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3-D cartesian method in characterisating of mechanical properties of bamboo polyester composites.

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, as a result of growing environmental awareness, agro-fillers have been increasingly used as reinforcing fillers in thermoplastic and thermoset composite materials. The agro- filler has been regarded as a promising alternative to conventional composites, such as a reinforced composite synthetic. Natural agro-reinforced resin matrix composites have to overcome many challenges, especially on their susceptibility to moisture and poor dimensional stability, in order to be used commonly as engineering materials. Among these, vegetable fibers are getting more attention, because they are renewable and show excellent reinforcing properties for polymer composites [3,11,20]. Among the various lignocellulosic fibers, bamboo was recognized that has a high percentage of lignin (32 %) and its microfibrillar angle is relatively small (2[degrees] - 10[degrees]) [6]. This factors lead to the extremely high tensile strength, flexural strength, and rigidity of the fiber's polylamellate wall structure. These advantages place the natural fibers composites among high performance composite having economical and environmental advantages with good physical properties [12].

Polyester resins are a special family of polymers. Polyesters, as the name implies, are polymers that contain ester linkages. Unsaturated polyester has a special interest as a matrix in natural fiber composites for many reasons. First good all-around properties because of the high content of aromatic vinyl groups, the crosslinked polyester is easily susceptible to thermooxidative decomposition, which reduces the long-term application temperature. Second ease of fabrication without high pressure moulding equipment; third require minimal setup costs and physical properties that can meet the specific applications. At lasts the unsaturated polyester versatile with the possibility of maintaining the finished parts in many ways without affecting the physical properties [2]. The comparisons mechanical properties of unsaturated polyester with selected matrix materials can be seen in Table 1.

The mechanical properties of polyester are most often obtained application in the fibers, films, engineering resins, and biomedical uses (Sawyer 2008). Further, it has been indicated that this reinforcement fiber dependence is inherent to polyester resin due to their unique molecular structure and is quite different from configuration and or other environmental factors. Based on the above reason, various concentrations of natural fiber and analysis approaches must be adopted for natural agro- based polymer materials to determine the manner in properties. Bamboo fiber is a good candidate as reinforcement in composite materials because it is an abundant natural resource available in many countries and one of the fastest growing grass plants [18,16,15,9,4]. In addition, bamboo has excellent specific mechanical properties because its fibers are aligned longitudinally [8,5,17,19,7,10].

Understanding the potential of bamboo as strong fiber in composite, this study aim to investigate and explore the properties of laminated BF/ UP composites. In this work, the mechanical properties of three different fiber strips with various thicknesses were analysed and also proposed the using of 3 Dimension (or 3D) Cartesian to find the optimum values of various mechanical properties results.

Experimental and Mechanical Testing:

Selection of Resin Matrix:

Unsaturated polyester resin is a rigid, low reactivity, thixotropic general-purpose of orthophthalic type was selected. The matrix system consisted of unsaturated polyester (UP) type of Reversol P-9509 with the specific gravity at 25[degrees]C: 1.12, viscosity: 450-600 cps volumetric shrinkage 8% and acid value, mg KOH/g solid resin 29-34 was used. It is pre-promoted for ambient temperature cure with addition of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) as catalyst. The bamboo species used in these test were Gigantochloa Scortechinii (Buluh Semantan) and cut down into lumber strip fiber parts with different thickness such as 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 2.5 mm. All of the specimens were washed with water and then dried in an oven at 60[degrees]C for 72 hours for reduce its moisture. The formulation for unsaturated polyester and bamboo strip is divided into three main parts of inner, middle and outer bamboo layer, which have been cut according to the thickness. Figure 1 show the methodology flow chart.

