Printer Friendly

A Comparative Study regarding Teachers' Morale among Public and Private Schools at Secondary Level in Peshawar.

Byline: Sajida Miraj, Amjad Reba and Jalal Ud Din

Abstract

The study was designed to investigate the factors affecting teachers' morale in public and private schools such as salary, working condition, job security, working hours, etc. Purpose of the study was to point out the factors that affect the professionalism and level of commitment with respect to teacher's morale. Data for the study were collected from randomly selected six secondary schools in KP Province, University Town Peshawar, i.e. three public and three private schools. A sample of 30 teachers was selected from these schools, i.e. 15 teachers from each sector. Questionnaire was used as an instrument, which included 18 questions related to teacher morale. The researchers personally visited each school for the collection of data. It was a visible confirmation that strong leadership, coupled with clear guidelines, rules, consequences and loving support, were considered as key factors for raising teacher morale and improving school environment.

The study found that 75% teachers' morale was very high and 80% of teachers were satisfied with their job, while the issue of teachers' salary was found to be the main cause of low morale. The study concluded that the teachers of both sectors have the same and high level of morale. It is recommended that teachers' quality can be improved simply by creating an awareness and recognition of morale in these schools. Incentives for the teachers may be increased with the introduction of rewards and punishment.

Keywords: Teacher morale, public, private, school

Introduction

Morale refers to principles, teachings, the mental and emotional condition of an individual or group with regard to the tasks at hand, a sense of common purpose with respect to a group, or the level of individual psychological well-being (Webster Dictionary, 2012). It is very hard for teachers to gain job satisfaction or have highest morale for any task; component or activity of the job can afford slight value (Evans, 1998). Work can be very interesting activity as people considered it to pick up the greatest part of the life. Some people considered it satisfactory; but for others it can be the cause of dissatisfaction (Herzberg, 1993). Maslow (1970) hierarchy of needs theory offered some vital basis for understanding the platform or fundamentals of the morale of teachers. By Lunenburg (1996), Maslow found essential needs of humans; such as, physiological safety, self-actualization and social values.

Similarly, at some point the needs organized from lower to higher are considered to be the fundamental needs of human beings and are influential factor as far as morale of a person is concerned: Physiological needs consist the essentials of water, food, oxygen, sleep, etc.; security and safety necessities consist of physical safety, order, avoidance of nervousness, economic and job security; social necessities consist of belongingness need, recognition by others and friendship; Esteem needs include the need of administration, honor from others and self-respect and Self-actualization needs contain the wish to increase our power, capability and creativity (Whitaker, T., Whitaker, B., and Lumpa, D., 2000). Parks (1983) stated that people need basics for life to preserve highest morale.

These are motivational needs that include (a) they being free from economic worries (b) feeling accomplished about oneself, (c) having the capability to demonstrate one's own creations (d) physical, mental health and (e) having the opportunity and liberty and to love others and be loved by others. Evans (1997) originated that there were three leading factors of an individual i-e low status, low pay, and deficiency of job satisfaction. The quality of teachers and their teaching are the important aspects that affect the policy (Halasz, G., Santiago, P., Ekholm, M., Matthews, P., and McKenzie, P., 2004). Professional ethics can be best synthesized as a set of beliefs that a teacher considered for relationships with learners, fellows, employers, and all stakeholders in the life of the teacher. These principles provide guidance to the teacher in his day to day activities while working with the stakeholder. These 'code of conduct' used by a profession discusses the behaviour of a group.

These codes set out principles of standards of behavior for each one of the group for how to work (Nuland, 2009). According to Hoy and Miskel (1987), when the school climate is good and the morale of teacher is high, not only for teachers in which they do feel excellent about themselves and others but they also are satisfied from their duty. High morale of teacher is concerned with some good qualities of a teacher. Lumpa (1997) mentioned the success and satisfaction of the students depends upon the level of teacher's satisfaction. Thomas (1997) argued that by only involving teacher to develop a cooperative environment, link with higher teacher morale and high learner accomplishment becomes evident. For consistent excellent professional practice commitment is considered as the key aspect for profession (Canrinus, 2012). However, affectivity is the main aspect to student and teachers (Rots, Aelterman, and Devos, 2014).

