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A Comparative Study on Prospective Teachers' Disposition about Instructional Planning and Strategies in Universities of Punjab.

Byline: Almas Shoaib, Mumtaz Akhtar and Aroona Hashmi

Abstract

The most vital skills needed for effective teaching is instructional planning and strategies (Martel, 2009).This research was aimed to study and compare prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) in universities of Punjab. Two stage random sampling technique was used to select the sample, therefore nine hundred and sixty prospective teachers from six public universities comprised the sample of the study. Quantitative approach used survey method through an adopted self-reported scale. Data was analyzed by using different statistical techniques i.e. frequency distribution, independent samples t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson product moment correlation and linear regression applied to find out the variations in prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies on the basis of demographical variables.

The findings of the study comprised that majority of prospective teachers had moderate magnitude of dispositions of instructional planning and strategies. In addition, the prospective teachers' DIPS vary among different public universities of the Punjab and their gender and but it does not vary due to teaching practice.

Keywords: Prospective teachers' dispositions of instructional planning and strategies (DIPS).

Introduction

Globally, qualified teachers are the basic need of our students. Roth and Swail (2000) said that standards for licensing teachers, containing ten standards; each standards consists of three subdivisions of prospective teachers' knowledge, skills and disposition. Teacher-educators are responsible to train their prospective teachers (PTs) as expert of content and practical work which is helpful to them for effective teaching in future. In this manner, it is required to create dispositions that are valuable for successful teaching (McKnight, 2004).

Likewise, Dottin (2009) said now a days to train the future effective teachers are the main purpose of teacher education program and also make such person who not only have a degree but who have the knowledge, skills and dispositions that they need to become an effective teacher. Dispositions are the essential element of an effective teacher preparation program (Erickson, Hyndman and Wirtz, 2005).Voseles and Moss (2007) believed that when teacher-educators possessed positive significant dispositions then the teaching was elevated in the eyes of others.

Assessing the dispositions is important component which is desired for an effective teacher and for quality assurance of teacher education. The literature showed that in Pakistan, there are very few researches that have been conducted to examine the PTs' dispositions of instructional planning and strategies. As Sarwar and Hussain (2010) identified the difficulties and its solutions for Pakistan's teacher preparation programs. They conclude that our institutions prepare teachers without considering the requirements of the schools. They found that prospective teachers are weak in different aspects like discipline, lesson planning, classroom management, and content knowledge. They believe that the problems must be handled by more hard training in the weak aspects.

Therefore, this state of affairs compelled the researchers to conduct this study to investigate the prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) and compare their DIPS among different public universities of Punjab. Consequently, the present study may be helpful to fill the gap of literature about prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies among public universities of Punjab.

Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the study were to:

1. Investigate the magnitude of prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) in public universities of Punjab.

2. Compare the prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) among different public universities of Punjab.

3. Find the variation in prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies on the basis of demographical variables (i.e. gender, teaching practice, academic achievement scores and age).

Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses have been formulated on the basis of objectives: Ho1 There is no significance difference in prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) among different public universities of Punjab.

Ho2 There is no significance difference in prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) on the basis of gender.

Ho3 There is no significance difference in prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) on the basis of their teaching practice.

Ho4 There is no significance relationship between the prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) and their academic achievement scores.

Ho5 There is no significance impact of age on prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS).

Delimitation

This research was delimited to only two years duration (M.A education) teacher education program that offered in public universities due to limited time and financial constraints.

Research Design

The study was descriptive in nature.

Participants

The population of the present study was comprised of all prospective teachers enrolled in Master's Program (session 2014-16) in 11 Public Universities of Punjab (Province). There are approximately 2222 prospective teachers enrolled in Master's Program (session 2014-16) in 11 Public Universities of Punjab.