Laminate Fabrication:

Composite laminate of bamboo layer and unsaturated polyester were prepared by simple hand lay- up practice in a mould 120 mm x 120 mm x 3 mm which represent length, width and thickness respectively at laboratory temperature. At first, a scrapper was used to clean the dirt inside surface of the mould and a rag was used to wipe the mould surface. Then silicon release agent was applied to the surfaces to facilitate sample easy removal from mould. Unsaturated polyester which was mixed with the methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP) as catalyst 100: 2 were stirred until its changes its physical colour from light pink to pale yellow. The mixture was poured inside the mould until it close the lowest surface. Then 10 BF strips was placed slowly on the top of the lowest surface to wetting it. After that, mixture was poured again on top surface on the strips and brushes it in one way to ensure it fully close the strips. Finally the laminate was removed from the mould and cured at room temperature for one hour.

Testing Standard:

Tensile and flexural properties for pure bamboo and laminated UP/BF at temperature 25[+ or -] 3 [degrees]C with 50 % of humidity were measured using Instron 5569 A (USA) capacity 50 KN at a cross head speed of 2 mm/min according to ASTM D3039 and ASTM D790 standard testing method. The hardness tests were conducted according to ASTM D2240. The Shore D Durometer/ Digital Shore Tester DSAS/DSDS hardness were used to measure the depth of penetration of loaded indenter in to the material. The tests were performed at 25[+ or -] 3 [degrees]C with 50% of humidity. While for the Charpy resistance test was carried out at 120[degrees] by using the "Pendulum Charpy Tester Model: Eurotech ET-2206" complete with hammer 50 J impact force and the operating conditions at 25 [+ or -] 2 [degrees] C with 50% humidity. The test conducted in accordance to ASTM D6110 in order to determine the values of Charpy Impact Strength (J / [mm.sup.2]).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Bamboo strip with various thicknesses was laminated with unsaturated polyester. The mechanical properties in terms of tensile, flexural, impact and hardness properties of the bamboo laminated are tabulated in Table 2.

Inner Layers:

Table 2 shows the mechanical properties increased linearly for both pure bamboo series 1 to 6 and laminated bamboo series 7 to 15. The results showed that mechanical properties of the laminated are enhanced with increasing the thickness of bamboo for inner layer. The Charpy impact of bamboo laminated from series 7 to 15 was higher than the pure bamboo strip. While for the same series flexural stresses of bamboo laminated were found higher than tensile stress. The similiar increasing also occurred towards the bamboo laminated flexural modulus were higher than tensile modulus. The pure bamboo strip and laminated sampled for tensile stress, tensile modulus, flexural stress, and flexural modulus from series 1 to 6 and 7 to 15 with 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm and 2.5 mm going enlarges with 66.9 %, 87.9 %, 87.7 %, and 88.8 % respectively.

The results of tensile stress, flexural stress, and charpy impact in three views dimensional of cartesian coordinate is illustrated in Figure 2. For the graph of X- axis, the maximum values of flexural stress vs. tensile stress is 37.4 MPa to 42.0 MPa (39.126 MPa, 41.957 MPa and 40.877 MPa), while to graph of Y- axis is 64.6 MPa to 75.3 MPa (70.888 MPa, 73.271 MPa & 75.271 MPa). The maximum values of both axis occured to the series 13, 14 and 15 respectively. The border level of X-axis, Y-axis, and Z-axis graphs to charpy impact vs. tensile stress and charpy impact vs. flexural stress are 37.4 MPa to 42.0 MPa , 64.6 MPa to 75.3 MPa and 2.55 J/[mm.sup.2] to 2.65 J/[mm.sup.2] for tensile stress, flexural stress, and charpy impact respectively. The graph based on TSn[intersection]S[intersection]CI shows the optimum value found on series 14 with the values of tensile stress, flexural stress, and charpy impact were 41.957 MPa, 73.271 MPa, 2.608 J/[mm.sup.2] respectively.

Middle Layers:

The mechanical properties of the laminated bamboo are also enhanced with increasing the thickness of bamboo strip for middle layer (Table 2). Based on the comparison between pure bamboo strip and laminated, the testing results of the tensile stress, tensile modulus, flexural stress, flexural modulus, and charpy impact on 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 2.5 mm showed enlarges for each thickness. The values of tensile stress were 75.9 %, 61.6 %, and 79.4 %, while for tensile modulus were 98.1 %, 90.3 %, and 106.9 % respectively. For the flexural stress testing, the results showed 57.9 %, 77.1 %, and 115.8 %, while for flexural modulus were 115.2 %, 107.9 %, and 108.2 % respectively. The values of charpy impact test were 59.4 %, 107.7 %, and 144.8 % respectively. The result of hardness test of laminated bamboo on 2.5 mm thickness was 981.9 % higher than pure bamboo strip.