Emphasizing on emotional bonds to job, student and teachers' affective commitment to the teaching profession can affect their subsequent career decisions (Anderson and Stillman, 2013). The teaching profession has a good deal in common with the classical professions (Gleeson, 2012; Sexton 2007) and these professions provide a useful frame of reference when developing a vision for the establishment of a Chartered Teacher grade in Ireland. Newstrom (2007) stated that job satisfaction is a set of favorable or unfavorable feeling and emotions to test their job. It is an affective attitude, a feeling of relative, like or dislike. Now-a-days, low morale is an issue in institutes. Low status, poor salary, fear of increasing accountability and lack of autonomy are the main factors of low teachers' morale (White and Mackenzie, 2007). According to Dinham (1994), low status of teachers in community, ineffective administration, heavy workloads, society demands and pressure related to institutes are the factors of low morale.

Miller (1981) mentioned that morale of teacher can have a good effect on students learning and attitudes. Patton (2008) claimed teacher satisfaction has declined and create stress among teachers. Teacher empowerment and decision-making are strongly correlated with teacher morale (Zembylas and Papanasatasiou, 2005; Mackenzie, 2007). Raising the morale level of teacher does not only depend on making teaching process more effective for teachers, but the process of learning becomes favorable for the learner as well. This provides a climate which is beneficial to learning process. Denham (1994) argued that low morale of the staff was influenced by exterior factors or things such as schools having concern with social problems, changes to educational policies and mechanisms, increased administrative workloads, poor supervision and a decreasing status of teachers in society.

Parks (1983) argued that incentives to teachers; such as, lack of facilities, high strength, people response, limited support, workload, and package to teachers are reasons to quit the profession. Decision-making are strongly correlated with teacher morale (Zembylas and Papanasatasiou, 2005; Mackenzie, 2007). If the morale of the teachers is high the achievement of the students would be high (Lumsden, 2001). Furthermore, teacher morale is directly related to the school ecology and sense of satisfactions (Hoy and Miskel, 1987; Lumsden, 1998). Teacher-principal, teacher-teacher relationship, teaching competence, incentives, workload, subjects, promotion, society cooperation and infrastructure are closely related to up-lift the morale of a teacher. Moreover, head of the institute has great impact on the moral of the teacher. Communication, professionalism, and human relation skills are the key factors for the heads to deal with teachers and for keeping the morale of the teacher high (Houchard, 2005).

According to Blackburn (2015), Miller (1981) and Robinson (2007), heads behavior is also linked with high teacher morale. Principals have to develop cooperation, communication skills, and excellence in performance. According to Creswell (2012), the survey responses from teachers regarding morale to be honest about their attitudes, time, facilities and resources, community support, student conduct, and teacher leadership. Teacher's morale is a significant factor to make sure that teachers teach their subjects at their level best and to make the achievement of educational goal easy for the students. Young and fresh minds can easily be influenced by what they observe in their surroundings and what they do. Producing a good environment is an additional factor in schools which is very helpful in providing a well-formed educational program in which all academic members of the school participate willingly.

This article examines the different factors which affect the morale of teacher and attempts to find key factors to improve teacher morale and advance schools environment in both public and private sectors. The morale of the teachers directly influences delivery of teaching lesson, leadership and effectiveness, students' mind-set, discipline and behaviour, as well as students' performance. The researcher believe that, if the above goal is achieved then, teaching standards, reforms in curriculum, and learner assessments and teacher evaluation can become meaningful and successful (Parks,1983). This paper would explore the morale of the teachers in both public and private sector schools in the University of Peshawar.

Research Questions

* What are the factors that affect professionalism with respect to teacher morale?

* What should be the level of commitment with respect to teacher's morale?

Methods and Procedure

This was a survey method research. Participants were approached in their respective schools. All the teachers working at secondary level in public and private sector in Peshawar were included as the population of this study. Six higher secondary schools were included as sample from public and private sectors. Applying the random sampling technique, 15 teachers were selected from each sector i.e. five from each school. In this way thirty teachers constituted the sample size of the study. Questionnaire containing five point Likert type scale was used as an instrument to investigate teachers' morale. The strongly agree and agree were converted into agree, whereas, disagree and strongly disagree were changed into disagree.