Two stage sampling technique was used to select the sample. At first stage six universities were selected by using simple random sampling (lottery method i.e. sampling without replacement method). So in the second stage, the researcher was selected 50% sample randomly from enrolled prospective teachers (session 2014-16) from sampled universities. The following table 1 shows the detail distribution of sample i.e. the name of selected universities, their enrollments strength and selected sample from each university.

Table 1 Detailed distribution of the sample

Sr.#### Public Universities###Total Enrollment###Selected Sample

1###University of the Punjab, Lahore###664###332

2###University of Education, Lahore###712###356

3###University Of Sargodha, Sargodha###147###74

4###Islamia University, Bahawalpur###150###75

5###Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan###170###85

6###Government College University, Faisalabad###77###38

###Total###1920###960

Research Instrumentation

To study the prospective teachers' disposition of instructional planning and strategies a self-reported scale developed by Lodhi (2014) was adopted. Disposition of Instructional Planning and Strategies (DIPS) scale consisted on 22 statements that are based on six point Likert-type scale ranging from '0% agree/disagree' to '100% agree' in progressions of six levels. The reliability of the instrument was a= 0.80.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

The questionnaire was distributed to nine hundred and sixty respondents. The data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) - 20 through descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was applied to summaries result of magnitude levels of disposition of instructional planning and strategies. Also inferential statistics i.e. independent samples t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson product moment correlation (Pearson r) and linear regression were applied to find out the variation in prospective teachers' dispositions of instructional planning and strategies on the basis of demographical variables.

It is demonstrates from figure 1 that majority of prospective teachers (63.2%) had moderate magnitude of dispositions about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS). Whereas 14.4% respondents had low magnitude and 22.4% respondents had high magnitude of DIPS.

Testing Research Hypotheses

Ho1 There is no significance difference in prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) among different public universities of Punjab.

Table 2 One way ANOVA between PTs' DIPS among different public universities

Public Universities###M###SD###N###F (5, 954)###p###n2

Uni1###1.97###0.609###332

Uni2###2.05###0.567###356

Uni3###2.11###0.563###74

Uni4###1.92###0.564###75###5.123###0.000###0.026

Uni5###2.27###0.543###85

Uni6###2.21###0.528###38

Total###2.04###0.584###960

To compare the prospective teachers' dispositions about instructional planning and strategies among different public universities one way ANOVA was applied. The result shows that there was significant difference in prospective teachers' DIPS among different public universities as F (5,954) =5.123, p (0.000) < 0.05. The value of partial eta square showed that only 2.6% PTs' DIPS depend on different public university. For further pairwise comparison between PTs' DIPS among different public universities LSD Post hoc test was applied. The results of comparison are given below in the table 2.1.

Table 2.1 Results of Post Hoc LSD for pairwise comparison in PTs' DIPS among different public universities

(I) University name###(J) University name###Mean Difference (I-J)###p

Uni1###Uni2###-0.07###0.090

###Uni3###-0.14###0.069

###Uni4###0.05###0.474

###Uni5###-0.30*###0.000

###Uni6###-0.24*###0.017

Uni2###Uni1###0.07###0.090

###Uni3###-0.06###0.414

###Uni4###0.13###0.082

###Uni5###-0.22*###0.001

###Uni6###-0.16###0.099

Uni3###Uni1###0.14###0.069

###Uni2###0.06###0.414

###Uni4###0.19*###0.047

###Uni5###-0.16###0.077

###Uni6###-0.10###0.375

Uni4###Uni1###-0.05###0.474

###Uni2###-0.13###0.082

###Uni3###-0.19*###0.047

###Uni5###-0.35*###0.000

###Uni6###-0.29*###0.012

Uni5###Uni1###0.30*###0.000

###Uni2###0.22*###0.001

###Uni3###0.16###0.077

###Uni4###0.35*###0.000

###Uni6###0.06###0.594

Uni6###Uni1###0.24*###0.017

###Uni2###0.16###0.099

###Uni3###0.10###0.375

###Uni4###0.29*###0.012

###Uni5###-0.06###0.594

Table 2.1 shows the result for post hoc test using LSD for pair wise comparison in PTs' DIPS among Public universities. Results show that PTs' DIPS among Public universities were significant as (p=0.000, 0.017, 0.001, 0.047, 0.000 and 0.012) < 0.05 between pairs of PTs' DIPS of Uni1 and Uni5, Uni1 and Uni6, Uni2 and Uni5, Uni3 and Uni4, Uni4 and Uni5 and Uni4 and Uni6 respectively.

