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A Faunistic Study on Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea (Lepidoptera) of Murat Mountain in Banaz, USAK Province, Turkey.

Byline: Yusuf Huseyinoglu

Abstract.- This study was carried out in Murat Mountain located in Banaz district (Usak, Western Turkey), during 2000-2009 in order to collect data on Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea species, their distribution and current status. Butterflies (756) were caught with sweep nets from 28 localities during the field work of which 113 species and subspecies belonging to 7 families and 2 superfamilies were identified; 87 species were identified for the first time for Lepidoptera fauna of Usak province and 103 species were identified for the first time for Murat Mountain (Banaz) fauna.

Key words: Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea, Hesperioidea, Murat Mountain, Banaz.

INTRODUCTION

T he study area (Murat mountain) is located at north of Banaz district in Usak province (Western Turkey). Usak has a very large research potential because of divers ecosystem in both forest and agricultural lands. Having different ecosystems provide richness in habitat types for animals and plants, which may increase the diversity of living organisms. On the other hand, the continuing illegal use of forests and incorrect land use practices threaten the biological diversity in Usak. Therefore, detailed studies should be carried out to determine the biological diversity of Usak province.

Although Lepidoptera is one of the largest orders among insects in terms of the number of species, studies carried out in Turkey to determine the fauna and distribution of Lepidoptera are insufficient. Even though there are many studies on the Lepidoptera fauna of Turkey in general (Carbonel, 1998; Huseyinoglu, 2000; Kocak and Kemal, 2006, 2007; Lattin, 1950; Schurian and Rose, 1991; Schwingenschuss, 1938, 1939; Verity, 1935, 1937, 1938), specific study investigating the Lepidoptera of Usak province is lacking. Three hundred and eighty butterflies species have been determined in Turkey so far (Karacetin and Welch, 2011). According to Kocak (1982), Hesselbarth et al. (1995) and Kocak and Kemal (2008, 2009), records from the province of Usak indicate only about 26 species of butterflies. In this study three species of family Papilionidae, two of Pieridae, one of Argynnidae, seven of Satyridae, eleven of Lycaenidae and two of Hesperiidae have been recorded.

The objective of this study was to investigate the lepidoptera fauna of Murat mountain of Usak province and to determine the distribution of lepidopteran species.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This study was conducted in the months of May, July and August in 28 different localities and habitat types between 1050-1750 m in Murat Mountain (Banaz) from Usak province during 2000- 2009. Specimens were collected using a sweep net.

Collected specimens were killed in killing jars with ethyl acetate. During the collection, the collection date, name of the locality and altitude were noted on a piece of envelope for every specimen. Each specimen was then put into this envelope and all materials were brought to the laboratory for preparation and identification. All the butterfly specimens were pinned with wings spread, dried, and put into collection boxes. For identification of specimens, help was taken from Hesselbarth et al. (1995) and Tolman and Levington (1997).

The specimens were collected from 28 stations chronologically listed below Camyuva: Kestane Hill (1250m, 01.07.2000), Camyuva: Gokkaya (1250m, 01.07.2000), Kurudere (1700m, 01.07.2000), Kizilhisar: Dam N. (1100m, 09.07.2000), Kizilhisar: Uzeyir Plateau (1200m, 09.07.2000), Kizilpinar Hill: Mistik Location, 1350m, 09.07.2000), Bahadir: Acemoglu Valley 1150m, 16.07.2000), Hallaclar: Kuma Valley (1300- 1400m, 16.07.2000), Hallaclar: Elmacioluk (1500m, 16.07.2000), Bahadir: Baklan Plateau, Tepedelen (1800m, 16.07.2000), Kizilhisar: Uzeyir Plateau (1200m, 19.07.2000), Hallaclar: Elmacioluk (1500m, 20.07.2000), Bahadir: Besoluk, Ercuvan Plateau (1500m, 30.07.2000), Hallaclar: Elmacioluk (1500m, 30.07.2000), Bahadir: Baklan Plateau Tepedelen (1750m, 30.07.2000), Hallaclar: Cakmak Location (1350m, 06.08.2000), Hallaclar: Elmacioluk (1500m, 06.08.2000), Bahadir: Besoluk, Ercuvan Plateau (1500m, 06.08.2000), Bahadir: Baklan Plateau, Tepedelen (1750m, 06.08.2000), Kizilhisar: Dam N. (1050m, 20.08.2000), Bahadir N.: (1200m, 20.08.2000), Kizilhisar: Uzeyir Plateau (1250m, 20.08.2000), Kizilhisar: Cevizli Plateau (1450m, 20.08.2000), Bahadir: Gokkaya Valley (1000m, 15.05.2009), Bahadir: Gokkaya Plateau (1100m, 15.05.2009), Bahadir N.: Golcuk (1200m, 15.05.2009), Kizilhisar: Dam N. (1100m, 16.05.2009) and Kizilhisar: Uzeyir Plateau (1250m, 16.05.2009).