Findings

The present study was conducted to find out the factors associated with teacher's morale in both sectors and then compared with one another. After the collection of data, it was analyzed and findings were tabulated and interpreted. Analyses were mainly based on the primary data. The appropriate tabulation and percentages of variables were calculated.

Table 1 Indicating Factors that Affect Professionalism with respect to Teacher's Morale in Public Schools

Items###Strongly###Disagree###Neutral###Agree###Strongly

###disagree###agree

I.i. The teachers in schools are###1(6.7%)###0(0%)###3(20%)###9(60%)###2(13.3%)

cooperative to achieve common,

personal, and professional goals

I.ii. Interaction with students are###0(0%)###0(0%)###0(0%)###10(66.7%)###5(33.3%)

highly satisfying and rewarding

I.iii. I feel that I am an important###0(0%)###0(0%)###2(13.3%)###9(60%)###4(26.7%)

person in my institute

I.iv. I do not hesitate to discuss###0(0%)###2(13.3%)###1(6.7%)###7(46.7%)###5(33.3%)

problem with Head

I.v. The society give respect to###0(0%)###3(20%)###6(40%)###5(33.3%)###1(6.7%)

teachers and treat them

professionals

I.vi. It is difficult for teachers to###3(20%)###5(33.3%)###4(26.7%)###2(13.3%)###1(6.7%)

gain acceptance by the people in

this community

I.vii. Students appreciate the###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###1(6.7%)###11(73.3%)###2(13.3%)

help I provide them in classroom

I.viii. This community is willing###0(0%)###0(0%)###7(46.7%)###6(40%)###2(13.3%)

to support a good program of

education

I.ix. Society pressures prevent###2(13.3%)###6(40%)###2(13.3%)###1(6.7%)###4(26.7%)

me from doing good as a teacher

Item 1.i reveals that nearly, 73% of the respondent teachers of public sector were of the view that teachers cooperate with each other to achieve common, personal and professional objectives. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 1.ii shows that almost, 100% of the respondent teachers of public sectors viewed that teacher student's relationship was highly satisfying and rewarding. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 1.iii indicates that roundabout, 86% of the respondent teachers of public sector mentioned that they feel themselves the important part of the school system. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 1.iv shows that approximately 80% of the respondent teachers of public sector reported that they openly discuss any problem with their principal. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 1.v reveals that nearly, 40% of the respondent teachers of public sector argued that the community respects teachers and considered them as professionals, while 40% teachers were remained neutral.

Item 1.vi indicates that 53% of the respondent teachers of public sector disagreed that it is very hard for teachers to gain acceptance by community, while 26% were neutral.

Item 1.vii shows that 86% of the respondent teachers of public sector considered that their students appreciate the help, the teachers provide to them. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 1.viii indicates that approximately, 53% of the respondent teachers of public sector were of the view that community is supportive enough in initiating education venues, while 47% were neutral.

Item 1.ix reveals that nearly, 53% of the respondent teachers of public sector disagreed that community pressures stop them from doing their best as a teacher, while 32% thought otherwise.

Table 2 Indicating Factors that Affect Professionalism with respect to Teacher Morale in Private Schools

Items###S.D###D###N###A###S.A

2.i. The teachers in school###0(0%)###0(0%)###5(33.3%)###8(53.3%)###2(13.3%)

cooperative to achieve common,

personal, and professional

objectives

2.ii. Sharing with students are###0(0%)###0(0%)###0(0%)###11(73.3%)###4(26.7%)

highly satisfying and remarkable

2.iii. I feel that I am an###0(0%)###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###3(20%)###11(73.3%)

important part of the institute

2,iv. I openly discuss any school###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###3(20%)###2(13.3%)###9(60%)

problem with my principal

2,v. This community respects its###0(0%)###0(0%)###3(20%)###9(60%)###3(20%)

teachers and treats them like

professional persons

2.vi. It is difficult for teachers to###2(13.3%)###10(66.7%)###1(6.7%)###2(13.3%)###9(60%)

gain acceptance by society

2.vii. Students admire the help I###0(0%)###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###4(26.7%)###10(66.7%)

give them with their schoolwork

2,viii.This community is willing###0(0%)###0(0%)###2(13.3%)###10(66.7%)###3(20%)

to support a good program of

education

2. ix. Society pressure prevent###1(6.7%)###11(73.3%)###3(20%)###0(0%)###0(0%)

me from doing good as a teacher

Item 2.i indicates that nearly, 66% of the respondent teachers of private sector reported that teacher's cooperation help them to gain common, personal and professional goals, while 33% were neutral.