Ho2 There is no significance difference in prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) on the basis of gender.

Table 3 Independent sample t-test for difference in PTs' DIPS on the basis of gender

###Male (253)###Female (707)###t###df###p###Cohen's

###M###SD###M###SD###d

DIPS###1.88###0.565###2.10###0.580###-5.186###958###0.000*###0.384

To find the difference in prospective teachers' dispositions about instructional planning and strategies on the basis of gender independent samples t-test was applied. It is evident from the table 3 that there was significant difference in prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies on the basis of gender, as p value is 0.05 so the null hypothesis is accepted. Also the value of Cohen's d shows there was smallest effect size of teaching practice on prospective teachers' dispositions about instructional planning and strategies as d=0.034 because there was insignificant difference PTs' DIPS.

Ho4 There is no significance relationship between the prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) and their academic achievement scores.

Table 5 Correlation between PTs' DIPS and their academic achievements scores

###DIPS###Academic Achievements

DIPS###Pearson###1###0.068*

###Correlation

###Sig. (2-tailed)###0.036

Academic Achievements###Pearson###0.068*###1

###Correlation

###Sig. (2-tailed)###0.036

To find significance relationship between the prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) and their academic achievement scores, Pearson product moment correlation (Pearson r) was used. The table 5 shows that there was positive relationship between the prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) and their academic achievement scores. According to literature if the value of r = (+/-) 0 to 0.3, it shows a weak relationship between two variables (Clark and Randal, 2010) so the table is evident that there was a weak relationship between prospective teachers' DIPS and their academic achievement scores as r = 0.068. Hence it is concluded from p value (0.036) that there were a significant relationship between the prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) and their academic achievement scores.

Ho5 There is no significance impact of age on prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS).

Table 6 Linear regression between PTs' DIPS and their age (in years)

###B###Std. Error###B###t###P###r###R2

DIPS###-0.089###0.033###-0.088###-2.723###0.007*###0.088###0.008

To find significance impact of age (in years) on prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) linear regression was applied. The above table 6 shows that there was a positive relationship between prospective teachers' dispositions about instructional planning and strategies and their age (in years) but the value of correlation (r) = 0.088 show weak level of relationship. The value of R2 shows that only 0.8 % prospective teachers' dispositions about instructional planning and strategies depends on their age. Hence there was significance impact of age on prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) as p= 0.007<0.05.

Conclusion and Discussion

It is concluded from the results that the majority of PTs had moderate magnitude of dispositions about instructional planning and strategies. The results showed thatthere are many factors which influence the prospective teachers' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS). The findings showed that the age of the prospective teachers has a positive impact on PTs' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) among universities of Punjab but this impact was very small.

Similarly, the comparison of prospective teachers showed a significant difference in PTs' disposition of instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) among different public universities of Punjab. Therefore it can be said that public universities are one of main factor that is the source of change in PTs' DIPS.Previous researches (Beyers, 2012; Brindle, 2012 and Sunderman, 2015) also support this finding and concluded that there is significant difference in prospective teachers' disposition.

There was significant difference in PTs' disposition of instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) on the basis of gender. This result was supported by research conducted by Schulte, Edick, Edwards, and Mackiel (2004). On the other hand, there was no statistically difference in PTs' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) on the basis of teaching practice. This finding is supported by Frederiksen (2010) study, he concluded in his study that no statistically significant changes in PTs' dispositions were found due to teaching practice. Moreover, academic achievement hadpositive and weak relationship with PTs' disposition about instructional planning and strategies (DIPS). This outcome is accompanying to previous readings like Beyers (2012) and Scrivner (2009).