Figure 3 illustrate the results of tensile modulus, charpy impact, and hardness values in cartesian coordinate axis of X, Y, and Z respectively. Based on X- axis and Z- axis, the higher values of the tensile modulus and hardness test occurred between 3258.3 MPa to 3897.2 MPa and 33.4 to 50.1. The results showed the values are 3897.21 MPa, 3781.32 MPa, 3670.72 MPa, 3327.52 MPa (X-axis) and 50.108, 48.842, 49.817 and 45.87 (Y-Axis) for series 11, 13, 14, and 15 respectively. However, for hardness value vs. tensile modulus and hardness value vs. charpy impact, the graph shows the higher value of tensile modulus, charpy impact, and hardness located in X- axis, Y- axis, and Z- axis with the border between 3258.3 MPa to 3897.2 MPa, 3.6 J/[mm.sup.2] to 4.2 J/[mm.sup.2] and 33.4 to 50.1 for series 13, 14, and 15 respectively. Figure 3 shows the optimum value for tensile modulus were 3897.21 MPa, 3781.32 MPa, 3670.72 MPa, while for charpy impact were 4.2 J/[mm.sup.2], 4.183 J/[mm.sup.2], and 4.083 J/[mm.sup.2] and then for hardness were 50.108, 48.842, and 49.817. This three Dimension of Cartesian coordinate indicates the series of 13, 14, and 15 are located in optimum condition based on TM[intersection]CI[intersection]K.

Outer Layers:

Table 2 shows that the mechanical properties of outer layer bamboo laminated are also enhanced with increasing their thickness. The results found that the values of tensile stress, tensile modulus, flexural stress, flexural modulus, charpy impact, and hardness for laminated bamboo strip were increased towards 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm and 2.5 mm thickness. For the tensile stress were 24.5 % and 45.4%, while for tensile modulus are 34.6 % & 50.4 %. For flexural stress and flexural modulus were 24.8 %, 35.7 % and 5.2 %, 12.6 % respectively. For charpy impact were 22.8 % and 39.5%, while for hardness test are 4.9 % & 18.2 %. The values of outer layer laminated bamboo for tensile stress, tensile modulus, flexural stress, flexural modulus, charpy impact and hardness showed 51.8 %, 92.1 %, 65 %, 107.3 %, 69.6 % and 281.2 % greater mechanical properties than pure bamboo strip.

The higher values of flexural stress and charpy impact test found in the area with border between 64.8 MPa to 72.0 MPa (X- axis) and 3.3 J/[mm.sup.2] to 3.7 J/[mm.sup.2] (Y- axis) for series 11, 13, 14 , and 15 respectively. However, the higher values of flexural stress and hardness occurred on area with border between 64.8 MPa to 72.0 MPa (X- axis) and 39.1 to 58.7 (Y- axis) for series 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15. For the hardness value vs. charpy impact, Figure 4 shows the Y-axis and Z-axis border level is 3.3 J/[mm.sup.2] to 3.7 J/[mm.sup.2] for charpy impact and 39.1 to 58.7 for hardness value. This graph indicates that series 11, 13, 14, and 15 were located in optimum condition based on FS [intersection] CI [intersection] K.

Selected Compositions:

Table 3 shows the selected mechanical properties for inner, middle, and outer laminated bamboo. The results showed that mechanical properties of the laminated bamboo are enhanced with increasing the thickness of bamboo strip for inner, middle and outer layer. This is consistent with the study of Okubo et al. (2004), that bamboo fibers bundles had an adequate specific strength. According to Verma et al. [17], the tensile and flexural in [[0.sup.0]/[0.sup.0]/[0.sup.0]/[0.sup.0]] laminated configuration with 2 mm thickness give the higher values. [19] stated the flexural concert as the finger length increases from 12 mm to 15 mm and 18 mm for the laminated bamboo.

