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44th Idaho Academy of Science meeting.


The Yellowstone Waterfalls and their Discovery

Lee Whittlesey

National Park Service

P.O. Box 168

Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming 82190

Yellowstone's waterfalls have long been eclipsed by its other wonders: geysers and hot springs, deep canyons, huge lakes, beautiful wild flowers, and spectacular large mammals. In the 1920s, explored William C. Gregg visited the Belcher region of the park and discovered and named around 25 new waterfalls; those explorations resulted in that part of Yellowstone being referred to as "Cascade Corner." Thus for many years common knowledge had it that the park possessed around fifty waterfalls of heights greater than fifteen feet. Seventy Years later, Lee Whittlesey and his two co-authors began a project to see whether or nor there were further undiscovered large waterfalls in Yellowstone. Says Whittlesey, "We would have been happy to find five new ones. Instead we found 240." The story of this fascinating ten-year project, with its thousands of miles of hiking, hundreds of rolls of film, and all of the accompanying adventures, are the subject of Whittlesey's talk tonight. Using Power Point, Whittlesey tells us ab out the excitement of discovering dozens of new waterfalls, large natural geographic features that had never before been written about, photographed, or mapped. He shares with us the research they did, the adventures they had, the book they produced, the big publicity they received, and even the names they proposed as a result of being the "first documentors" of these waterfalls.

The Human Experience in Yellowstone

Paul Schullery

Yellowstone Center for Resources

National Park Service

P.O. Box 168

Yellowstone Park, Wyoming 82190

There is a remarkable temporal and cultural continuity to many of the most common elements of the human experience in the area we now call Yellowstone National Park. Sight of this continuity is often lost in the ongoing, day-to-day dialogues and controversies surrounding all aspects of the park's management and use. Though each generation of park constituencies, special-interest groups, and managers has redefined the Yellowstone experience to suit the particular needs, fashions, and whims of the time, there has always survived a core set of values that shape the long-term goals and even spirit of Yellowstone as a place and an institution. These values are themselves susceptible to change, usually in a way we describe in such biological terms as "evolution" or "adaptation." The more superficial elements of the Yellowstone experience, as well as those fundamental driving impulses that underlie the institution, interact in a complex process that on any given day looks like a real mess, but that in the long run m ay be the only practical way to keep the park's place in society both vital and secure.

Yellowstone Park: The Trials of Resource Management in a Goldfish Bowl

John D.Varley

Yellowstone Center for Resources

National Park Service

P.O. Box 168

Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming 82190

Civilization relentlessly encroaches on the borders of Yellowstone National Park. This process has been continuous since the establishment of the park 130 years ago, but the high rate at which the process is occurring now is unprecedented, and is changing the fabric of the landscape in many ways. Critical observers generally agree that the future well-being of the park's ecological fabric is inextricably linked with environmental conditions in the larger regional context; a vast 15 to 20 million acre area now known as the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Currently and into the future, the ecological health of Greater Yellowstone is to a large extent dependent on public policy decisions being made by a bewildering array of local, state and federal governments. These entities are, in turn, closely listening to an equally bewildering array of interest groups, all of whom claim to have "the only correct thinking" and are working "in the public's best interests." Facilitating human development and economic growth se em to be the most dominant themes at play on one side of the spectrum, and at the opposite end movements are afoot that would exclude humans to various degrees and eschew money. Yellowstone, arguably this country's most visible wildland icon, always newsworthy, and occasionally a catalyst of public sentiment, is often and in many ways at the center of this tug of human values. The park will not survive to the end of this century as we have known it in the past century unless there are more ecologically friendly public policy decisions. If Yellowstone fails at ecological integrity, do lesser known and revered areas have any chance at all?

Thermal Biology Research in Yellowstone National Park: Biodiversity and Bioprospecting

Timothy R. McDermott

Thermal Biology Institute

Montana State University

P.O. Box 173142

Bozeman Montana, 59717

Over the last decade, the number of laboratories conducting research and sampling in Yellowstone National Park has increased by at least ten-fold. The labs are from academia as well as industry and have a variety of interests. Commercial interests typically revolve around thermal stable enzymes and their potential for application in industry or biotechnology. From academia, research activity primarily involves individual laboratories working from competitive grants that fund projects with goals that, for the most part, do not overlap. Academe-based work also includes an organized effort at Montana State University, the Thermal Biology Institute (TBI), that is currently comprised of 10 scientists representing a variety of disciplines that include microbial ecology and physiology, (bio)(geo)chemistry, virology, and plant physiology. Snapshots of TBI research will be presented, with emphasis given to the McDermott lab. Potential biotech applications of TBI research will be briefly discussed, along with its place ment in the broader context of discoveries derived from Yellowstone's (micro)biology that also have commercial applications. Brief consideration will also be given to bioprospecting, and its potential importance to society as well as philosophical concerns of biotechnology-type discoveries derived from United States national parks.

Management of Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area

Terry J. Kreeger

Veterinary Services Branch

Wyoming Game and Fish Department

Sybille Wildlife Research Unit

2362 Hwy 34

Wheatland, Wyoming 82201

Brucellosis is a highly-contagious bacterial disease of both animals and humans. Infection of the female reproductive tract results in abortion. The most common route of transmission is thought to be oral as a result of licking or ingestion of infected fetuses, placentae, fetal fluids, or vaginal exudates. Such transmission can be exacerbated under conditions that artificially congregate infected and susceptible animals, such as winter feedgrounds. A cooperative state/federal brucellosis eradication program began in 1934 with the goal of eliminating, brucellosis from the United States by the end of 1998. The presence of brucellosis in wildlife creates a conflict with this goal. Elimination of brucellosis from the GreaterYellowstone Area (GYA) will not be easy. There are over 95,000 elk and more than 1,500 bison in the GYA. The rate of seropositivity can be as high as 77% in bison and 50% in elk using winter feedgrounds. There are several management alternatives that bear consideration in addressing the confli ct between potentially-infected wildlife and susceptible cattle. The Wyoming Game and Fish Department (WGFD) vaccinates thousands of elk on feedgrounds with a reduced-dose B. abortus strain 19 vaccine delivered remotely by biobullet and a significant decrease in seropositivity has been documented.

Gray Wolf Restoration in the Northwestern United States

Edward E. Bangs

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

100 North Park #320

Helena, Montana 59601

Gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations were eliminated from the western United States by 1930. Dispersing wolves from Canada lacked legal protection until passage of the federal Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. By 1986 a pack had naturally formed in northwestern Montana. In 1995 and 1996 wolves from western Canada were reintroduced to remote public lands in Idaho and Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Wolves were designated as experimental populations to increase management flexibility. Wolf population growth has occurred rapidly because of the reintroduction. About 572 wolves were present in December 2001, and the wolf population has a young age structure meaning it has the potential for continued rapid expansion. The wolf population in the northwestern U.S. should met the recovery goal of having 30 breeding pairs distributed throughout Montana, Idaho and Wyoming for 3 successive years by December 2002. If Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming have state wolf conservation plans in place wolves could be delisted fro m the ESA in 2003. Wolf restoration has proceeded more quickly and with more benefits (public viewing) and fewer problems (livestock depredations), than predicted. The impact of wolf predation on big game (primarly elk) populations is a major public concern. Several cooperative research projects have yet to detect significant impacts to wolf prey but these ongoing studies will provide accurate information to address public and agency concerns. Because over 85% of adult wolf mortality is human-caused, the interagency recovery program focuses its efforts on addressing the concerns of people who live near wolves to increase human tolerance. Wolves restored important ecological processes to several large wild areas in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. The program has been widely and internationally publicized and is generally viewed as highly successful.

Aspects of Grizzly Bear Recovery in the Rocky Mountains

Chris Servheen

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

University Hall Room 309

University of Montana

Missoula, Montana 59812

Grizzly bears in the lower 48 United States are currently limited to five areas in portions of the states of Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, and Washington. Reestablishment of grizzly bears in a sixth area, the Bitterroot Mountains of Idaho and Montana has been proposed. The Bitterroot area has ample habitat but no viable grizzly bear population. Despite ESA protection as a threatened species, grizzly bears continue to face various human threats. These include direct mortality, displacement from important habitats, and habitat fragmentation. Management of these threats and public and political support are necessary if the grizzly is to be recovered throughout much of its current range. Significant progress has been made in addressing many of the threats to bears on public lands through the Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee, which implements the grizzly bear recovery plan. The situation in Yellowstone is an example of the progress made to date. The most significant threats to grizzly bears exist on private lands whe re conflicts can cause livestock depredations, conditioning to human foods, and resulting bear mortality. Genetic issues, linkage between ecosystems, and causes of mortality are also important. The recovery of the grizzly is increasingly becoming a social rather than a biological issue and this poses a real challenge. Involvement of public and political interests in grizzly conservation will help assure an informed and supportive environment for grizzly recovery in the future.