Item 2.ii shows that 99% of the respondent teachers of private sector viewed those teachers' contacts with students were highly satisfying and rewarding. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 2.iii reveals that approximately, 93% of the respondent teachers of private sector believed themselves to be an important part of the school system. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 2.iv indicates that 73% of the respondent teachers of private sector claimed that they can discuss their problems with principal. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 2.v shows that roundabout, 80% of the respondent teachers of private sector stated that the community respects teachers and treats them like professionals. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 2.vi indicates that 73% of the respondent teachers of private sector disagreed that it is very hard for teachers to accept their status by the community. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 2.vii reveals that 93% of the respondent teachers of private sector viewed that student appreciate the support, they provide to them during schoolwork. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 2.viii shows that nearly, 86% of the respondent teachers of private sector reported that society is very supportive in initiating educational programs. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 2.ix indicates that approximately, 80% of the respondent teachers of private sector disagreed that society pressures stop them from doing their best as a teacher. Other categories were rated negligible.

Table 3 Showing the Level of Commitment with respect to the Teacher Morale in Public Schools

Items###SD###D###N###A###SA

3.i. Teaching gives me a###0(0%)###0(0%)###0(0%)###5(33.3%)###10(66.7%)

lots of personal

satisfaction

3.ii. This profession###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###1(6.7%)###3(20%)###10(66.6%)

enables me to make

contribution to community

3.iii. If I could revisit my###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###0(0%)###5(33.3%)###9(60%)

profession again, I will opt

for teaching

3.iv. If I could earn much###8(53.3%)###3(20%)###1(6.7%)###1(6.7%)###2(13.3%)

in another work, I will

leave teaching profession

3.v. I feel successful and###0(0%)###0(0%)###0(0%)###10(66.7%)###5(33.3%)

competent in current

position.

3.vi. The stress resulting###1(6.7%)###2(13.3%)###6(40%)###6(40%)###0(0%)

from teaching makes

teaching undesirable

3.vii. This profession###3(20%)###1(6.7%)###1(6.7%)###8(53.3%)###2(13.3%)

enables me to provide a

satisfaction in living

3.viii. I think there is no###0(0%)###2(13.3%)###0(0%)###12(80%)###1(6.7%)

other challenging work

than teaching profession

3.ix. I am very much###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###2(13.3%)###5(33.3%)###7(46.7%)

satisfied with my

profession

Item 3.i shows that approximately, 99% of the respondent teachers of public sector claimed that teaching is a source of satisfaction. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 3.ii indicates that 86% of the respondent teachers of public sector viewed that teaching enable them to make their greatest contribution to all. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 3.iii shows that 99% of the respondent teachers of public sector stated that they would choose teaching again if another chance is provided. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 3.iv indicates that roundabout, 73% of the respondent teachers of public sector were not in favour of the view that they can earn more money in another work, they will quit teaching. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 3.v reveals that nearly, 99% of the respondent teachers of public sector considered that they feel successful in their present position. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 3.vi shows that approximately 40% of the respondent teachers of public sector reported that due to high stress, teaching has no attraction for them. The same percentage of the respondents was undecided.

Item 3.vii indicates that 66% of the respondent teachers of public sector stated that teaching as a profession makes them to offer a life a satisfaction. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 3.viii reveals that most of the respondent teachers of public sector i.e. 86% argued that there is no challenging work other than teaching for them. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 3.vix indicates that approximately, 80% of the respondent teachers of public sector viewed that they are satisfied with their present teaching position. Other categories were rated negligible.