Recommendations

The results showed a positive picture of PTs' disposition of instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) about those who study in different public universities of Punjab. There for the following recommendations are provided:

* The finding of the study indicated that the PTs exhibits professional dispositions of moderate magnitude. Although is a very good picture of dispositions exhibited by the PTs but there is a need to take steps to improve the dispositions of PTs among public universities to increase their PTPD. The public universities should modify the teaching learning aspect to ensure proper disposition development throughout the study program.

* As finding of research revealed that teaching practice has no impact on PTs' disposition of instructional planning and strategies (DIPS). So is should be explored that what is the reason that PTs' disposition of instructional planning and strategies (DIPS) does not vary after teaching practice?

* Present research was limited to only teacher education program of two years duration (M.A education) that offered in public universities. So Undergraduate programs which are offered both by public and private sector in majority in the country should be included.

References

Beyers, J. E. (2012). An examination of the relationship between prospective teachers' dispositions and achievement in a mathematics content course for elementary education majors. SAGE Open, 2(4), 2158244012462589.

Brindle, S. E. (2012).An exploratory study on the assessment of pre-service teacher dispositions by teacher education programs in IOWA. (Doctoral dissertation). Drake University, IOWA.

Clark, M. and Randal, J.A. (2010). A first course in applied statistics: with applications in Biology, business and the social sciences. New Zealand: Pearson education New Zealand

Dottin, E. S. (2009). Professional judgment and dispositions in teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(1), 83-88

Erickson, P., Hyndman, J. andWirtz, P. (2005). Why is the study of dispositions a necessary component of an effective educator preparation program? Retrieved from http://www.usca.edu/essays/vol132005/Erikson.pdf

Frederiksen, H. (2010). Assessing dispositions in pre-service teachers: does setting or experience affect dispositions? A mix method study. (Doctoral dissertation). Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Higher Education Commission, Pakistan. (2015). HEC recognized universities. Retrieved from http://www.hec.gov.pk/Ourinstitutes/pages/Default.aspx

Lodhi, H. (2014). Perception of Prospective Teachers: Constituents of Professional Dispositions Desired in National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation), IER, University of the Punjab.

Martel, H. A. (2009). Effective Strategies for General and Special Education Teachers. Senior Honors Theses, Paper 210.

McKnight, D. (2004). An inquiry of NCATE's move into virtue ethics by way of dispositions (is this what Aristotle means?). Educational Studies, 35 (3), 212-230.

Roth, D., andSwail, W. S. (2000). Certification and teacher preparation in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.prel.org/products/Products/Certification-Teacher.pdf

Sarwar M., and Hussain, Sh. (2010). Teacher training in Pakistan: Problems and solutions for student teaching preparatory programs. European Journal of Scientific Research, 2(03), 179-185. Retrieved from http:// McKnight www.eurojournals.com/ejsr_46_2_03.pdf

Schulte, L., Edick, N., Edwards, S., andMackiel, D. (2004). The Development and Validation of the Teacher Dispositions Index. Omaha: University of Nebraska

Scrivner, C. M. (2009). The relationship between student achievement and teacher attitude: A correlational study. Doctoral thesis, Northcentral University, U.S.

Sunderman, B. (2015). The study of pre-service teachers participating in candidate learning communities: A mixed methods study. Unpublished Doctoral thesis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.

Voseles, D. R., and Moss, L. 2007. The role of dispositions in the education of future teachers. Young Children 62 (5), 90-98.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Punjab, Pakistan
Author:Shoaib, Almas; Akhtar, Mumtaz; Hashmi, Aroona
Publication:Bulletin of Education and Research
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Dec 31, 2016
Words:3301
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