Lake Trout in Yellowstone Lake: Identification of the Source and Timing of the Illegal Introduction

Andrew R. Munro

Department of Ecology

Montana State University

Bozeman, MT 59717

Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, discovered in Yellowstone Lake in 1994, are known to pose a serious threat to the integrity of the Yellowstone Lake ecosystem. In 1995, a gillnetting removal program was initiated in an attempted to control the number of lake trout in Yellowstone Lake and minimize the negative impacts of these illegally introduced fish. Based on the age of lake trout caught in initial collections, it was believed that the timing of the illegal plant(s) occurred in the late 1980s; however, the exact date and origin of the source population are unknown. We used otolith microchemistry to determine the chemical composition of otoliths from large lake trout captured in Yellowstone Lake in 1996 and 1997; these fish are likely some of the originally introduced individuals. Microchemical composition of the otoliths from these fish was compared to that of younger lake trout from Yellowstone Lake and lake trout from probable source lakes (Lewis and Heart lakes) using a Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometer. The Sr:Ca ratios of the edges of the large, older (>10 years) lake trout were characteristic of the "chemical signature" of Yellowstone Lake. The area near the nucleus, which reflects the environment during the first year of life, was statistically similar to lake trout from Lewis Lake in 18 of the 20 fish analyzed. All younger lake trout from Yellowstone Lake had uniform chemical signatures indicating they had been spawned and reared entirely within the lake. Otolith transect analyses suggest that the illegal introductions began as early as 1986 and continued until as recently as 1996. These results support the idea that lake trout were probably introduced from Lewis Lake, and illustrate one of the many potential uses of otolith microchemistry in fishery management.

The Yellowstone Hotspot, Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, and Human Geography

(Based on a manuscript written with co-authors Don Despain, Lisa Morgan, and John Good)

Kenneth L. Pierce

P.O. Box 173492

Montana State University

Bozeman, Montana 59717-3492

The landscapes of the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem (GYE) are shaped by geologic processes of volcanism, faulting, and uplift, all of which we associate with the Yellowstone hotspot. As the North American Plate moved SW, hotspot volcanism progressed NE and arrived at Yellowstone 2 Ma. Thousands of feet of recent uplift of the GYE have resulted in ongoing erosion of deep, steep-walled valleys in readily erodible rock. Modern and Pleistocene weather and resultant vegetation patterns strongly relate to hotspot topography and its Snake-River-Plain track. Moist Pacific airmasses traverse the Snake River Plain and rise onto the Yellowstone Plateau and adjacent mountains to produce deep snows, and east of the mountains, a precipitation shadow. Such deep orographic snows produced extensive Pleistocene glaciers that covered the core GYE and produced many of the landscape features on which modern soils have formed, as well as outwash gravels (commonly covered with sagebrush-grassland) and silty lake sediments (commonly covered by lush grassland such as Hayden Valley). Rhyolitic hotspot volcanism constructed the Pleistocene Yellowstone Plateau. Streams eroding the steep edges of this plateau form scenic canyons and waterfalls. Rhyolite is poor in nutrients and forms sandy, well-drained soils that support the monotonous, fire-prone, lodgepole pine forest of the Yellowstone Plateau. Older andesite and other rocks surround this plateau and support more varied vegetation, including spruce-fir and whitebark pine forests broken by grassy meadows. Upwelling waters heated by hotspot magmas drive Yellowstone's famed geysers, hotsprings, and mudpots that provide habitat for specialized, primitive ecosystems of algae and bacteria. Human settlement and use of the GYE reflects the hotspot processes of uplift, volcanism, and faulting. Uplift formed a remote highland from which streams drain radially outward like spokes from a hub. Humans have settled around Yellowstone along these drainages and established roads, irrigation systems, and political associations along them. Decision-making involving the GYE is complicated by multiple jurisdictions athwart his hotspot highland, including 18 counties, seven National Forests, three states, and two National Parks.

Winter Use Planning in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks

John Sacklin

National Park Service

P.O. Box 168

Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming 82190

Winter use in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks increased dramatically in the 1980s and early 1990s. That increase and the emphasis on snowmobiles as a primary mode of transportation brought into focus a host of winter-related issues, including air pollution, unwanted sound, wildlife impacts, safety, adequacy of budgets and infrastructure, and compliance with laws, executive orders, and regulations that govern snowmobile use in national parks. Conservation groups concerned about these issues filed suit, and the National Park Service agreed to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement on winter use. The National Park Service sponsored numerous research and monitoring projects to help understand the issues better; other agencies also contributed several studies. After consideration of a wide range of alternatives, the National Park Service made a determination to phase out the recreational use of snowmobiles in Yellowstone and GrandTeton National Parks in favor of access by snowcoaches. That November 2 000 decision was challenged in another lawsuit by snowmobile advocates, and the National Park Service is preparing a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement that is reconsidering the phase-out of snowmobiles. A reaffirmation of the current direction or a new decision is due this fall.

The Post 1988 Yellowstone Ecosystem Don Despain

Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center

P.O. Box 173492 Bozeman, Montana 59717-3492

The summer of 1988 was a watershed event for the Yellowstone ecosystem. More than one third of the park was directly affected by wildland fire in one of the driest summers on record. The ecosystem has responded in some interesting ways. Ecosystem can be defined as the interactions of biotic and abiotic factors relative to a bounded space. Changes in these factors have varied from no significant changes in bedrock geology and topography to very significant changes in vegetation position along the successional gradients. Climatic change was in progress a few years previous to 1988, which may affect the successional trajectories of some of the plant communities into the future. The increase in early successional forest stands has altered the ability of lightning to cause fire starts and altered the behavior of those that do start in those stands. Soils were little altered in 99 percent of the burned area. Forest soils are still forest soils and forest is regenerating on them and grassland soils are still covered with grasslands. Some changes were short lived such as changes in forage availability and nutritive value and the increased flowering of many herbaceous species. Some ungulate populations experienced direct reductions by the fires while others were little affected. These changes were short lived, but the red squirrel population will be affected for a century or two. The fires had little affected on fish; the biggest change was in the kinds of insect larvae they ate. Fire is an integral part of the Yellowstone ecosystem which is still intact and functioning.

Shake and Bake: The Yellowstone Hotspot

Robert B. Smith

Department of Geology and Geophysics

University of Utah

135 South 460 East Room 702 Salt Lake City, Utah 84112

The Yellowstone hotspot is rooted in some of Earth's most violent forces. These have produced the magnificent scenery of Yellowstone National Park, its world renown geysers, the largest volcanic field in North America, and a killer earthquake. The energy responsible for these features is from hundreds of miles deep within the Earth, the power of a magma that rises from deep in the mantle to its surface manifestations. We denote this entire system as the Yellowstone hotspot. In my lecture I will explain how the southwest movement of the North American plate in the last 16 million years has placed Yellowstone National Park over the deep mantle hotspot. The hotspot is the source of three super volcanic eruptions that destroyed mountains extending across its breadth and reshaped the topography during its youthful 2 million year history. Energy from the hotspot continues to drive Yellowstone's geysers, it powers a restless breathing caldera; and enhances the interior on one of the West's most seismically active ar ea. It uplifts and drops the ground by meters; and continuously refills magma chambers creating an enormous amount of heat flow in excess of 30 times average. I will also describe how the ecological extent and interrelationships between Yellowstone's geologic and biotic systems are related to: 1) The extraordinarily high heat flow that enable Yellowstone's extant geochemical, and microbial processes; 2) The park-wide distribution of rhyolitic volcanic and glaciated rocks that impart a unique composition to its soils that is reflected in correlated vegetation patterns; 3) Earthquakes, volcanoes, and related ground movements that keep Yellowstone alive; and 4) The outline of a unique geoecosystem that coincides roughly with the 6,000 foot elevation contour that demarcates the topographically high Yellowstone Plateau. Together these factors have an integrated influence on plant distributions that in turn influence the distribution of wildlife that I identify as the Yellowstone GeoEcosystem. In conclusion, I will emphasize the need to understand and mitigate Yellowstone's volcano and earthquake hazards. Acknowledgment of these hazards has led to the establishment of the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory, a partnership between the University of Utah, the USGS and the NPS. The base of operations at the University of Utah provides modern seismic and geodetic monitoring, realtime web-accessible data and emergency management information for officials and the public.


Labroides dimidiatus cleaner wrasse and Host Communities at Different Coral Morphotypes at Heron Island, Australia Bethany C. Hazen, Christa D. Inzer Albertson College of Idaho Caldwell, ID 83605

Labroides dimidiatus, cleaner wrasse, were studied at Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef, Queensland during one-hour SCUBA diving sessions. L. dimidiatus are known to establish well-defined cleaning stations where wrasse remove ectoparasites from host fishes. The realtionship between the number of cleaner wrasse per cleaning station and dominant coral morphotype at that stations was examined. The five coral morphotypes included staghorn, plate, columnar, soft, and massive; reef rock formed a sixth category. Cleaner wrasse were more likely to be found in pairs or groups at stations seen at staghorns, plates, and reef rock than at other coral types (X2 = 25.47, c = 16.81). The number of fish families utilizing cleaning stations and coral morphotype was counted. This data was used to define host communities at cleaning stations and coral morphotypes at those stations. Significant associations were found between host communities at the following sets of coral morphotypes: staghorn and plate, massive and plate, reef rock and staghorn, and reef rock and plate coral types (p<0.05). This study indicated that larger coral structures may support more L. dimidiatus.