As shown in Table 2, the middle layer has higher mechanical properties than inner or outer layer. For middle layer series 14 incorporated of 2.5 mm, the impact strength increased from 2.608 J/[mm.sup.2] to 4.183 J/[mm.sup.2], which is about 60.4 % when compared to inner layer same series. While for the 2.5 mm middle layer series 13, the tensile stress, tensile modulus, flexural stress, and flexural modulus increased from 44.87 MPa to 48.767 MPa, 3023.87 MPa to 3897.21 MPa, 69.402 MPa to 78.841 MPa, and 4485.6 MPa to 5208.65 MPa, which is about 8.7%, 28.9 %, 13.6 % and 16.1% respectively when compared to outer layer same series. However, the hardness value of series 15 with 2.5 mm thickness was decreased from outer to middle layer 58.683 to 49.817, which is about 15.1 %.

Figure 5 shows the 3-dimensional cartesian graph towards the actual optimum condition for tensile stress, flexural stress and hardness for inner, middle and outer layer. The higher values located in X- axis and Z- axis border for tensile stress and hardness were between 44.6 MPa to 48.9 MPa and 45.7 to 58.7. The values were 48.767 MPa, 46.983 MPa, 45.889 MPa, 44.87 MPa, and 45.526 MPa for tensile stress, while for hardness are 50.108, 48.842, 49.817, 56.833, and 57.125 respectively (series 13 middle & outer, 14 middle & outer, and 15 middle). However, based on the higher value of tensile stress and flexural stress were found on series 13, 14 , and 15 middle layer, where for X- axis were 44.6 MPa to 48.8 MPa , while for Y- axis are 77.7 MPa to 85.6 MPa, and 45.7 to 58.7 for Z- axis. The 3-D graph shows the optimum value for tensile stress were 48.767 MPa, 46.983 MPa, and 45.889 MPa, while for flexural stress are 78.841 MPa, 85.623 MPa, and 82.07 MPa, and then 50.108, 48.842, and 49.817 for hardness with series 13, 14, and 15 middle layer respectively. This three Dimension Cartesian coordinate indicates that series 13, 14, and 15 were located in optimum condition of TS[intersection]FS[intersection]K.

Conclusion:

The possibilities of using various bamboo strip thickness in unsaturated polyester matrix was studied by investigation of the mechanical properties of the laminated produced. These studies showed that the mechanical properties of pure bamboo and unsaturated polyester/ bamboo laminated improve, while thicknesses of bamboo increased.

In this study, the optimum mechanical properties results obtained in the tensile test, flexural test, hardness test, and charpy impact test were depicted using 3 Dimension (or 3-D) Cartesian graph. The mechanical properties with A= TS/FS/CI, B=TM/FM/CI, C= TS/CI/H, D=TM/CI/H, E= FS/CI/H, F=FM/CI/H, G=TS/FS/H and K=TM/FM/H (A [intersection] B[intersection] C [intersection] D [intersection] E [intersection] F [intersection] G [intersection] K) performance for middle layer. Series 13, 14 and 15 of middle part with thickness 2.5 mm show the best tensile stress, tensile modulus, flexural stress, flexural modulus, charpy impact and hardness value among the rest, with the value range 45.889 MPa to 48.767 MPa, 3670.72 MPa to 3897.210 MPa, 78.841 MPa to 85.623 MPa, 5086.17 MPa to 5235.38 MPa, 4.083 J/[mm.sup.2] to 4.2 J/[mm.sup.2] and 48.842 to 50.108 respectively.

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 28 February 2014

Received in revised form 25 May 2014

Accepted 6 June 2014

Available online 20 June 2014

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors acknowledge the Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) 1/2013/TK01/UPNM/01/2 and Universiti Pertahanan National Malaysia (UPNM) for supporting the research work, as well as The Mechanical Engineering Department Polytechnic Merlimau Melaka and The Coordinator of Composite Engineering Laboratory (FKP/UTeM) for granting permission to use all available equipments.