RESULTS

A total of 113 species and subspecies belonging to 7 families and 2 superfamilies of the order Lepidoptera were identified and are listed below. Species and subspecies are given under the superfamily and family to which they belong. Valid scientific name is given for each taxon. Faunistic records from previous studies carried out on the same area are also cited.

Superfamily: Papilionoidea Latreille (1802)

Family: Papilionidae Latreille (1802)

1. Papilio alexanor eitschbergeri Bollino & Sala, 1992 Material examined: 2.

2. Iphiclides podalirius podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758) Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 285-290 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m".

Material examined: 4, 5, 14, 15, 17, 24.

3. Zerynthia (Allancastria) deyrollei (Oberthur, 1869) Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 251-254 "Usak: 20km E Usak, 750m".

Material examined: 2, 24, 25, 26, 28.

4. Archon apollinus apollinus (Herbst, 1789) Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 260-263 "Usak, 920m.; 20km. E Usak, 950m.; Banaz".

Material examined: 24, 25, 26.

5. Parnassius (Driopa) mnemosyne (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 3.

Family: Pieridae Duponchel (1835)

6. Leptidea sinapis sinapis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 14, 15, 16, 27.

7. Leptidea duponcheli lorkovici (Pfeiffer, 1932) Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 309-312 "Usak: 6km. N Banaz, 950m".

Material examined: 24, 25, 27.

8. Anthocharis cardamines phoenissa Kalchberg, 1805

Material examined: 24, 25, 27.

9. Euchloe ausonia taurica ( Rober, 1907 )

Material examined: 24, 28.

10. Aporia crataegi crataegi (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 2, 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 11.

11. Pieris brassicae brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 3, 4, 5, 12, 15, 17.

12. Pieris (Artogeia) rapae rapae (Linnaeus, 1758)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 401-408 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m".

Material examined: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11, 15, 19, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28.

13. Pieris (Artogeia) ergane detersa Verity, (1908)

Material examined: 3, 10, 15, 19.

14. Pieris (Napi) napi pseudorapae Verity, (1908)

Material examined: 2, 24, 28.

15. Pontia edusa (Fabricius, 1777)

Material examined: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 15, 21, 23.

16. Colias (Eriocolias) crocea (Fourcroy, 1785)

Material examined: 2, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25.

17. Colias sareptensis bergeri Reissinger, 1989 Material examined: 2, 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 22, 23, 28.

18. Gonepteryx rhamni transiens Verity, 1913 Material examined: 10, 13, 25, 26.

19. Gonepteryx farinosa turcirana De Freina, 1983

Material examined: 3.

Family: Libytheidae Boisduval, 1833

20. Libythea celtis (Laicharting, 1782) Material examined: 3, 4, 5.

Family: Argynnidae Duponchel (1835)

21. Limenitis reducta herculeana Stichel, (1908)

Material examined: 2, 4, 5, 8, 11, 16, 20.

22. Vanessa atalanta atalanta (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 14, 15, 19.

23. Vanessa cardui cardui (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 24, 26.

24. Aglais urticae turcica (Staudinger, 1871)

Material examined: 3, 14, 18.

25. Polygonia c-album c-album (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 8.

26. Polygonia egea (Cramer, (1775)

Material examined: 19.

27. Nymphalis antiopa antiopa (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 3.

28. Melitaea punica telona Fruhstorfer, 1908

Material examined: 24.

29. Melitaea cinxia clarissa Staudinger, 1901

Material examined: 2.

30. Melitaea (Didymaeformis) fascelis (Esper, 1783)

Material examined: 3.

31. Melitaea (Didymaeformis) didyma (Esper, 1778)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 1047-1054 "Usak: 6km. N Banaz, 950m".

Material examined: 2, 5, 6, 8, 11, 15, 16, 21, 22, 23.

32. Mellicta athalia (Rottemburg, 1775)

Material examined: 2, 3, 8, 9, 10, 15.

33. Argynnis (Pandoriana) pandora pandora (Denis & Schiffermuller), 1775)

Material examined: 4, 5, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22.