Fruit morphology and color in three tropical rainforest habitats of North Queensland, Australia Abbi L. Engel, Kristin S.B. Harbuck Albertson College of Idaho Caldwell, ID 83605

We studied fruit found on the Atherton Tableland, Queensland, Australia. We collected 45 fruits representing 37 species collected from primary, secondary, and gap habitats in four areas. We collected the fruits from plants and from the ground by walking through an area. We identified and made measurements on all of the fruits collected and classified them by color. We looked at characteristics of fruit morphology (fruit length, seed length, pericarp thickness) and fruit color in each of the three habitats. We found no correlation between fruit color and the tropical forest type (p>0.05). Fruits with thicker pericarps were brighter in color (p<0.05). We observed a positive relationship between seed length and fruit length across all habitats (p<0.01) and pericarp thickness (p<0.01). Bright fruits would be most visible to animal dispersers and therefore the bright fruits may have thicker pericarps to protect the seed from their dispersers. As a plant invests more energy in producing a larger seed, the plant pro tects the seed by producing a thicker pericarp.

Immunolocalization of Cell Wall Polysaccharides During Intrusive Growth of Latex Containing Cells

Alan J. Muir, Marcelo D. Serpe, Azeddine Driouich

Department of Biology

Boise State University

Boise, ID 83725

Some plant species, such as milkweed and poinsettia, contain latex, a conspicuous and milky fluid that oozes from these plants upon injury. Latex is present in giant cells known as non-articulated laticifers. These laticifers have unusual growth characteristics; they elongate indefinitely and have the ability to grow intrusively between other cells. To understand mechanisms involved in the intrusive growth of non-articulated laticifers, we have analyzed the composition of laticifers walls and their surrounding cells in two distantly related species-Asclepias speciosa and Euphorbia heterophylla. Using immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy techniques, we characterized the distribution of various cell wall polysaccharides namely, callose, cellulose, and pectins. In both species, we observed differences in labeling properties between laticifers and surrounding cells. An anti-callose antibody did not label the walls of laticifers or the walls of cells in contact with laticifers, but labeled nonadja cent cell walls. Similar results were observed using an anti-cellulose antibody. Furthermore, laticifer walls in both species did not label when incubated with the anti-pectin antibody LM5, but surrounding cell walls were labeled. We also observed differences in the labeling properties between the two species. The anti-pectin antibody LM6 labeled laticifer and surrounding cell walls of A. speciosa, but did not label the laticifer walls of E. heterophylla. Taken together, these results indicate that the composition of laticifers differ between species, and that there are differences in the composition of laticifers and surrounding cells. These differences may be responsible for the unusual growth characteristics exhibited by non-articulated laticifers.

Phentypic Selection in Alfalfa for increased Resistance to Stem Nematode

(Ditylenchus dipsaci) and Verticillium Wilt (Verticillium albo-atrum)

Jeron Chatelain, Chris L. Kapicka, Don Miller Northwest Nazarene University Nampa, ID 83686

In agriculture and horticulture, there continues to be a demand and need for crops and plants to grow more efficiently and obtain higher yields. By having plants that can survive harsh conditions and diseases as well as increase their production, economic production can be maintained. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa), an important commercial legume, is a heterozygous, cross-pollinated field crop. Mass selection increases the frequency of obtaining better plants. Through the use of phenotypic recurrent selection, the alfalfa cultivars "Alfalfa II" and ZX9853, were infected to try and improve the resistance of the populations to two pests, verticillium wilt, a fungal vascular wilt disease caused by Verticillium albo-atrum, and stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci) one of the most prevalent nematodes that affects alfalfa. The two infected plots were selected and sorted for plants showing the most resistance to these infections and these plants were allowed to grow to produce seed. The seed, which was sent to the lab at C rop Characteristics Inc., and Iowa's ABI research facility, was grown and reinfested with the two pests to determine the percentage resistance levels. There was an increase in the resistance to stem nematode and verticillium wilt in both populations ZXO159G and ZXO158, with no increases in resistance classification among the populations, due to the wide range. This indicates that there was an increase in pest resistant gene frequencies to these two pests in the populations, accomplished through the phenotypic recurrent selection. The increase in pest resistant gene frequencies resulted in a high percentage resistance for the two pests, and it is hoped that with this increase in resistance that the populations will in turn achieve higher yields and seed production.

Blastomyces dermatitidis lysate atigens: Antibody detection in homologous and heterologous sera from rabbits immunized with B. dermatitidis killed whole yeast cells E. Michael Chester, Geoffrey M. Scalarone, Gene M. Scalarone Department of Biological Sciences Idaho State University Pocatello, ID 83209

Serum specimens from rabbits immunized with 6 Blastomyces dermatitidis killed whole yeast cell preparations (isolates T-58: dog, Tennessee; T-27: polar bear, Tennessee; ERC-2: dog, Wisconsin; S: soil, Canada; ER-3: dog, Wisconsin; and 48938: bat, India) were assayed by an indirect peroxidase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibody. The rabbits were inoculated on days 0 and 45 and serum collected 7 days following the second administration of antigen. The sera were assayed using B. dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigens prepared from the above isolates. The results indicated that all 6 whole yeast cell preparations stimulated antibody production with mean absorbance values ranging from 0.333 (ERC-2) to 0.131 (ER-3) when assayed with the lysate antigens. With regard to the detection of antibody with each individual lysate antigen against serum specimens produced by both the homologous and heterologous isolates, it was determined that the mean absorbance values ranged from 0.314 (T-58) to 0.190 (T-27). The T-58 yeast lysate antigen was the optimal reagent for detecting antibody, while three whole yeast cell antigens (T-58, ERC-2 and 5) were optimal and comparable with respect to inducing an antibody response.

Blastomyces dermatitidis Lysate Antigens: Antibody Detection in Serial Serum Specimens from Dogs with Blastomycosis E. Michael Chester, Robert Axtell, Gene M. Scalarone Department of Biological Sciences Idaho State University Pocatello, ID 83209

Yeast phase lysate antigens prepared from different isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis (T-58, dog-Tennessee; T-27, polar bear-Tennessee; ERC-2, dog-Wisconsin; ER-3, woodpile-Wisconsin) were compared with respect to the detection of antibodies (indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-ELISA, peroxidase system) in 126 serial serum specimens (pre-treatment, 30 and 60 days post-treatment with itraconazole) from 42 dogs with diagnosed blastomycosis.

Mean absorbance values observed with the four lysate antigens at the three treatment intervals ranged from the most reactive to the least reactive as follows: T-58 (0.279, 0.210, 0.136);T-27 (0.209,0.156,0.096); ER-3 (0.189,0.144,0.089) and ERC-2 (0.158, 0.129, 0.080). Even though variations in reactivity were evidenced, the lysates prepared from isolates from various geographical regions and sources were all efficacious as antigens for the immunodiagnosis of canine blastomycosis.

Strain Differentiation In Blastomyces dermatitidis Yeast Phase Lysates Based on ELISA Testing of IEF Fractions

N.J. Charter, G.M. Scalarone

Department of Biological Sciences

Idaho State University

Pocatello, ID 83209

Blastomyces dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigens prepared from two isolates (T-58; Dog, Tennessee, and ERC-2; Dog, Wisconsin) were separated via Rotofor[R] preparative isoelectric focusing cell (BIO-RAD). The subsequent fractions were then analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using the peroxidase system. ELISA data from testing with representative serum samples, from dogs with blastomycosis showed a definite peak of high reactivity in bands 7,8, and 9 for both T-58 and ERC-2. However, ERC-2 also showed peaks of reactivity in bands 13-20. It is hypothesized that the combination of Rotofor[R] IEF and ELISA techniques could provide a rapid and reliable method for elucidating strain differences in Blastomyces dermatitidis based on geographic distribution.

ELISA Detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis Antigen In Urine Specimens from Dogs with Blastomycosis

J.F. Shurley, G.M. Scalarone

Department of Biological Sciences

Idaho State University

Pocatello, ID 83209

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, peroxidase system) was utilized for the detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis antigen in 45 urine specimens from dogs with diagnosed blastomycosis. Antibody from a blastomycosis-positive dog was first incubated with the urine specimen and then added to an antigen-coated microtiter well (B. dermatitidis yeast phase lysate antigen prepared from a dog isolate, T-58). An ELISA inhibition index value (mean absorbance of the indirect ELISA positive control divided by the mean absorbance of the unknown specimen in the competitive inhibition assay) was determined for each of the specimens (the greater the index value, the greater the concentration of antigen in the urine specimen). The results indicated that antigenuria was detectable in 41 of the 45 specimens (91%; index value greater than 1) with index values ranging from 1 to 1.4(26.7%), 1.41 to 1.8 (60%), and 1.81 to 2.1 (4.4%). Index values of less than 1 (range of 0.58 to 0.87) were obtained with four of t he specimens. The present results are encouraging and comparative studies are continuing to further optimize the assay.