REFERENCES

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[4] Krishnaprasad, R., N.R. Veena, H.J. Maria, R. Rajan, M. Skrifvars and K. Joseph, 2009. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bamboo Microfibril Reinforced Polyhydroxybutyrate Biocomposites. Journal of Polymer and the Environment, 17: 109-114.

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[6] Liu, Song, Anderson, Chang and Hua., 2012. Bamboo fiber and its reinforced composites: structure and properties. Cellulose, 19: 1449-1480.

[7] Mahdavi, M., P.L. Clouston and S.R. Arwade, 2011. Development of Laminated Bamboo Lumber: Review of Processing, Performance, and Economical Considerations. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. pp: 1036-1042.

[8] Nugroho, N. and N. Ando, 2000. Development of structural composite products made from bamboo I: fundamental properties of bamboo zephyr board. Journal of Wood Science, 46: 68-74.

[9] Okubo, K., T. Fujii and Y. Yamamoto, 2004. Development of bamboo-based polymer composites and their mechanical properties. Composites: Part A., 35: 377-383.

[10] Porras, A. and A. Maranon, 2012. Development and characterization of a laminate composite material from polylactic acid (PLA) and woven bamboo fabric. Composite: Part B., 43: 2782-2788.

[11] Priya, S.P. and S.K. Rai., 2006. Mechanical Performance of Biofiber/Glass-reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites. Journal of Industrial Textiles, 35(3): 217-226.

[12] Rassiah, K. and M.M.H. Megat Ahmad, 2013. A review on mechanical properties of bamboo fiber reinforced polymer composite. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(8): 247-253.

[13] Rassiah, K. and M.M.H. Megat Ahmad, 2013. Bamboo, thermoplastic, thermosets, and their composites: A Review. Applied Mechanics and Materials, 330: 53-61.

[14] Sawyer L.C., D.T. Grubb and G.F. Meyers, 2008. Polymer Microscopy. Springer New York.

[15] Thwe, M.M. and K. Liao, 2003. Environmental effects on bamboo-glass/polypropylene hybrid composites. Journal of Materials Science, 38: 363- 376.

[16] Tokoro, R., D.M. Vu, K. Okubo, T. Tanaka, T. Fujii and T. Fujiura, 2008. How to improve Mechanical properties of polylactic acid with bamboo fibers. Journal of Materials Science, 43: 775-787.

[17] Verma, C.S. and V.M Chariar, 2012. Development of layered laminate bamboo composite and their mechanical properties. Composites: Part B., 43: 1063-1069.

[18] Wong, Zahi, Low and Lim, 2010. Fracture characterisation of short bamboo fibre reinforced polyester composites. Materials and Design, 31: 4147-4154.

[19] Yeh, M.C. and Y.L. Lin, 2012. Finger joint performance of structural laminated bamboo member. Journal of Wood Science, 58: 120-127.

[20] Zamri, M.H., H. Md. Akil, A.A. Bakar, Z.A.M. Ishak and L.W. Cheng, 2011. Effect of water absorption on pultruded jute/glass fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites. Journal of Composite Materials, 46(1): 51-61.

(1,2) Kannan Rassiah, (1) M.M.H Megat Ahmad, (1) Aidy Ali and (3) Haeryip Sihombing

(1) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) Kem Sg. Besi, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, MALAYSIA.

(2) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Politeknik Merlimau (PMM). KB 1031, Pejabat Pos Merlimau, 77300, Melaka, MALAYSIA.

(3) Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka MALAYSIA.

Corresponding Author: Kannan Rassiah, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Universiti Pertahanan Malaysia (UPNM) Kem Sg. Besi, 57000, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.

Tel: +6 0127931306 E-mail: kannan780915@gmail.com

Table 1: Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of
Matrix Materials (Ahmad 2009).