34. Argynnis (Fabriciana) adippe (Denis & Schiffermuller), 1775)

Material examined: 14, 15, 19.

35. Argynnis (Argynnis) paphia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 5, 8, 9, 17.

36. Argynnis (Speyeria) aglaja ottomana (Rober, 1896)

Material examined: 1, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15, 17, 19.

37. Argynnis (Fabriciana) niobe orientalis Alpheraky, 1881

Material examined: 2, 3, 6, 15.

38. Issoria lathonia lathonia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 17, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28.

39. Brenthis daphne daphne (Bergstasser, 1780)

Material examined: 2, 3, 5, 6, 8.

40. Brenthis hecate transcaucasica Wnukowsky, 1929

Material examined: 6.

Family: Satyridae Boisduval, 1833

41. Kirinia roxelana roxelana (Cramer, 1777)

Material examined: 2.

42. Lasiommata megera transcaspica (Staudinger, 1767)

Material examined: 24, 27.

43. Lasiommata maera (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 5, 10, 20, 22.

44. Coenonympha arcania (Linnaeus, 1761)

Material examined: 8, 9.

45. Coenonympha pamphilus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 2, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28.

46. Maniola jurtina phormia (Fruhstorfer, 1909)

Material examined: 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22.

47. Maniola telmessia (Zeller, 1847)

Material examined: 2, 4, 6, 8, 17, 21.

48. Hyponephele lycaon collina (Rober, 1897)

Material examined: 9, 10.

49. Hyponephele lupina intermedia (Staudinger, 1886)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 844-848 "Usak: 6km. N Banaz, 950m.".

Material examined: 2, 15, 20.

50. Melanargia larissa noacki Wagener, 1983 Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 879-881 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m. 6km. N Banaz, 950m.".

Material examined: 2, 1, 4, 6.

51. Melanargia galathea satnia Fruhstorfer, 1917 Hesselbarth, et. al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 866-868 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m.".

Material examined: 6, 9, 12, 12.

52. Hipparchia (Parahipparchia) pellucida (Stauder, 1924)

Material examined: 2, 4, 5, 11.

53. Hipparchia syriaca (Staudinger, 1871) Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 896-900 "Usak: Bozkoy, 1000m.".

Material examined: 18, 20, 22.

54. Hipparchia (Parahipparchia) aristaeus senthes (Fruhstorfer, 1908)

Material examined: 2, 3, 8, 18, 21.

55. Hipparchia statilinus (Hufnagel, 1766)

Material examined: 20, 22.

56. Hipparchia (Neohipparchia) fatua fatua Freyer, (1844)

Material examined: 20.

57. Brintesia circe circe (Fabricius, 1775) Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 920-922 "Usak: 6km. N Banaz, 950m. 8km. S Banaz, 950m.".

Material examined: 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, 14, 17, 23.

58. Chazara briseis meridionalis (Staudinger, 1886)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 922-931 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m.".

Material examined: 2, 5, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22.

59. Pseudochazara mniszechii mniszechii Herrich-Schaffer, (1851)

Material examined: 13, 23.

60. Pseudochazara anthelea anthelea (Hubner, (1824)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 961-965 "Usak: Murat Dagi Sudseite: 4km S Ayranci, 1180m; Bozkoy 1000m.; 6km. N Banaz, 950m.; 8km. S Banaz, 950m.".

Material examined: 14, 15, 18, 19, 20.

Family: Lycaenidae Leach, (1815)

61. Lycaena phlaeas phlaeas (Linnaeus, 1761)

Material examined: 2, 3, 5, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 18.

62. Heodes (Loweia) tityrus tityrus (Poda, 1761)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 475-478 "Usak: 12km. Usak, 800m".

Material examined: 2, 3, 13, 15, 18, 27.

63. Heodes virgaureae virgaureae (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 17.

64. Heodes (Alciphronia) alciphron melibaeus (Staudinger, 1878)

Material examined: 2, 3, 10, 14, 15.

65. Thersamonia thersamon (Esper, (1784)

Material examined: 3, 10, 19.

66. Quercusia quercus quercus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 503-504 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m".

Material examined: 3.

67. Callophrys rubi rubi (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 2, 24.

68. Satyrium (Nordmannia) ilicis ilicis (Esper, (1779)

Material examined: 2, 4, 6, 8, 9.

69. Satyrium (Nordmannia) acaciae (Fabricius, 1787)

Material examined: 2, 6.

70. Tomares nogelii nogelii (Herrich-Schaffer, (1851)

Material examined: 2, 6.

71. Lampides boeticus boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 538-541 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m".

Material examined: 6, 8, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 23.

72. Cupido minimus minimus (Fuessly, 1775)

Material examined: 6.

73. Cupido osiris majuspunctata Verity, 1934

Material examined: 8.

74. Celastrina argiolus argiolus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 2, 3, 9.

75. Pseudophilotes vicrama schiffermuelleri (Hemming, 1929)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 561-563 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m".

Material examined: 2.

76. Glaucopsyche (Apelles) astraea astraea ( Freyer, (1851)

Material examined: 24, 27.

77. Glaucopsyche alexis alexis (Poda, 1761)

Material examined: 24, 25, 27, 28.

78. Iolana iolas lessei (Bernardi, 1964)

Material examined: 2.

79. Turanana endymion endymion (Freyer, (1850)

Material examined: 3, 10, 15.

80. Plebeius (Plebejidea) loewii loewii (Zeller, 1847)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 613-616 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m."

Material examined: 3.

81. Plebejus (Plebejides) sephirus sephirus (Frivaldszky, 1835)

Material examined: 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 23.

82. Plebejus argus aegidion (Meisner, 1818)

Material examined: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 13, 14, 22, 23.

83. Plebejus (Lycaeides) idas baldur (Hemming, 1934)

Material examined: 2, 10, 23.

84. Plebeius (Kretania) eurypilus eurypilus (Freyer, 1851)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 617-620 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m".

Material examined: 3.

85. Polyommatus semiargus bellis (Freyer, (1842)

Material examined: 16.

86. Polyommatus (Aricia) agestis agestis (Denis & Schiffermuller, 1775)

Material examined: 2, 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 15, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28.

87. Polyommatus (Aricia) anteros anteros (Freyer, 1838)

Material examined: 3.

88. Polyommatus (Plebicula) amandus amandus (Schneider, 1792)

Material examined: 2, 16.

89. Polyommatus (Thersitesia) thersites thersites (Canterer, (1835)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 662-665 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m".

Material examined: 2, 3, 6, 10, 13, 14.

90. Polyommatus (Sublysandra) cornelius cornelius (Freyer, (1850)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 668-672 "Usak: 6km. N Banaz, 950m.; 8km. S. Banaz, 950m.".

Material examined: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 22.

91. Polyommatus icarus (Rottemburg, 1775)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 676-684 "Usak: 6km. N Banaz, 950m.; 4km. S Ayranci, Murat Dagi Sudseite, 1180m".

Material examined: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28.

92. Polyommatus (Meleageria) daphnis versicolor (Heyne, (1895)

Material examined: 4, 6, 8, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 23.

93. Polyommatus (Lysandra) bellargus bellargus (Rottemburg, 1775)

Material examined: 2, 3, 10, 11, 13, 16, 17, 21, 22, 23.

94. Polyommatus (Lysandra) ossmar ossmar (Gerhard, (1851)

Material examined: 5, 8, 14, 16, 17, 22, 23.

95. Polyommatus (Admetusia) admetus anatoliensis (Forster, 1960)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 713-715 "Usak: Bozkoy, 1000m. 8km. S Banaz, 950m.".

Material examined: 2, 4, 6.

96. Polyommatus (Admetusia) ripartii paralcestis (Forster, 1960)

Material examined: 4, 19, 23.

97. Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) poseidon poseidon (Herrich-Schaffer, (1851)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 726-728 "Usak: 8km. S Banaz, 950m.".

Material examined: 10, 15.

98. Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) actis (Herrich- Schaffer, (1851)

Material examined: 3.

99. Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) actis actis (Herrich-Schaffer, (1851)

Material examined: 10, 15.

Superfamily: Hesperioidea Latreille (1809)

Family: Hesperiidae Latreille (1809)

100. Thymelicus lineolus lineolus (Ochsenheimer, 1808)

Material examined: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10.

101. Thymelicus sylvestris syriacus (Tutt, (1905)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 167-171 "Usak: 4km.S. Ayranci, 1180m.".

Material examined: 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 17.

102. Ochlodes venatus faunus (Turati, 1905)

Material examined: 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 17.

103. Erynnis tages tages (Linnaeus, 1758)

Material examined: 24, 27.

104. Carcharodus alceae alceae (Esper, (1780)

Material examined: 3.

105. Carcharodus (Lavatheria) lavatherae tauricus (Reverdin, 1915)

Material examined: 22.