Induction and Detection of Antibody in Rabbits Immunized with Blastomyces dermatitidis Yeast Phase Lysate Antigens Brandon W. Atkins, Daniel M. Gee, Angela F. Pola, Kavina A. Weinhoff, and Gene M. Scalarone Department of Biological Sciences Idaho State University Pocatello, ID 83209

Comparative studies were performed on the induction of antibody in rabbits with yeast phase lysate antigens prepared from 6 different isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis from different geographical regions. The ability of each of the lysate antigens to induce an antibody response was determined by an indirect peroxidase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on serum specimens collected on days 14, 28, and 42 after initial antigen inoculation and on days 56 and 77 following secondary antigen administration. Optimal antibody induction was observed with the T-58 lysate antigen when antibody detection with the 6 antigens was performed. The highest reactivity was evidenced on day 28 with absorbance values ranging from 0.242 to 0.595 with the 48089 and T-58 isolates respectively. The T-58 reagent was also optimal when the 6 lysate antigens were used to detect antibody in the 6 serum specimens at the various intervals post inoculation with absorbance values ranging from 0.268 (days 14,77) to 0.358 (day 28). The refore, even though differences were observed with the 6 lysate antigen preparations, all of the reagents exhibited an ability to induce as well as detect antibody in immunized rabbits.

Oncostatin--induced matrix metalloproteinase expression and the promotion of ametastatic phenotype in mammary carcinomoa Ryan Holzer, Gerry Cortright, Lynda Zhang, Randy Ryan, and Cheryl Jorcyk Department of Biology Boise State University Boise, ID 83725

Oncostatin M (OSM) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages. Among OSM's many documented biological properties is its ability to inhibit the proliferation of a variety of cancerous cell types, including breast, lung, skin and ovarian tumor cells. These growth inhibitory effects initially focused much attention on OSM as a potential cancer therapy. Recent research, however, has demonstrated that OSM can induce the expression of a variety of metastasis-related proteolytic enzymes in several cell types. Work in our lab seeks to establish and characterize a link between OSM-induced protease expression and the development of a metastatic phenotype using mouse mammary carcinoma cell lines derived from C3(1)/Tag transgenic mice as our model. These cell lines are OSM-responsive and express the mOSM receptor as seen by RT-PCR. Zymogram analysis of concentrated conditioned media derived from OSM-treated mammary carcinoma cell cultures demonstrates OSM-induced up-regulation of several proteases, including matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-7, MMP-9, and MMP-13. Zymogram-Western blot analysis confirms MMP-9 up-regulation and traditional Western analysis demonstrates OSM-dependent MMP-13 expression. Work is underway to identify other proteases induced by OSM in vitro. In addition, we hope to link OSM-induced protease up-regulation with the enhancement of invasive capacity using an in vitro invasion assay. Research that establishes a role for OSM in the promotion of a metastatic phenotype will render OSM unsuitable as potential therapy. More importantly, our work could provide the foundation for the development of adjuvant therapies that interfere with OSM signaling and thus slow tumor progression and inhibit tumor metastasis.

Characterization of an In-vitro Model of PIN and Use in Chemotherapeutic Studies Colin Scares, Micaela Vargas, Masa-Aki Shibata, Jeffrey Green, and Cheryl Jorcyk Boise State University Boise, ID 83725

Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, PIN, is believed to be the precursor lesion for prostate adenocarcinoma. Due to the lack of in vitro and in vivo models of human prostate cancer, animal systems must be relied upon for discovery and development. The C3(1)/Tag transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer is one such animal system that demonstrates the significant stages of tumor progression including PIN. PIN lesions appear in mice at 2-7 months of age, and adenocarcinomas develop after 6 months of age. This slow progression of tumorigenesis allows for the isolation of cells to be established in culture for in vitro characterization studies. The cell line Pr-ill was isolated from a 3 1/2 month old C3(1)/Tag mouse exhibiting PIN lesions. Characterization studies demonstrate a slow growth rate compared to adenocarcinoma cell lines established from the transgenic mouse model, as well as a diminished capacity to form tumors in nude mice (Soares, 2002). Further characterization studies are being performed to determ ine the efficacy of treating Pr-ill PIN cells with the biological agents, flutamide and etoposide. Flutamide, an antiandrogen therapy, is commonly used to treat androgen-responsive prostate cancer, whereas, etoposide is a topoisomerase inhibitor that is reserved for late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. When the Pr-ill cells were exposed to each therapy, a dose-dependent growth inhibition of Pr-ill cell growth was observed using a colorimetric assay. Additional studies using DNA fragmentation and protein analyses are being explored to determine the cause of the cytotoxic response, i.e. necrosis or apoptosis. The data presented here describe Pr-ill as a PIN cell line that demonstrates cellular and molecular characteristics between normal prostate epithelium and aggressive prostatic adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, these PIN cells can serve as a novel therapeutic model for the discovery and development of new drug reagents.

Caspase Cleavage of the Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau In the Alzheimer's Disease Brain Michael C. Davis, Young-Eun Kim, Troy T. Rohn Boise State University Boise, ID 83725

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread death of neurons, primarily in the hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex. Microtubule-associated protein tau is an integral component of the cytoskeleton of neurons and helps to maintain their form. A prominent pathological feature of AD are filamentous deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau, known as neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The mechanism by which NFTs are formed is unknown. Caspases are a family of proteolytic enzymes that are crucial for the initiation and execution of programmed cell death, or apoptosis. Recent papers have provided evidence for the activation of caspases in the AD brain. The purpose of this study was to examine whether tau may be a substrate for caspase cleavage in the AD brain. Antiserum was raised against peptide sequences corresponding to caspase cleavage consensus sites within tau. Following purification of the antibody to the tau caspase cleavage product (tau-CCP) from the serum, a western b lot analysis was performed on cell extracts digested with caspase-3. The tau-CCP antibody recognized cleaved tau, but not the full-length molecule. The antibody was then used for an immunohistochemical analysis of AD and control brain tissue. No labeling was observed in the control cases, while the AD tissue showed extensive staining of NFTs. The present work demonstrates that tau is a substrate for cleavage by caspases in the AD brain. Aberrant processing of proteins has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, and caspase-3 mediated cleavage of tau may be a mechanism by which phosphorylated tau is converted to NFTs.

Application of the Cardiotoxic Anti-Cancer Drug Doxorubicin to the Rabbit Cardiac Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Tiffany Brush, Jadyn Wilkes, Chris Kapicka, Richard Olson Northwest Nazarene University Nampa, ID 83686

Patients treated with the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin often develop adverse heart problems. Mechanistically, it has been suggested that doxorubicin alters the activity of the Ca2+ release channel in heart sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). An artificial phospholipid bilayer was created and calcium release channels from rabbit heart SR vesicles were introduced into the bilayer. The activity of the channel was monitored, recorded, and analyzed for amplitude, time constants, and open probability. In preliminary experiments, doxorubicin was introduced to the system and the channel's activity was again recorded. The pOpen before and after adding doxorubicin were compared to determine doxorubicins effect on the activity of the calcium release channel. This process was an intermediary step to pinpointing the precise mechanism by which doxorubicin harms the heart.

Effects of Norepinephrine on Notopthalamus Viridescens Skin Hattie Kugler, Gerald Robinson Albertson College of Idaho Caldwell, ID 83605

Red-spotted newts appear to modify rate of intake of sodium ions under environmental stress. Electrical properties of abdominal skin from the newt Notophthalmus viridescens were examined in vitro following exposure to norepinephrine (NE) at 10-7, 10-6, and 10-5 M. Transepithelial potentials (TEP's) and short-circuit currents (lsc's) were measured via the standard Ussing preparation. Resistances (R's) were calculated from the change in TEP generated by a -20 microA current pulse. At the highest concentration of NE tested (10-5 M), TEP's and Isc's increased significantly with time (p<0.001; repeated measures ANOVA) and R's stabilized (unlike control R's, p<0.001, repeated measures ANOVA). The skins showed a similar, but less significant response at 10-6 M NE, and no response at 10-7 M NE, as is also indicated by dose dependent curves. Our data support the findings of other researchers indicating that catecholamines are involved in ion transport across the skin of amphibians.

An Overview Of Calibrated Peer Review--An Online Writing

And Evaluation Program

Gary D. Mercer, Edward R. Matjeka

Department of Chemistry

Boise State University

1910 University Drive

Boise, ID 83725-1520

Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is an online program for networked computers developed at UCLA. CPR provides a means of enhancing learning through writing by involving students in the writing process as well as the evaluation process without overloading the instructor. Calibrated Peer Review is made up of an integrated set of networked tools that manage the writing assignment process. By using CPR, even frequent writing assignments can be incorporated with minimal increase in workload for the instructor. The CPR tools (1) manage the assignment preparation and setup by the instructor, (2) provide for the input of the student's writing, (3) manage student review and analysis of their own and their peer's assignments, (4) compile a score for the assignment for each student based on their performance in the various phases of the assignment, and (5) prepare instructor and student reports. CPR is discipline independent and, importantly, not only involves the student in the writing process, but in the evaluation proces s as well. It can be accessed by students and the instructor from any computer, including their own, which can connect to the internet.