                                Density          Young's
Matrix                       (mg/[m.sup.3])   modulus (GPa)

Unsaturated Polyester, UP      1.10-1.23         3.1-4.6
Epoxy, EP                      1.10-1.20         2.6-3.8
Phenolics (Bakelite)           1.00-1.25         3.0-4.0
Bismaleimide, BMI              1.20-1.32         3.2-5.0
Vinylesters, VE                1.12-1.13         3.1-3.3

                                Tensile        Strain to
Matrix                       strength (MPa)   failure (%)

Unsaturated Polyester, UP        50-75          1.0-6.5
Epoxy, EP                        60-85          1.5-8.0
Phenolics (Bakelite)             60-80            1.8
Bismaleimide, BMI                48-110         1.5-3.3
Vinylesters, VE                  70-81          3.0-8.0

Table 2: Mechanical Properties.

                               INNER LAYER

      BAMBOO         Charpy                  Tensile
   Composition       Impact      Hardness     Stress

Thickne   Series     CI (J/      H (Shore)   TS (MPa)
ss (mm)            [mm.sup.2])

1.5       S1          2.383          /        29.814
1.5       S2          2.435          /        28.241
2         S3          2.458          /        31.607
2         S4          2.517          /        30.489
2.5       S5           2.6           /        31.608
2.5       S6          2.617          /        32.705
1.5       S7          2.486       27.383      31.884
1.5       S8          2.508       24.142      28.646
1.5       S9          2.502       26.242      29.733
2         S10         2.488       28.725      33.094
2         S11         2.493       28.033      30.59
2         S12         2.46        28.317      31.983
2.5       S13         2.525       21.075      39.126
2.5       S14         2.608        19.7       41.957
2.5       S15         2.508       20.975      40.877

                            INNER LAYER

      BAMBOO       Tensile    Flexural   Flexural
   Composition     Modulus     Stress    Modulus

Thickne   Series   TM (MPa)   FS (MPa)   FM (MPa)
ss (mm)

1.5       S1       1756.07     43.235    2683.43
1.5       S2       1805.77     45.503    2604.26
2         S3       2058.52     46.458    2769.44
2         S4       2236.88     48.368    2809.22
2.5       S5       2456.88     50.573    3492.11
2.5       S6       2488.81     52.581    3496.96
1.5       S7       2298.11     48.872    3649.72
1.5       S8       2196.61     46.241    3333.41
1.5       S9       2005.82     47.649    3514.94
2         S10      2485.89     60.291    3489.27
2         S11      2562.28     57.153    3749.79
2         S12      2600.13     58.573    3566.84
2.5       S13      3307.54     70.888     4105.1
2.5       S14      3273.64     73.271    3865.56
2.5       S15      3327.83     75.271    4441.89

                              MIDDLE LAYER

      BAMBOO         Charpy                  Tensile
   Composition       Impact      Hardness     Stress

Thickne   Series     CI (J/      H (Shore)   TS (MPa)
ss (mm)            [mm.sup.2])

1.5       S1          2.475          /        30.186
1.5       S2          2.408          /        31.008
2         S3           2.5           /        35.647
2         S4           2.5           /        37.99
2.5       S5          2.54         6.717      40.941
2.5       S6          2.553        7.033      37.989
1.5       S7          2.593       38.083      35.307
1.5       S8          2.604       39.942      34.881
1.5       S9          2.588       37.708      37.489
2         S10         3.467       46.183      38.588
2         S11         3.483       45.867      40.49
2         S12         3.433       48.142      39.889
2.5       S13          4.2        50.108      48.767
2.5       S14         4.183       48.842      46.983
2.5       S15         4.083       49.817      45.889

                           MIDDLE LAYER

      BAMBOO       Tensile    Flexural   Flexural
   Composition     Modulus     Stress    Modulus

Thickne   Series   TM (MPa)   FS (MPa)   FM (MPa)
ss (mm)

