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1. Introduction

As this study is carried out on the basis of objectives, there is no need of any tests or experiments and results will be derived on the basis of analysis and their interpretation of articles in the journal LPP for the period of 2005 to 2014. Data to the Journal LPP is given in tabular form and the graph. Periodicals are sensitive indicators of the emerging new ideas in any discipline. A careful evaluation of periodical literature may indicate a complete picture of the discipline. The present study has undertaken one of the renowned journal, Library Philosophy and Practice into consideration with an aim to analyze citations cited by various articles appeared in it. Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information cited and usage of various information sources. Citation analysis examines the frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and books.

2. Purpose of the Study

Purpose of the study is to analyse chronologically year wise distribution of articles; to find out; to find out collaborative contribution of institutions and also study citation patterns prevailing in the journal's articles in the selected period 2005-2014.

3. Source Journal

Library philosophy and practice- An Open Access Journal, website- has been selected as the source journal for the present study. Library philosophy and practice (ISSN1522-0222), an international open access journal is accessible without any subscription charges and at zero cost. Contents are itemized in table form on the homepage and articles for each issue are in reach from there. Library Philosophy and Practice is indexed in Library and Information Science Abstracts (LISTA), DOAJ, Library and Information Science and SCOPUS. LPP articles are available at the websites of University of Nebraska-Lincoln, website-, the University of Idaho, website-, and the University of Nebraska- Digital Commons, website- The journal LPP comes into two volumes since 1998, in the sequence of fall and spring volumes till 2006. It is also journal's foundation year. Volume 1 and no 1 issue came out in fall 1998 and vol.2 no.2 came out in spring 1999. Since 2007, authorities of the journal started to bring out the journal in annual volume. Although articles are at reach the websites mention above, Library Philosophy and Practice is being published only at University of Nebraska--Lincoln Libraries' Digital Commons since July 1, 2012.

4. Objectives of the Study

1. To find out the chronologically year wise distribution of articles;

2. To understand year wise distribution of references;

3. To study the frequency of documentary citations;

4. To study the frequency of non-documentary citations.

5. Methodology

The data for the study was downloaded from websites of the respective e-journal: Library Philosophy and Practice - The total 1177 articles for the period of 2005-2014 from the journal Library Philosophy and Practice were downloaded and keep objectives in mind, each article was analysed manually for the collection of data and feed on excel spread sheet for further analysis and after that interpretation has been done.

6. Scope of the Study

The present study aims to evaluate and provide analysis of the scholarly publication trends of the journals Library Philosophy and Practice from year 2005-2014 with the application of citation analysis. The study is limited to the analysis according to objectives are set. 7 articles of the e-journal Library philosophy and Practice were not available for download at journal's archive. 14 articles didn't provide reference and in year 2011, 2 articles were uploaded 2 times in journal archive and in 2014, 1 article were uploaded 2 times also. In this way 1177 articles from the e-journal Library Philosophy and Practice were analysed according to the given objectives for citation analysis only.

7. Data Analysis and Interpretations

7.1 Chronologically Year wise distribution of Articles

It is clear from the aforesaid table and figure that in each year number of article has given a tendency to measure the growth of the literature. The numbers of articles are 69 in the first year of taken study, but the next year has decreasing percentage of articles. For the first five years the average articles are 60.4 per year. After the next five year, it is increasing from 302 to 878 articles; it means that in next five year average articles are 175.6. This figure also shows that year 2011 has highest number of articles 198 (16.82%) and year 2006 has lowest number of articles 35 (2.97%). Therefore year 2011 is most productive year.

7.2 Documentary and non-documentary sources

Scholars use or cite various types of materials to support their arguments and theory as Acknowledgment of these materials is essentials while using it. These cited documentary or non-documentary materials are collected for bibliometric analysis. It is the source of information to the subjects. Information sources generally give the sense of most common form of information sources like book, periodicals magazines, newspapers, dictionary and encyclopaedia. Nevertheless new forms of sources are emerging as the reading learning environment is changing. Email communication, TV broadcasting, DVDs, databases and even unpublished literature also used by the scholars. Information sources are of two types 1) Documentary Sources and 2) Non-documentary Sources.

Table and figure 2 represents that the total cited documentary and non documentary sources in the journal during 2005 to 2014. Documentary sources were cited in number of 15518 (73.973%) while non-documentary sources were cited in number of 5450 (26.027%). Thus it is clear from the illustration that documentary sources are mostly preffered sources than the non-documentary sources.

7.3 Citation of documentary materials

Documentary sources are the sources which are recorded in some physical form for handling them. These are in the form of documents. Documentary sources are divided into three sub types: primary sources, secondary sources, tertiary sources.

The table and figure that has been shown above, presents the name of all the documentary sources and their frequency of use in the e-journal. Table clearly shows wide--ranging types of documentary materials which are consulted by the authors in the journal. After the analysis of the data it is found that Serials are the most preferable (59.13%) source among all documentary sources while books are the second most cited (28.27%) in print documents. Proceedings are the third most cited (6.58%); Reports are the fourth (1.41%) most preferable resources. Unpublished literature is also cited in the e-journal.

Through the above figure is of cited documentary materials during the period of 2005 to 2014 are shown in line diagram.