Determination of Yeast Invertase Elasticity

Kellee Ritchie, Jennifer Chase

Northwest Nazarene University

Nampa, ID 83686

Invertase catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose, to the two hexoses, glucose and fructose in a broad range of organisms. Both products are inhibitors of the reaction. As in most kinetic studies, invertase regulation has been evaluated previously with only one of the products present at a time. We have assessed the effect of both inhibitors on the sensitivity of invertase to changes in sucrose levels. By analyzing the effects using metabolic control analysis, we report the effect on the elasticity of invertase to sucrose by glucose and fructose. Such an evaluation allows modeling of invertase regulation in many tissues

Expression of Recombinant Human Liver Carbonyl Reductase from Escherichia coli Chad Bjorklund, Henry A. Charlier, Jr. Chemistry Department Boise State University Boise, ID 83725-1520

Anthracyclines such as doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DAUN) are antineoplastic agents commonly used to treat leukemia, soft tissue sarcomas, breast and lung cancer (Figure 1A). Their use in treating cancer is significantly limited by a potentially lethal chronic cardiotoxicity, which can result in congestive heart failure many years after treatment is completed. The anthracyclines contain a carbonyl at carbon 13 that is metabolized in the cell by enzymes with NADPH-dependent carbonyl reductase activity to a C-13 hydroxy species. The C-13 hydroxy-metabolite has been shown to be the principal cardiotoxic agent. In an effort to better understand the enzymology of this reaction, a recombinant human liver carbonyl reductase (HCBR) expression system was developed in Escherichia coli. The cDNA encoding for HCBR was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and inserted into a pET-Blue-1 bacterial expression vector. This work reports the construction and evaluation of the recombinant HCBR expression vector.

Horse Liver Alcohol dehydrogenase: contribution of charge at position 228 into coenzyme binding C. Mark Maupin, Henry A. Charlier, Jr. Chemistry Department Boise State University Boise, ID 83725-1520

Horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzes the reversible oxidation of alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones using the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). NAD+ binds in an active-site cleft that is found between the coenzyme binding and catalytic domains. A Rossman fold motif in the coenzyme-binding domain makes critical contacts with the adenosme monophosphate (AMP) portion of NAD+. Chemical modification studies have suggested that the positive charge at position 228 (lysine 228, K228) in the Rossman fold is important for coenzyme binding. To further examine the role of charge at this position, site-directed mutagenesis was used to create mutants with arginine (K228R), alanine (K228A), glutamine (K228Q), or glutamate (K228E) at position 228. The effects of the mutations on NAD+ binding were measured for these mutations and effects on AMP binding were evaluated for K228R, K228A and K228Q. K228R (positively charged side chain) bound all species with affinities similar to nati ve enzyme. K228A and K228Q bound NAD+ with ~300-fold less affinity than native enzyme and K228E bound NAD+ with ~600-fold less affinity. K228Q and K228A bound AMP with 100 and 200-fold less affinity than native enzyme. It is apparent when viewing multiple enzyme forms (native, K228R, K228A, K228Q) that the binding affinities diminish as charge at position 228 goes from positive to negative. Computational analysis of the reaction was conducted for native, K228R, K228A, and K228Q enzymes binding to AMR The results of Molecular Dynamics and single point calculations with the AMBER molecular force field in the HyperChem software package show a high correlation between experimental changes in Gibbs free energy and computational electrostatic and H-bonding changes in energy. Computational and experimental data together form a compelling argument that coenzyme binding to ADH is significantly affected by the charge at position 228.

Anthracycline Specificities of Carbonyl Reductases from Rabbit Heart C. Mark Maupin, Henry A. Charlier, Jr. Chemistry Department Boise State University Boise, ID 83725-1520

Anthracyclines such as daunorubicin (DAUN) and doxorubicin (DOX) are a family of drugs commonly used to treat cancer. Though anthracyclines are potent anti-tumor drugs, their use is limited, as they also are known to be toxic to the heart and have the potential to cause congestive heart failure in many, but not all of the patients. There is accumulating evidence that the destructive effects on the heart are largely attributable to an anthracycline alcohol metabolite that is formed in cardiac cells. The conversion of the anthracyclines to their cardiotoxic alcohol metabolites is catalyzed by several enzymes, most notably carbonyl reductase. In DOX cardiotoxicity studies with rabbits, it was observed that not all of the rabbits develop cardiotoxicity, as is seen with cancer patients. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, the substrate specificities of carbonyl reductases in rabbit heart were partially determined. Several chromatographically distinct fractions (ion exchange chromatography) with carb onyl reductase activity were identified using menadione as a substrate. Two activity peaks were eluted from an anion exchange column while some activity came through in the void. The void from the anion exchange column was applied to a cation exchange column and two more activity peaks were eluted. Of the peaks with menadione activity eluted from the anion exchange column, one peak had both DAUN and DOX activity, while the other possessed only DAUN activity. Of those from the cation exchange column, one peak had both DAUN and DOX activity, while the other possessed only DAUN activity. These results suggest that several carbonyl reductases are expressed in rabbit heart, each with different specificities for DAUN and DOX. This important finding may help explain why, in anthracycline cardiotoxicity studies performed with rabbits, only 50% of the rabbits developed cardiotoxicity. These rabbits could have possessed a complement of enzymes that had good activity on doxorubicin, while those that did not develop card iotoxicity may not have possessed such enzymes.

How to Make a Picture of a Hidden Object Using a Metal Detector Wesley Tennyson, Joseph Chapman, William Packard Northwest Nazarene University Nampa, ID 83666

It would be useful to have an instrument which could make a picture of hidden objects such as archeological artifacts, pipes, wires, minerals, or even buried treasure. Although metal detectors are routinely used to locate metallic objects, they do not generate pictures. Using a simple metal detector we constructed an instrument which makes pictures of hidden objects. We have named the instrument a Scanning Radio Imager. We will present example data, and the principles of operation.



Synthesis and Molecular Modeling of Calcium Antagonists

Victoria Hulubei, Jared Nelson, Nicholas R. Natale

Department of Chemistry

University of Idaho

Moscow ID 53844-2343

Muscle contraction and neuronal discharge is mediated by the passage of calcium ions through a membrane bound protein channel. Molecules which modulate the action of these ion channels have found widespread therapeutic use, for example as anti-hypertensives. Our most recent synthetic results on 4-isoxazole dihydropyridines will be described, along with our computations of their conformational dynamics and drug-receptor interaction.

Progress in Anti-tumor drug discovery

Kevin Rider, Chun Li, Xioachun Han, Nicholas R. Natale

Department of Chemistry

University of Idaho

Moscow ID 83844-2343

A compound prepared in our laboratory was found to possess activity in the National Cancer Institutes'60 cell line screening protocol, and was selected by their Biological Evaluation Committee for in vivo testing in the Developmental Therapeutic Program. Based on the initial compound as a lead, we have developed a working hypothesis for it biological action, and prepared a second generation of compounds for testing at NCI. We will describe our working hypothesis and most recent testing results.

Asymmetric Synthesis of Neurotransmitters

Andrew McKenzie, David J. Burkhart, Nicholas R. Natale

Department of Chemistry

University of Idaho

Moscow ID 83844-2343

Glutamate receptors are important in the transmission of signals across synapses in the CNS. One important sub-type of glutamate receptors, the AMPA receptor, can be modulated by synthetic isoxazoles. We have developed an asymmetric synthesis of hydroxy isoxazoles which is catalytic, and proceeds in excellent chemical yields, and good to excellent optical purity. The details of the synthesis and proof of optical purity will be described.

Photoisomerization in Molecular Recognition: A Controllable Molecular Shuttle

Wava E. Weikel

Department of Chemistry

Northwest Nazarene University

Nampa, ID, 83686

A molecular shuttle, consisting of an unsymmetrical polyether track and an azopyridinium shuttle, was designed with the intent of developing the basis for a molecular switch. C is-trans Photoisomerization of the shuttle, via the azo bonds, is expected to provide controllable selectivity between the stations. The 1,6-diacetatepyrene station was synthesized in two steps from pyrene. The + shuttle was produced through a three-step synthesis beginning with azopyridine. Current research is focused on synthesizing the complete shuttle through either a templating or a non-templating mechanism. It is expected that the complete shuttle, with the 1,6-diacetatepyrene inside, can be successfully synthesized through an auto-templating action between the 1 ,6-diacetatepyrene and the + shuttle, allowing for direct synthesis of the track on the threaded shuttle. The non-templated shuttle would permit the track to be synthesized independently and subsequently threaded onto the complete shuttle.

Design and Syntheses of gamma-Secretase Inhibitors

Adeboye Adejare, Ryan M. Wells, Tara L. Randall

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Idaho State University

Pocatello, ID 83209

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia generally associated with aging. Current research goals are to slow down the degeneration with a view as to postponing institutionalization by five or more years. Prevention of onset and understanding the biological underpinnings of the disease are key components of those goals. This neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by formation of extracellular amyloid plaques in the brain. The enzymes beta-and gamma-secretases are involved in processing amyloid precursor protein (APP) to give Abeta40,42 peptide fragments, which serve as building blocks for the plaques. It has been hypothesized that if the processing of APP to those fragments can be inhibited, then formation of the plaques and thus progression of AD could be hindered. In this study, several adamantane-based compounds were designed and synthesized as gamma-secretase inhibitors. In a gamma-secretase inhibition assay, one of the novel compounds reduced production of Abeta40 to 5% that of co ntrol. Such inhibitors could serve as a new approach to AD therapeutic intervention that target a mechanism of the disease. Financial support by University, and Undergraduate Research Committees of Idaho State University are gratefully acknowledged. Also gratefully acknowledged is Dr. Todd E. Golde of Mayo Clinic, for performing the biological assays.