1.5       S1       1980.43     48.724     2913.7
1.5       S2       2043.13     50.161    3065.75
2         S3       2335.47     55.182    3333.41
2         S4       2508.75     55.372    3057.27
2.5       S5       2588.98     56.665    3628.08
2.5       S6       2895.43     57.586    3830.98
1.5       S7       2778.91     52.673    4590.56
1.5       S8       2504.25     54.572     4096.3
1.5       S9       2689.26     48.858    4181.79
2         S10      2830.44     65.11      4485.6
2         S11      3327.52     61.982    4703.45
2         S12      3059.55     68.655     4096.3
2.5       S13      3897.21     78.841    5208.65
2.5       S14      3781.32     85.623    5086.17
2.5       S15      3670.72     82.07     5235.38

       BAMBOO                       OUTER LAYER
    Composition
                         Charpy                   Tensile
                         Impact       Hardness     Stress

Thickness                CI (J/
(mm)         Series   [mm.sup.2])    H (Shore)    TS (MPa)

1.5            S1        2.486           /         30.004
1.5            S2        2.442           /         29.877
2              S3        2.808         28.608      38.367
2              S4        2.917         28.875      38.989
2.5            S5        3.017          32.2       44.429
2.5            S6          3           34.125      42.871
1.5            S7        2.592         49.742      29.987
1.5            S8        2.592         49.383      31.889
1.5            S9        2.617         46.992      30.23
2             S10        3.083         52.142      36.125
2             S11         3.3          49.642      40.005
2             S12         3.2          51.467      38.58
2.5           S13        3.617         56.833      44.87
2.5           S14         3.6          57.125      45.526
2.5           S15        3.667         58.683      43.564

       BAMBOO                  OUTER LAYER
    Composition
                      Tensile    Flexural   Flexural
                      Modulus     Stress    Modulus

Thickness
(mm)         Series   TM (MPa)   FS (MPa)   FM (MPa)

1.5            S1     1840.68     53.143     3125.6
1.5            S2     1689.66     50.27      2859.8
2              S3     2467.88     56.148    3141.89
2              S4     2476.33     59.009     3105.1
2.5            S5     2503.81     60.82     3448.34
2.5            S6     2991.56     61.807    3492.11
1.5            S7     2099.89     53.664    4443.83
1.5            S8     2193.76     51.771    3847.65
1.5            S9     2678.45     50.797     4215.1
2             S10     3106.56     63.343    4593.86
2             S11     3042.01     65.26     4453.45
2             S12     3234.79     66.342     4114.6
2.5           S13     3023.87     69.402     4485.6
2.5           S14     3687.71     70.507    4698.14
2.5           S15     3772.02     72.023    4896.55

Table 3: Selected Bamboo Composition Mechanical Properties

                                 Charpy                   Tensile
     Bamboo Composition          Impact      Hardness     Stress

Thickness                        CI (J/
(mm)        Series   Layers    [mm.sup.2])   H (Shore)   TS (MPa)

2.5          S14      Inner       2.608        19.7       41.957
2            S11     Middle       3.483       45.867       40.49
2.5          S13     Middle        4.2        50.108      48.767
2.5          S14     Middle       4.183       48.842      46.983
2.5          S15     Middle       4.083       49.817      45.889
2            S10      Outer       3.083       52.142      36.125
2.5          S13      Outer       3.617       56.833       44.87
2.5          S14      Outer        3.6        57.125      45.526
2.5          S15      Outer       3.667       58.683      43.564

     Bamboo Composition         Tensile    Flexural    Flexural
                                Modulus     Stress      Modulus
Thickness
(mm)        Series   Layers    TM (MPa)    FS (MPa)    FM (MPa)

2.5          S14      Inner     3273.64     73.271      3865.56
2            S11     Middle     3327.52     61.982      4703.45
2.5          S13     Middle     3897.21     78.841      5208.65
2.5          S14     Middle     3781.32     85.623      5086.17
2.5          S15     Middle     3670.72      82.07      5235.38
2            S10      Outer     3106.56     63.343      4593.86
2.5          S13      Outer     3023.87     69.402      4485.6
2.5          S14      Outer     3687.71     70.507      4698.14
2.5          S15      Outer     3772.02     72.023      4896.55
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Author:Rassiah, Kannan; Ahmad, M.M.H Megat; Ali, Aidy; Sihombing, Haeryip
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 5, 2014
Words:4740
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