106. Carcharodus (Reverdinus) orientalis orientalis (Reverdin, 1913)

Material examined: 10, 15.

107. Spialia phlomidis (Herrich-Schaffer, (1845)

Material examined: 15.

108. Spialia (Neospialia) orbifer (Hubner, (1823)

Hesselbarth, et al., 1995, Die Tagfalter der Turkei: 206-210 "Usak: 4km. S. Ayranci, 1180m".

Material examined: 2, 6, 10, 11, 15, 23.

109. Spialia orbifer hilaris (Staudinger, 1901)

Material examined: 3, 6.

110. Muschampia proteides proteides (Wagner, 1929)

Material examined: 18.

111. Muschampia tessellum nomas (Lederer, 1855)

Material examined: 3.

112. Pyrgus cinarae cinarae (Rambur, (1839)

Material examined: 4, 6.

113. Prygus melotis ponticus (Reverdin, 1914) Material examined: 24.

DISCUSSION

The Lepidoptera fauna of Turkey has been studied by several scientists. According to their reports, the Lepidoptera fauna of Turkey consists of more than 4770 species (4777 described species) (Kocak and Kemal, 2009). This is the first study to determine the Lepidoptera fauna of Murat Mountain (Usak province). In this study 113 lepidopteran species of 7 families in Usak were determined. These families and number of species are: Papilionidae (5); Pieridae (14); Libytheidae (1); Argynnidae (20); Satyridae (20); Lycaenidae (39) and Hesperiidae (14). All of these species were reported previously from different parts of Turkey. The 103 of 113 species which were identified in this study are first records for the Lepidoptera fauna of Murat Mountain (North Banaz) and 87 of them are first records for Usak province (Table I).

For proper and efficient sampling, Lepidoptera species were collected in different localities possessing different vegetation types (agricultural crops to conifer or broad-leaved forests) and altitudes (1050 to 1750m.) In this study clearly all these characteristics (locality, vegetation type, altitude and time) have an effect on distribution of living organisms, including butterflies.

According to literature review 26 species have been identified in the province of Usak in previous studies. This study has confirmed the distribution of those species recorded for Murat Mountains in previous studies. These species are listed below:

Papilionidae: Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758); Zerynthia (Allancastria) deyrollei (Oberthur, 1869); Archon apollinus (Herbst, 1789).

Pieridae: Leptidea duponcheli lorkovici (Pfeiffer, 1932); Pieris (Artogeia) rapae (Linnaeus, 1758);

Table I.- The distribution of lepidopteran species according to families and superfamilies in Murat Mountain, Banaz, Usak Province, Turkey.

Argynnidae: Melitaea (Didymaeformis) didyma (Esper, (1778]); Satyridae: Hyponephele lupina intermedia (Staudinger, 1886); Melanargia larissa noacki Wagener, 1983; Melanargia galathea satnia Fruhstorfer, 1917; Hipparchia syriaca (Staudinger, 1871); Brintesia circe (Fabricius, 1775); Chazara briseis meridionalis (Staudinger, 1886); Pseudochazara anthelea anthelea (Hubner,[1824]).

Lycaenidae: Heodes (Loweia) tityrus tityrus (Poda, 1761); Quercusia quercus quercus (Linnaeus, 1758); Lampides boeticus (Linnaeus, 1767); Pseudophilotes vicrama schiffermuelleri (Hemming, 1929); Plebeius (Plebejidea) loewii loewii (Zeller, 1847); Plebeius (Kretania) eurypilus eurypilus (Freyer, 1851); Polyommatus (Aricia) anteros anteros (Freyer, [1838]); Polyommatus (Thersitesia) thersites (Canterer, [1835]); Polyommatus (Sublysandra) cornelius (Freyer, [1850]); Polyommatus icarus (Rottemburg, 1775); Polyommatus (Admetusia) admetus anatoliensis (Forster, 1960); Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) poseidon (Herrich-Schaffer, [1851]).

Hesperiidae: Thymelicus sylvestris (Poda, 1761); Spialia (Neospialia) orbifer (Hubner, [1823]).

In conclusion, this study indicates that insect diversity is quite high in Usak. New studies considering insect orders should be carried out before agricultural and forest ecosystems are destroyed. Scientific and taxonomic studies about Usak are very limited in number. This study makes contribution to the Lepidoptera fauna of Usak.

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Author:Huseyinoglu, Yusuf
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Zoology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Apr 30, 2013
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