Groundwater Fluoride Concentrations in and Near Rexburg, Idaho Todd Gunderson, Rebecca Miller, Noel Zaugg

Chemistry Department

Brigham Young University-Idaho

Rexburg, ID 83460-0500

One of the hottest topics today in dental healthcare is fluoride. Parents and healthcare providers are very concerned with the amounts of fluoride in water supplies and consumer products. The purpose of this study was to analyze the fluoride content of the groundwater in the Rexburg region. Due to its geological diversity, the study divided the region into the Rexburg bench area, the sub-fault line area, and the Snake River Plain area. The study examined representative samples from these three areas. The samples were analyzed by a potentiometric method using fluoride ion-selective electrodes. Experimental results will be compared with accepted fluoride concentrations for the region.

Fluoride Levels in Dental Care Products Nathan Rawlinson, Jeff Anderson, Noel Zaugg

Chemistry Department

Brigham Young University-Idaho

Rexburg, ID 83460-0500

For many years, fluoride-containing dental care products have been available to the general public. Fluoride has been shown to reduce dental caries formation, but excess amounts in children can result in enamel fluorosis, a potentiall harmful condition. Especially in regions like southeast Idaho where fluoride is naturally present in groundwater, it is important for consumers and dental healthcare providers to be aware of the amount of fluoride in dental care products. This study examined the fluoride concentrations in several toothpastes, comparing the fluoride availability from different active ingredients. The samples were analyzed by a potentiometric method using fluoride ion-selective electrodes. Considering the guidelines recommended by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), recommendations will be given for optimal dental caries prevention with minimal enamel fluorosis.

Trace Detection and Analysis of Explosives Gracy Elias, Carla J. Miller, Nicholas C. Schmitt

Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

There are several commercialized trace detection techniques available for explosives. These provide rapid detection, but do not have the capability to provide quantitative data. The field screening techniques can be used on various materials by taking a sample swipe from the surface. The identification of explosives for forensics requires analysis and detection from samples and is possible by analyzing different explosive contaminated sample matrices. The analytical methods developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of explosives from various material matrices will be presented in the paper.


The Effects of Telesiesms on Local Seismicity

Aaron Frodsham, Mark Lovell

Department of Geology

Brigham Young University-Idaho

Rexburg, ID 83460-0510

The seismic activity associated with the Yellowstone magma chamber and Basin and Range" extension provide an excellent laboratory for exploring the effects of teleseisms (distant-> 000 km--earthquakes) on local seismicity. It has been suggested that teleseisms increase local seismicity--either by reducing the friction on faults or, in areas of volcanic activity, by increasing magma pressure. Data has been collected on the daily frequency of local and distant earthquakes from July 2001 to February 2002. Preliminary analysis suggests teleseisms do not effect the frequency of local earthquakes. Statistical analyses are underway.


Analysis of the Work Environment at Yellowstone National Park

William Burkhardt, Sam Alessi, Catherine Plowman, Bob Jones, Larry Nolan

Yellowstone National Park

Mammoth, WY 52190

The Risk Management Division of the National Park Service has released a plan that presents the need for a science-based understanding of the underlying cultural or "social factors" that affect work and safety within the National Park Service. Contributing factors include higher than normal incident rates, increasingly complex work tasks, evolving regulations, organizational changes, and limited budgets, resources, and staff. To address this problem an appraisal of management systems and work practices that influence safety at Yellowstone National Park was conducted from October 2000 to April of 2001. Two approaches were used; a traditional scientific survey (Safety Survey) and a new approach entitled Safety Capability Maturity Modeling (SCMM). The two approaches produced similar results, though the SCMM approach also evaluated work practices related to the sustainable design of Park systems. Overall conclusions from the Safety Survey indicate mixed opinions on the safety of the work environment at Yellowston e. Employees want more respect from supervisors and want to be more involvement in planning and decision-making. They want to know and be able to ask more questions about Yellowstone's organizational processes and safety hazards. Staff and supervisors felt the areas needing improvement included safety planning, safety procedures, and employee involvement. Other areas of need included how solutions are planned, training effectiveness, and correcting unsafe work. The Park is using this information to implement changes and improve the safety of its work environment.


Allozyme Diversity in the Invasive Grass Taeniatherum caput-medusae (poaceae): Evidence for Multiple Introductions

Stephen J. Novak

Dean R. Marsh

Lynell Deines

Joseph H. Rausch

Department of Biology

Boise State University

Boise, ID 83725

Studying the genetic variation of invasive species can provide information on their introduction and spread. Such studies benefit when they utilizing knowledge of the introduction history of a species to pinpoint localities for analysis. Taeniatherum caput-medusae (Poaceae) is a primarily self-pollinating annual that has invaded large areas of the western United States. Likely early introduction sites for this species include Roseburg, OR (1884), Steptoe Butte, WA (1901), Klamathon, CA (1903), Los Gatos, CA (1908), Mountain Home, ID (1930), Goldendale, WA (1938), Payette, ID (1944), Elgin, OR (1944), and Lapwai, OR (1946). We assessed introduction dynamics of T. caput-medusae using enzyme electrophoresis. Forty-five populations from western U.S., including those listed above, were analyzed for their genotypes by staining for 15 enzymes that were coded for by 29 putative loci. Across all 45 populations, a total of nine multilocus genotypes were detected. Two of these genotypes exhibited heterozygosity at one o r two loci, and appear to be the product of outcrossing events. Based on the number of genotypes, we suggest a minimum of seven separate introduction events of T. caput-medusae into western U.S. When the geographic distribution of these genotypes is also considered; we believe a maximum of 12 introductions may have occurred. Five distinct multilocus genotypes were detected in eastern Washington alone, indicating that multiple introductions can occur across a relatively small geographic area. Multiple introductions into geographically distinct localities have probably facilitated the invasion of T. caput-medusae in its new range.

Alloenzyme diversity In the Invasive Grass Teaniatherum caput-medusae (poaceae): Amount and Distribution of Variation

Stephen J. Novak

Dean R. Marsh

Lynell Dames

Joseph H. Rausch

Department of Biology

Boise State University

Boise, ID 83725

The amount and distribution of allozyme diversity for any species is influenced by a large array of factors. For an invasive plant species two of the most important of these factors are its mating system and its pattern of introduction. Taeniatherum caput-medusae (Poaceae) is a primarily self-pollinating annual that has invaded large areas of the western United States. Given that this species experienced multiple introductions into its new range, we assessed allozyme diversity of T. caput-medusae using enzyme electrophoresis. Forty-five populations from California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Washington, were analyzed for their genotypes by staining for 15 enzymes that were coded for by 29 putative loci. Only 13 of 45 populations analyzed in this study exhibited any genetic polymorphisms. On average, populations of T caput-medusae possessed 1.01 alleles per locus, 1.7% of loci were polymorphic, and the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.001. The among-population component of the total gene diversity is v ery high ([G.sub.ST]= 0.912), indicating substantial genetic differentiation among populations. The amount and distribution of allozyme diversity within and among these populations suggests that gene flow levels are quite low. Compared to other diploid seed plants allozyme diversity in this species is very low. However, values for the parameters described above are consistent with previous reports for other highly selfing introduced plant species. Multiple introductions into geographically distinct localities and the mating system of T. caput-medusae appear to have played a large role in influencing the genetic structure of this species in its new range.

Alloenzyme Diversity In the invasive grass Taeniatherum caput-medusae (poaceae): Analysis of Mating System

Joseph H. Rausch, Stephen J. Novak, James F. Smith

Department of Biology

Boise State University

Boise, ID 83725

The mating system of an introduced plant is critical to its establishment and proliferation. Taeniatherum caput-medusae (Poaceae) is a primarily self-pollinating annual that has invaded large areas of the western United States. A preliminary investigation of allozyme variability detected several heterozygotes; therefore suggesting limited outcrossing occurs within introduced populations. Using progeny arrays, we determined the mating system parameters for a total of ten populations in California, Idaho, and Oregon. For each population, a total of ten individuals per family and ten families were analyzed (n = 1000). Seven of the populations contained no heterozygous individuals in any family, indicating complete selfing. In three populations, a total of 23 heterozygous progeny were detected. Two populations contained 21 heterozygous individuals across four families. Genotypes of the progeny in these four families conformed to Mendelian expectations, thus indicating that the maternal plants were likely heterozy gous. in one population (Emigrant Hill, OR), two heterozygous individuals occurred in two separate families, and appear to be the result of outcrossing during the progeny generation. The single-locus outcrossing rate across all populations of T. caput-medusae was very low (ts ~ 0.002). Results suggest that low frequency genotypes present in several introduced populations may be the result of outcrossing, and do not represent a separate introduction into each of these populations. The creation of novel genotypes in introduced populations from outcrossing between genotypes originating from geographically disparate populations in the native range has consequences for the proliferation, success, and evolution of highly selfing invasive plants.

Clonal Diversity and Mode at Recruitment in Populus tremuloidies (salicaceae)

Rylene L. Moore

James F. Smith

Stephen J. Novak

Department of Biology

Boise State University

Boise, ID 83725

Most plant species are capable of both sexual and asexual (clonal) modes of reproduction. Species that exhibit clonal reproduction tend to predominate in environments with limited resources compared to individuals that display sexual reproduction. Theory suggests that sexual and clonal populations can be geographically partitioned across the landscape in response to habitat heterogeneity. Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) displays reproductive flexibility; it reproduces using both sexual and clonal means, although asexual reproduction is reported to be most common. We measured the influence of habitat heterogeneity in P. tremuloides through a genetic analysis of seven population, three from Montana and four from Idaho. Populations were collected from bottomland and upland habitats. Genetic variability was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD's). Genetic variability in bottomland populations of P. tremuloides is generally much higher than that detected in upland populations. Three u pland populations, Twin Meadow, MT, Brundage Mountain, ID, and Cat Creek Hillside, ID, contained only two to three genotypes. In contrast, three of four bottomland populations contained many more genotypes, with almost every individual in these populations representing a unique genotype. Similar to the three upland populations, only two to three genotypes were detected in the bottomland population from Lake Fork, ID. These data suggest that upland populations experience considerable clonal recruitment, while most individuals in three of four bottomland populations appear to be the result of sexual recruitment. Habitat heterogeneity appears to be an important process determining mode of recruitment and level of genetic variation within populations of P. tremuloides.

Genetic Variation in Populations of Lepidium latifolium (brassicaceae) from Southern France: Insights into Population Dynamics

Stephen J. Novak

John K. Scott

Paul C. Quimby

Department of Biology

Boise State University

Boise, ID 83725

Lepidium latifolium is a polyploid perennial plant with semi-woody stems, and creeping rhizomes that is native to Eurasia. This species was accidentally introduced into the USA, and has become a noxious weed in wetlands, meadows, pastures, and riparian areas of many western States, especially California and Nevada. The work reported here summarizes our initial attempt to determine the genetic diversity of Lepidium latifolium in Eurasia. We assessed genetic diversity in six populations (380 individuals) of L. latifolium from the Mediterranean coast of southern France by staining for 14 enzymes that were coded for by 29 loci. Genetic diversity in L. latifolium is extremely low: we detected only two multilocus genotypes across all six populations. Five populations (280 individuals) were fixed for a single multilocus genotype, whereas all 100 individuals in the sixth population were fixed for the other genotype. Enzyme banding patterns are consistent with allopolyploid gene expression, and chromosome counts revea l that all populations possess tetraploid chromosome numbers (2n = 24). The low levels of genetic diversity we report for L. latifolium may result from two factors: 1) these populations may have experienced a genetic bottleneck associated with their relatively recent naturalization in southern France, and 2) these populations appear to reproduce almost exclusively through clonal means by rhizome expansion and fragmentation. Our results clearly indicate that further sampling and analysis of L. latifolium across larger portions of Eurasia is required before a better picture of genetic diversity in this species in its native range can be obtained.

Creating Eastern Idaho Native Vegetation Maps with Arcview from GIS

Soil Surveys

Darwin J. Jeppesen, T. Watanabe Bureau of Land Management

1405 Holipark Idaho Falls, ID 83401

The Bureau of Land Management is using the Soil Survey Geographics database (SSURGO) with the geographic information system (GIS) to create native vegetation maps for eastern Idaho. The digital soil surveys can show detailed locations of native or natural plant shrub-grass and tree communities on small or large scale basis. The effort has been expanded to cover the Tarhgee forest vegetation types as well. This presentation will describe the methodology ised to create graphically the distribution of potential or native vegetations in eastern Idaho using both GIS and Global Positioning System (GPS). Examples of eastern Idaho native vegetation poster maps that were created by this methodology will be shown.


Underfur Density in the Mink is Controlled by Prolactin

Jason Hunt, Jack Rose

Department of Biological Sciences Idaho State University Pocatello, ID 83209

In mink, winter anagen is initiated by decreasing photoperiod, and is correlated with reduced serum prolactin (PRL) levels. Inhibition of PRL secretion with melatonin (MEL), or artificially short photoperiod, induces anagen prematurely. Our objectives were to determine: (1). if skin PRL receptor (PRL-R) levels change during natural and artificially induced (MEL & bilateral adrenalectomy, ADX) winter anagen, and (2). if under-hair density was influenced by elevating (haloperidol, HAL) or reducing (MEL) serum PRL levels. Skin PRL-R levels were determined, on July, 27, August 18, Sept 9, and Oct 22, and histological analyses performed on skin samples from Oct 22, to quantify the number of under-hair follicles per follicular bundle type (U-type = under-hairs only, I-type = under-hairs plus one intermediate guard hair, and G-type = under-hairs plus one primary guard hair). Control mink entered winter anagen during mid-Sept and PRL-R levels were unchanged. HAL delayed anagen in two mink while initiating early anage n in one animal. In all HAL-treated mink, PRL-R levels increased on Aug 18, and remained elevated through Oct 22 (P<0.05). MEL induced winter anagen 6-weeks early and PRL-R levels were higher during anagen (Aug 18 & Sept 9) than telogen (July 27 & Oct 22; P<0.05). ADX initiated winter anagen six weeks early and PRL-R levels were unchanged. The number of under hair follicles per bundle in control mink was, U = 19.6 "2.3, I = 18.0 " 2.0, & G = 15.2 " 1.7. In all groups, the under hair density per bundle was lower in G-type than in U or I-type bundles (P<0.001). ADX increased under-hair density in U-type (22.3" 1.5) and I-type (19.7 " 2.2) bundles (P<0.01). HAL, reduced under-hair density 53% in U-type, 57% in I-type and 40% in G-type bundles (P<0.01). We conclude that changes in skin PRL-R levels are not requisite to initiation of winter anagen. Nevertheless, it would appear that increased PRL binding after onset of winter anagen may in part, influence the number of under-hair follicles that develop, supporting the hypothesis that hair density is determined, in part, through the actions of PRL.

The Effects of Prolactin and Melatonin on Development of the Summer Pelage in Mink (Mustela vison)

Shannon Larson, Jason Hunt, Jack Rose

Department of Biological Science Idaho State University Pocatello, ID 83209

Summer fur growth (anagen) in mink is initiated by increasing photoperiod and is correlated with elevated serum PRL concentrations. Exogenous PRL advances, whereas inhibition of PRL secretion delays or even blocks onset of summer anagen. Our objectives were to determine: (1). changes in serum PRL levels in mink exhibiting natural and artificially induced summer anagen (adrenalectomy, ADX; long photoperiod, 16L:8D and haloperidol, HAL), as well as in mink treated with melatonin (MEL), to inhibit PRL secretion and therefore, block summer anagen, (2). skin PRL receptor (PRL-R) levels in control, ADX and MEL treated animals, and (3). if under-hair density was influenced by elevating serum PRL levels (HAL or 16L:8D). Serum PRL levels were determined by radioimmunoassay, weekly to bi-weekly, from Feb 13 to July 24, and on Sept 29, 2001. Histological analyses were performed on skin samples collected on July 24 to determine the number of under-hair follicles per follicular bundle type (U-type = under-hairs only, I-ty pe = under-hairs plus one intermediate guard hair and G-type = under-hairs plus one primary guard hair). There was no difference in time of summer anagen between control and 16L:8D, even though serum PRL levels were elevated 4 weeks earlier in response to 16L:8D; P<0.05. Mink treated with HAL or HAL + MEL, displayed an earlier rise in serum PRL levels (P<0.05), but onset of anagen was similar in both groups. Serum PRL was non-detectable in MEL and 16L:8D + MEL treated mink, and none of these animals exhibited summer fur growth. ADX'd mink entered summer anagen 1 month earlier than controls and there was no difference in serum PRL levels between the two groups. On September 29 (after completion of summer anagen), there was no difference in skin PRL-R concentrations between control, ADX, and MEL-treated mink. Surprisingly however, in MEL-treated mink exhibiting winter anagen, PRL-R levels were higher in anagen skin (8.8" 0.21 fmol/mg) than in telogen (resting stage of hair cycle) skin (3.85" 1.17 fmol/mg; P<0.01). Because serum PRL levels were not different between any MEL -treated mink, suggests to us, that MEL stimulates production of the PRL-R in mink skin during the anagen phase of the hair growth cycle, only. In all animals, the under-hair density in the G-type bundles was lower than the density in I-type and U-type bundles (P<0.01). The number of under hair follicles per bundle, in control mink on Sept 29, was: G=9.6 "1.84, U=15.9 "3.49, and I=15.8" 2.29. In HAL-treated mink, serum PRL levels were elevated and the number of hair follicles per bundle was reduced in U (P<0.01) and I-type (P<0.05) bundles. HAL. +MEL increased serum PRL levels similar to HAL alone, but after 5 weeks, PRL levels were lower than control or HAL alone (P<0.05). Interestingly, hair follicle density of U-type bundles in HAL + MEL treated mink, were similarly, reduced (HAL + MEL = 13.58 "1.95, Control = 15.9 "3.49; P<0.05) and although intermediate in value, were not different from HAL alone (12.7 " 1.7). Our findings suggest that PRL may determine, in part, the number of under hair follicles that b ecome active during the summer fur growth cycle of this species.