7.4 Citation of non-documentary materials

Non documentary sources are the sources which serve the immediate needs of the users, and include unconventional forms of information. Non documentary sources are classified in into two parts, namely 1) the formal sources, and 2) the non-formal sources. The Formal source of non-documentary source of information deals with structures like organizations, associations, societies, government departments, universities, consultants etc.

Aforesaid Table and figure reveal the citation of non-documentary resources with their respective frequency and percentage. Diverse form of resources from internet resources to e-mail communication power point presentation, DVD, TV broadcast, databases are cited in the journal. Websites resources, e-journals and other sources which were in electronic form are fused into internet resources term. Internet resources are found as most cited form of non-documentary materials. It is 5260 times cited in the journal during 2004-2014 whereas databases are found as second most cited form of non-documentary materials. Internet resources are the dominant form of non-documentary resources among other resources of this category. We can see in the figure 5 shown above the acquired area by each resource in % in Non-Documentary category cited in the journal Library philosophy and practice. Internet resources acquired 98.205%. Here internet resources represents websites referred journals, e-newspapers, e-books and such other items.

8. Conclusion

Total of 1177 articles in ten years are published during the period 2005 to 2014. 15518 sources are consulted with greater reliance and usability of documentary sources with less consultation of non-documentary sources. An average of 13.15 documentary citations and 4.618 non-documentary sources are consulted for each article. Each year the journal has distinguished number of papers and each year number of articles is found in increasing order except the year 2006. In the year 2011 highest number of paper were contributed in the journal LPP. And, in the year 2006, lowest numbers of articles were contributed in the journal. Documentary materials are cited in maximum number 15518 (73.973%) than non-documentary materials 5460 (26.027%) during the period of 2005 to 2014. Among the total non-documentary materials, internet resources were cited in maximum number 5362 (98.205%).Thus, the facts found about institutions contributions in the journal LPP, provide that academic institutions are primary source of scholarly papers. And have contributed papers in good number in collaboration with other institution also.

9. References

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Anjali Verma

Research Scholar

Department of Library and Information Science

Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University Lucknow

Mob. No. 9580618206 Email Id.

Dr. Sharad Kumar Sonker

Assistant Professor/Supervisor

Department of Library and Information Science

Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University Lucknow

Mob. No. 09838616581 Email


Vibha Gupta

MLIS Student

Department of Library and Information Science

Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University Lucknow

Mob. No. 9580787388 Email Id-

Caption: Figure 1: Chronologically Year Wise Distribution of Articles

Caption: Figure 5: Non-documentary materials cited in the journal
Table 1: Chronologically Year Wise Distribution of Articles

Year                          Number of Articles     Percentage

2005                                  69                5.86
2006                                  35                2.97
2007                                  55                4.66
2008                                  66                5.61
2009                                  77                6.53
2011                                 157                13.33
2011                                 198                16.82
2012                                 191                16.28
2013                                 175                14.86
2014                                 154                13.08
Total                                1177              100.00

Table 2: Total documentary and non-documentary sources

Type of source           Documentary    Non documentary   Total
                         sources        sources

Number of citations      15518          5460              20978

Percentage               73.973%        26.027%           100.00%

Table 3: Documentary materials cited in the journal

Documentary materials    Total no. of   Percentage        Rank

Books                    4464           28.77%            2
Serials                  9176           59.13%            1
Proceeding               1024           6.58%             3
Reports                  220            1.41%             4
Unpublished diss./       215            1.38%             5
Handbook                 22
Guidebook                5
Encyclopaedia            54
Manual                   3
Newspaper                154
Newsletter               34
Supplement               1
Dissertation             96
Syllabus                 1
Minutes                  2
Memo                     1
Monograph                4
Rese. papers/doc.        11
Yearbook                 2
Archive                  1
Project                  6
Broachers                2
Gazette                  4
Draft                    1
Prospectus               4
Booklet                  1
Classification scheme    1
Dictionary               1
Pre print                7
Interview                1
Total                    15518

Table 4: Non-documentary materials cited in the journal

Non-documentary materials   Numbers of cited items   Percentage

Internet resources                   5362              98.205%
Email communication                   3                0.054%
Power point presentation              2                0.036%
DVD                                   6                0.109%
TV broadcast                          1                0.028%
Database                              86               1.576%
Total                                5460              100.00%

Figure 2: Total documentary and non-documentary sources

Documentary sources         73.973%
Non documentary sources     26.027%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 3: Documentary materials cited in the journal

5 most cited documentary resources

Books                                 28.77%

Serials                               59.13%

Proceeding                             6.58%

Reports                                1.41%

Unpub.lit.                             1.38%

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 4: Documentary materials cited in the journal

Books                  4464
Serials                9176
Reports                1024
Unpub.diss./arti.,     220
Handbook               215
Guidebook               22
Encyclopaedia           5
Manual                  54
Newspaper               3
Newsletter!             15
Supplement              34
Dissertation            1
Syllabus                96
Minutes                 1
Memo                    2
Monograph               1
Research p./doc.        4
Yearbook                11
Archive                 2
Project                 1
Broachers               6
Gazette                 2
Draft                   4
Prospectus              1
Booklet                 4
Class. scheme           1
Dictionary              1
Pre print               1
Interview               7

Note: Table made from line graph.

Please Note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.
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Author:Verma, Anjali; Sonker, Sharad Kumar; Gupta, Vibha
Publication:Library Philosophy and Practice
Date:Jan 1, 2016
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