Table 4 Showing the Level of Commitment with respect to the Teacher Morale in Private Schools

Items###SD###D###N###A###SA

4.i. Teaching gives me a lots of###0(0%)###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###4(26.6%)###10(66.7%)

satisfaction

4.ii. This profession enables me to###0(0%)###3(20%)###3(20%)###7(46.7%)###5(33.3%)

make contribution to community

4.iii. If I could revisit profession###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###4(26.6%)###7(46.6%)###3(20%)

again, I will opt for teaching

4.iv. If I could earn much in###1(6.7%)###5(33.3%)###9(60%)###0(0%)###0(0%)

another work, I would leave

teaching

4.v. I feel successful and capable###0(0%)###0(0%)###0(0%)###11(73.3%)###4(26.7%)

in my present profession

4.vi. The stress resulting from###1(6.7%)###2(13.3%)###1(6.7%)###11(73.3%)###0(0%)

teaching makes teaching

undesirable

4.vii. This profession enables me###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###9(60%)###2(13.3%)###3(20%)

to provide satisfaction to me

4.viii. To me there is no more###0(0%)###1(6.7%)###2(13.3%)###2(13.3%)###10(66.6%)

competitive work than teaching

4.vix. I am well satisfied with my###0(0%)###2(13.3%)###1(6.7%)###2(13.3%)###10(66.7%)

existing profession

Item 4.i indicates that approximately, 92% of the respondent teachers of private sector viewed that teaching provides great deal of satisfaction. Other categories were rated negligible.

Table 4.ii shows that nearly, 80% of the respondent teachers of private sector reported that teaching enable them to make their greatest contribution to society. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 4.iii reveals that roundabout, 66% of the respondent teachers of private sector were of the view that they would plan their career again as a teacher, while 27% were neutral.

Item 4.iv shows that 99% of the respondent teachers of private sector were neutral in the view that they would leave the teaching profession, if other jobs were offered. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 4.v indicates that nearly, 74% of the respondent teachers of private sector claimed that they feel successful in their present position. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 4.vi reveals that 74% of the respondent teachers of private sector considered that high anxiety makes teaching unattractive for them. Other categories were rated negligible.

Item 4.vii shows that approximately, 60% of the respondent teachers of private sector were neutral in the view that teaching jobs enable them to have a comfort life. Other categories were rated negligible.

Results and Discussion

The data found that more than half (73%) of the public school respondent teachers and 66% private school teachers were of the view that teachers cooperate with each other for achieving common, personal and professional objectives. According to Creswell (2012), the survey responses from teachers regarding morale to be honest about their attitude, time, facilities and resources, community support, student conduct, and teacher leadership. Teacher's morale is a significant factor to make sure that teachers teach their subjects at their level best and to make the achievement of educational goal easy. More than the half (99%) of the respondent of public school teachers and approximately 92% private schools teachers reported that teachers feel that they are successful and competent in their present position.

According to Hoy and Miskel (1987), when the school climate is good and the morale of teacher is high, not only for teachers in which they do feel excellent about themselves and others but they also are satisfied from their duty. Almost (80%) of the respondents of public schools teachers and private schools teachers reported that they were satisfied with their present teaching position. Work can be very interesting activity as people considered it to pick up the greatest part of the life. Some people considered it satisfactory; but for some other it can be the cause of dissatisfaction (Herzberg, 1993). Nearly 80% of the respondent teachers of both sectors were disagreed to the statement that the community pressures stop them from doing their best as a teacher. High morale of teacher is concerned with some good qualities of a teacher.

A school culture that supports teamwork and teacher involvement in decision-making was most strongly associated to higher morale, stronger commitment to teaching and purposes to stay in the profession. Weisi (1999) stated that a recapitulate the important academic background, specialty, field, workplace, sector, level, financial, and demographic variables for first-year teachers' grade of morale, level of commitment to their career selection and purposes to stay in teaching.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that there was a moderately high level of teacher morale as considered by questionnaire which would positively affect their professionalism and level of commitment. Satisfaction with teaching had the highest level of teacher morale of all diverse morale factors which can have a very positive impact on their teaching. Teacher salary had the lowest level of teacher morale of the different morale factors which can affect their performance negatively. The study concluded that the teacher relationship with principals and the principal's leadership qualities of enabling others to act and motivate the heart are the key to up-lift the morale of the teacher, which can boost their performance.

Recommendations

On the basis of findings and conclusion the paper recommended that in order to up-left the morale of the teachers, the profession of teaching may be given more importance as compare to other professions. The administration may provide relax environment to the teachers, so that they can feel better and reduced their teaching stress. Principals' may cooperate with teachers, to achieve the common goal.

References

Anderson, L. M., and Stillman, J. A. (2013). Student teaching's contribution to pre-service teacher development: A review of research focused on the preparation of teachers for urban and high-needs contexts. Review of Educational Research, 83(1), 3-69.