Genetic Variation of the lktA Gene in Strains of Pasteurella haemolytica and P. trehalosi

Jennifer Anne Edmonds, Glen Weiser

University of Idaho Canine Veterinary Teaching Hospital Caldwell ID 83607

Pasteurella haemolytica and P. trehalosi have been a leading cause in death of Bighorn sheep in Idaho causing to difficulty in the reestablishment of native populations in the state and surrounding area's. The presence of a leukotoxin has been correlated to virulence of P.haemolytica and P. trehalosi. It has been hypothesized that structural differences in the lktA gene influence the intensity of the organisms' virulence. DNA from various P. haemolytica and P. trehalosi were isolated and tested for the lktA gene using polymerase chain reaction. The lktA amplicon was then cut with four restriction endonucleases at specific recognition sites of 4-6 base pairs. Electrophoretic gels were then run to show unique cutting patterns produced by the individual restriction enzymes at their specific palindrome sequences. Four unique P. trehalosi cutting patterns were found in 9 isolates and 5 unique patterns were found in the 13 P. haemolytica isolates. Some strains of known virulence did display similar cutting patterns to other strains of similar virulence. Future research will test the cytotoxicity of specific strains to better correlate allele type and virulence as well as further isolation of specific alleles and possibly their sequencing.

Biological Control in the Potato Crop in Idaho

Juan M. Alvarez, Nancy Matteson, Monica Wiebe

Department of Plant Soil and Entomological Sciences

University of Idaho

1693 South 2700 West

Aberdeen, ID 83210

Idaho produces 35% of the potatoes grown in the US, but accounts for 41% of the insecticide use on potatoes. This over reliance on insecticides has resulted in the development of pest resistance and the emergence of pests that were previously considered to be of minor economic importance. A successful integrated pest management (IPM) program should allow consideration of natural enemies of insect pests. There is on-going research to identify and investigate potential natural enemies of Colorado potato beetle and green peach aphid in southeastern Idaho and to establish their relative usefulness. In 2001, an inventory of arthropods, including beneficial and pest insects, was done in commercial fields of three potato varieties in southeastern Idaho. Experimental plots were established in the fields with and without insecticides and evaluated with the use of several sampling techniques. Plots were sampled twice a week from June 8 to August 28. More than 12,000 arthropod individuals were collected, identified, and assessed their relative frequency. Populations of native predators, which include ground beetles, stink bugs, lady beetles, collops beetles and some small hymenopteran (wasps) and dipteran (flies) parasitoids were found in the inventory. The most significant difference between treated and untreated plots was in the abundance of carabid beetles, which are known to be effective predators in many crops. The dominant carabid species was Pterostichus melanarius, an introduced European species, which was shown to feed on CPB and GPA. Populations of P. melanarius appear to be the highest between June 22 and July 20, which coincides with the time when mature CPB larvae of the first generation and adults of the summer generation are present in potato fields. The survey showed that when populations of CPB were increasing in potato fields, the populations of P. melanarius were also increasing. Application of foliar insecticides against CPB and GPA not only reduced pest populations but also reduced the populations of P. melanarius. Maintenance of effective natural enemies in Idaho would reduce production costs by decreasing pesticide use.

Evidence of Equine Navicular Syndrome in the Fossil Record Mary E. Thompson, H. Gregory McDonald, Lennart C. Ostblom Idaho Museum of Natural History Poctello, ID 53209

Equine navicular syndrome (ENS) is a chronic, incurable lameness of the horse's foot resulting the deterioration of navicular bone (distal sesamoid) tissue. The pathology is poorly understood but appears to be the result of mechanical stress reducing blood flow to the distal sesamoid. In domestic breeds of horse the increase of mechanical stress is caused by man's intervention either by increased usage or improper breeding practices (i.e. large body, small feet). It has been suggested that it is absent in wild horse species. In order to examine the relationship between body size and incidence of ENS we have examined the navicular of large samples of four fossil species of Equus by x-ray, from Pliocene (Hagerman) and Pleistocene (Rancho La Brea, San Josecito Cave, and American Falls) faunas. Lollipop lesions, characteristic of the syndrome, were identified on the radiographs of the large Pleistocene species and to a lesser degree on those of the smaller Pliocene and Pleistocene species. This suggests that incr eased usage by man may not be the sole cause of the syndrome and that body size and the resulting forces placed on the sesamoid may be a critical factor. For this study we examined the possible relationship between body weight and the incidence of the syndrome. The four species of Equus cover a range of body size from the large Equus occidentalis from Rancho La Brea to the small Equus conversidens from the San Josecito Cave (Pleistocene, Mexico). Distal sesamoids were x-rayed and evaluated for lollipop lesions.


Measuring the Resistance of an YBa2Cu307 Disk

David Niemi

Brigham Young University-Idaho

Rexburg, ID 83440

The resistance of an YBa2Cu307 disk (a high temperature superconductor) has been measured as its temperature changes from 77K to room temperature using two, and four point methods.


Microscale Heat Transfer to Subcooled Water: 200-6000 PSIA, 0-3500 W/CM2

Robert H. Leyse

Inz, Inc. RO. Box 2850

Sun Valley, ID 83353

Exciting heat transfer phenomena have been discovered with a micron-sized heat transfer element operating in subcooled (20 degrees C) degassed, demineralized water over a wide pressure range (200-6000 PSIA) at heat fluxes up to 3500 W/cm2. The platinum heat transfer element (diameter 7.5 microns, length 1.14 mm) is installed within a one cm3 stainless steel chamber. Sealed electrical terminals penetrate the chamber to effect direct current heating of the platinum element. Pressure is applied pneumatically. The adiabatic heating rate of the element is 6 degrees C per microsecond at 3700 W/cm2; response is essentially instantaneous for the procedure described herein. The direct current voltage and current are measured from which the power and the resistance (temperature) are determined. The following procedure applies: 1.) Pressurize the water-filled stainless steel chamber to 6000 PSIA 2.) Apply power at 3000 W/cm2.3.) Maintain constant heat flux as pressure is smoothly reduced from 6000 PSIA to 200 PSIA over a period of 20 seconds. Record voltage, amperage, and pressure at 0.1 second intervals. Heat transfer phenomena thus discovered: 1.) Element starting temperature of 370 degrees C at 6000 PSIA smoothly increased to 380 degrees as pressure was reduced to 3970 PSIA. 2.) At 3970 PSIA the temperature abruptly stepped upward to 590 degrees C. (NEW) 3.) Temperature smoothly increased to 730 degrees C as pressure was reduced to 3230 PSIA. (NEW). 4.) In the vicinity of the critical pressure, the temperature turned around and began smoothly decreasing. (NEW) 5.) At 2350 PSIA., the temperature stepped down from 520 to 350 degrees C. (NEW) 6.) Temperature smoothly decreased to 230 degrees C at 190 PSIA and power was then turned off. Bulk water temperature increased less than 4 degrees C. Controlled gravity (KC-135) tests are planned.


Spreadsheets In the Introductory Physics Lab

Brian A. Pyper, Brian W. Miller, Justin L. Kay

Brigham Young University-Idaho

Rexburg, ID 53460-0520

Utah State University

Logan, UT 84322

Spreadsheets have become ubiquitous in computer software applications. Teaching students graphing techniques and numerical analysis methods on software they may never see again may be counter-productive. Using commonly available and powerful spreadsheets to graph, fit data, and provide numerical methods solutions makes good sense both educationally and pragmatically. We will show some basic spreadsheet applications in physics: graphing, fitting data, and numerical methods solutions to problems like the simple harmonic oscillator and radioactive decay series.

Demonstrating Alternating Current(AC) concepts with a Flourescent Lamp

Ron Willford (1) and T. Watanabe (2)

(1) Eastern Idaho Technical College

1600 5. 25th East

Idaho Falls, ID 83404

(2) INEL(ret.), RO. Box 2941

Idaho Falls, ID 83403

It is usually difficult to demonstrate the concept of impedance and phase angle to students who are enrolled in the electronics program at EITC. The concept of resistance and the application of Ohm's law in an electrical circuit is readily understood for direct current(DC). Moving onto AC, there are several additional concepts introduced namely inductance, capacitance, impedance, and phase angle. Of these, phase angle proves to be the most difficult concept. The lecture or laboratory demonstration using a flourescent lamp and its ballast to demonstrate the concept of impedance, phase angle, and power loss will be presented.

A Periodic Table of the Moles

Nicholas R. Natale, Feather Del Rae Broncheau

Department of Chemistry

University of Idaho

Moscow ID 83844-2343

We have developed an outreach program directed towards including our Native American Students and teachers. As a central focus for our activities we have developed a display of Native American mole sculptures arranged in an approximate periodic table by their mineral composition. The display and activities will be described.

A New Opportunity for Improving Science Education

Brent Bradberry

Lewis-Clark State College

Lewiston, ID 83501

The author will present a report on the status of a three-year grant program designed to assist Idaho in the systemic improvement of mathematics, science, and technology education (MSTE).The program is sponsored by NASA and the National Alliance of State Science and Mathematics Coalitions (NASSMC) and is designed to align NASA's Idaho assets with a strategic plan developed by Idaho leaders in MSTE.
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Title Annotation:includes abstracts of presented works on the Yellowstone region
Publication:Journal of the Idaho Academy of Science
Article Type:Abstract
Date:Jun 1, 2002
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