2###6###14-###unknown###Post-###unknown###unknown

Dhar, 1972###kashmirensis India###8###16###equatorial

C. aurangabadensis###Channa striatus India###11###present###0.29-0.32 single###5###2###6###13###unknown###not known###unknown###unknown

Soota, 1983###left spicule

C. sweeti Moorthy,###Channa straitus India###9###present###1: 1.75-2.1###4-###2###7###13-###unknown###Post-###Pre-###unknown

1937###6###15###equatorial###equatorial

C. unispiculus Khera,###Mastacembelus###9###present###0.63###14###0###2###16###unknown###Post-###unknown###unknown

1954###armatusIndia###single left spicule###equatorial

C. thaparus Sahay and###Channa straitus India###9###present###1: 2.0-2.5###7###2###4###13###unknown###Post-###unknown###unknown

Narayan, 1968###equatorial

C. luchnowensis Gupta###Channa straitus India###20###absent###0.12-0.13 single###3###0###2###5###Pre-###Pre-equatorial###Pre-###unknown

and Bakshi, 1980###left spicule###equatorial###equatorial

C. oxygasterae Gupta###Oxrgaster bacila India###20###present###0.165###7###0###6###13###Pre-###Post-###Pre-###unknown

and Bakshi, 1983###22###single left spicule###equatorial###equatorial###equatorial

C. cotti Fujita, 1927###Cottus polax Japan###16###present###0.18-0.20 single###7###0###7###14###not known###Postequatorial###unknown###rounded

###left spicule###smooth

C. (Z.) anabantus Pears,###Anabus testudineus###9###present###1: 9.4-10.93###4-###2###5-###10-###not known###Preequatorial###not known###unknown

1933###Thailand###7###6###13

C. hypophthlmichthys###Iristichthys nobilis###13-16###present###1:1.29-1.44###7###0###6###13###Pre-###Post-###Pre-###Uterus

Duggal and Akhmerov,###China Perca###16-23###present###1: 1.3-1.83###7###0###6###13###equatorial###equatorial###equatorial###contains

1959 (Moravec et al.,###fluviatilis, Anguilla###unknown###Post-###Pre-###larvae

2004) C. lacustris###Anguilla Europe###equatorial###equatorial###unknown

Zoega, 1776 (Moravec,

1994)

C. truncatus Rudolphi,###Schizostedion###14-20###Present###1: 1.47-1.50###7###0###6###13###Pre-###Post-###Pre-###Unknown

1819 (Moravec, 1994)###lucioperca Europe###equatorial###equatorial###equatorial

C. ancyclodirus Ward###Cyprinuds carpio###24-42###present###1: 1.13###7###0###4###11###unknown###Preequatorial###unknown###Uterus

and Magath, 1916###United States###contains

(Baker, 1979)###larvae

C. oxycephalus Ward###Morone chrysops,###21###present###1:1.75###6###0###5###11###Unknown###Pre-equatorial###Unknown###Unknown

and###Magath,###1916###Perca flavescence###26-28###present###1:1.78-4.6###7###2###4###13###Pre-###Equatorial###Pre-###smooth

(Stromberg and Crites,###United States###30-32###equatorial###equatorial

1975) C. maculatus###Xiphophorus

Martins et al., 2007###maculates Brazil

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A. Kakar, F. M. Bilqees , A. Iqbal , M. A. Panezai and G. E. S. Mukhtar Department of Zoology, University of Balochistan, Quetta-87300, Pakistan. Department of Zoology, Jinnah University for Women, Karachi-74600, Pakistan. Department of Chemistry, University of Balochistan, Quetta- 87300, Pakistan. Corresponding Author e-mail: asmardanzai@yahoo.com
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