Blackburn, J. (2015). An evaluation of teacher morale in four elementary schools: The difference a school makes.

Canrinus, E. T., Helms-Lorenz, M., Beijaard, D., Buitink, J., and Hofman, A. (2012). Self-efficacy, job satisfaction, motivation and commitment: Exploring the relationships between indicators of teachers' professional identity. European journal of psychology of education, 27(1), 115-132.

Creswell, J. W. (2012). Education research: Planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Boston: Pearson.

Stoll, L., Bolam, R., McMahon, A., Wallace, M., and Thomas, S. (2006). Professional learning communities: A review of the literature. Journal of educational change, 7(4), 221-258.Evans, L. (1997). Understanding teacher morale and job satisfaction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 13(8), 831-845.

Evans, L. (1998). Teacher morale, job satisfaction and motivation. Sage. London, England: Paul Chapman.

Miller, W. C. (1981). Staff morale, school climate, and educational productivity. Education and leadership, 38(6), 483-486.

Halasz, G., Santiago, P., Ekholm, M., Matthews, P., and McKenzie, P. (2004). Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers: Country Note: Germany.

Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., and Snyderman, B. B. (1993). The motivation to work: with a new introduction by Frederick Herzberg. New Brunswick: NJ Transaction Publisher, cop.

Houchard, M. A. (2005). Principal leadership, teacher morale, and student achievement in seven schools in Mitchell County, North Carolina.

Hoy, W. K., Tarter, C. J., and Bliss, J. R. (1990). Organizational climate, school health, and effectiveness: A comparative analysis. Educational Administration Quarterly, 26(3), 260-279.

Lumpa, D. (1997). Correlates with teacher and student satisfaction in elementary and middle schools (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri-Columbia).

Lumsden, L. (1998). Teacher morale (ERIC Digest, Number 120) Eugene OR: ERIC clearinghouse on educational management. ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED422601.

Mackenzie, N. (2007). Teacher morale: More complex than we think?. The Australian Educational Researcher, 34(1), 89-104.

Markow, D., Macia, L., and Lee, H. (2013). The MetLife survey of the American teacher: Challenges for school leadership. New York, NY: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.

Maslow, A. H., Frager, R., Fadiman, J., McReynolds, C., and Cox, R. (1970). Motivation and personality. Harper and Row New York, 2.

Harper, and R., McClelland, D. C., and Burnham, D. H. (1976). Power is the great motivator. Harvard Business Review, 25, 159-166.

Newstrom, J. W. (2007). Organizational behavior, (12th ed.) New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.

Parks, D. J. (1983). Leadership in times of austerity. Educational leadership, 40(5), 11-13. Patton, M. Q. (2008). Utilization-focused evaluation.Sage publications. Randolph-Robinson, V. T. (2007). Leadership behaviors that contribute to teacher morale. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation) Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA.

Rots, I., Aelterman, A., and Devos, G. (2014). Teacher education graduates' choice (not) to enter the teaching profession: does teacher education matter? European Journal of Teacher Education, 37(3), 279-294.

Sexton, M. (2007). Evaluating teaching as a profession-Implications of a research study for the work of the teaching council. Irish Educational Studies, 26(1), 79-105.

Van-Nuland, S., and Poisson, M. (2009). Teacher codes: Learning from experience. UNESCO, International Institute for Educational Planning.

Whitaker, T., Whitaker, B., andLumpa, D. (2013). Motivating and inspiring teachers: The educational leader's guide for building staff morale. Routledge.

Weiss, E. M. (1999). Perceived workplace conditions and first-year teachers' morale, career choice commitment, and planned retention: A secondary analysis. Teaching and teacher education, 15(8), 861-879.

Zembylas, M., and Papanasatasiou, E. C. (2005). Modeling teacher empowerment: The role of job satisfaction. Educational Research and Evaluation, 11(5), 433-459.
COPYRIGHT 2018 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2018 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Bulletin of Education and Research
Date:Aug 31, 2018
Words:5263
Previous Article:The Impact of Academic Failure on the Self-Concept of Elementary Grade Students.
Next Article:Why Girls Disown Business Education: A Qualitative Study.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters