2018 FDA-approved new drugs.
There are no human pregnancy data for these agents, but there are five drugs included in pregnancy registries. However, it will take some time before the outcomes of these drugs are published. The routine absence of pregnancy data for most drugs was pointed out in a reference that I coauthored ("Should pregnant women be included in phase 4 clinical drug trials?" Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015 Dec;213:810-5). The article makes a strong argument for including some drugs in these trials.
Agent for amyloidosis
Onpattro (patisiran) is indicated for the treatment of the polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis in adults. The drug caused embryo-fetal death and reduced fetal body weight in rabbits at doses also associated with maternal toxicity. No developmental toxicity was observed in rats.
Aemcolo (rifamycin), which has a MW of 720, is indicated for treatment of travelers' diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of Escherichia coli. No adverse fetal effects were observed in rats and rabbits that received close to human doses.
Krintafel (tafenoquine) is an anti-malarial agent that is used to prevent relapse in patients who are receiving appropriate antimalarial therapy for Plasmodium vivax infection. The drug may cause hemolytic anemia in a fetus deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.
In rabbits, the drug caused dose-related abortions and maternal toxicity was observed in rabbits and rats. Treatment with this drug in pregnancy is not recommended, according to the manufacturer.
Tpoxx (tecovirimat monohydrate), which has a MW of about 394, is indicated for the treatment of smallpox disease. The drug did not cause embryo-fetal toxicity in pregnant mice and rabbits, but the maximum exposure in rabbits was only 0.4 times the human exposure.
Xofluza (baloxavir marboxil), which has a MW of about 572, is a prodrug that is converted by hydrolysis to baloxavir. It is indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated influenza. No adverse developmental effects were observed in rats and rabbits.
Zemdri (plazomicin), which has a MW of about 593, is an aminoglycoside indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections including pyelonephritis. The drug did not cause fetal harm in rats and rabbits at doses that did not cause maternal toxicity; however, prolonged use of an aminoglycoside (such as streptomycin) has caused irreversible, bilateral congenital deafness in children exposed in utero to prolonged use and is a potential complication. Three new drugs in 2018 are indicated for treating human immunodeficiency virus-1:
Biktarvy is a three-drug combination that includes bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir. The latter two drugs are included in the 11th edition of my book ("Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation," 11th ed. [Riverwoods, 111.: Wolters Kluwer, 2017) and are not included here. Both are classified as compatible in pregnancy. Bictegravir has a MW of about 471. No adverse embryo-fetal effects in rats and rabbits were observed with this agent.
Trogarzo (ibalizumab-uiyk), which has a MW of about 150,000, is a monoclonal antibody antiretroviral agent used in combination with other antiretrovirals. There are no animal data. Although the MW is very high, monoclonal antibodies are transported across the placenta as pregnancy progresses.
Pifeltro (doravirine), which has a MW of about 426, is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1. The drug caused no significant toxicologic effects on embryo-fetal rats and rabbits.
If Biktarvy, Pifeltro, or Trogarzo are used in pregnancy, health care providers are encouraged to register the patient in the Antiretroviral Pregnancy Registry by calling 1-800-258-4263.
There are three new agents in the tetracycline class.
Nuzyra (omadacycline), which has a MW of about 729, is for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.
Seysara (sarecydine), which has a MW of about 524, is for inflammatory lesions of nonnodular, moderate to severe acne vulgaris.
Xerava (eravacycline), which has a MW of about 632, is for complicated intra-abdominal infection.
The various dose-related toxicities observed with the three drugs in rats and rabbits included maternal deaths; increased postimplantation loss; reduced fetal body weights; delays in skeletal ossification; and fetal malformations of the skeleton, heart, and lung. Use of these drugs in the last half of pregnancy may cause permanent discoloration of the teeth and enamel hypoplasia, as well as inhibition of bone growth.
? Crysvita (burosumab-twza), which has I a MW of about 147,000, is a fibroblast growth factor-blocking antibody indicated for the treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia. In pregnant cynomolgus monkeys, doses slightly higher than the human dose were not teratogenic. The drug was detected in fetal serum indicating that it crossed the monkey placenta.
Tegsedi (inotersen), which has a MW of about 7,601, is an amyloidosis inhibitor used for polyneuropathy of hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis. It is available only through a restricted program. The drug was not teratogenic in mice and rabbits; however, it does decrease vitamin A levels, so supplementation with the vitamin is recommended.
The manufacturers recommend avoiding these drugs during pregnancy. Effective contraception should be used.
Daurismo (glasdegib), which has a MW of about 491, is a hedgehog pathway inhibitor indicated in combination with low-dose cytarabine for newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The drug caused embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity, and teratogenicity in rats and rabbits at doses less than the human dose.
Erleada (apalutamide), which has a MW of about 477, is an androgen receptor inhibitor indicated for nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. Animal studies were not conducted because the drug should not be used in females.
Elzonris (tagraxofusp-erzs), which has a MW of 57,695, is a cytotoxin indicated for the treatment of blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm. Animal studies have not been conducted.
Lumoxiti (moxetumomab pasudotox-tdfk) which as a MW of about 63,000, is indicated for relapsed or refractory hairy cell leukemia. Studies have not been conducted in pregnant animals. Two life-threatening outcomes have occurred with the drug: capillary leak syndrome and hemolytic uremic syndrome. The drug should be discontinued if either occurs.
Lutathera (lutetium Lu 177 dotatate), which has a MW of about 1,610, is a radiolabeled somatostatin analogue given as a single intravenous dose every 8 weeks for four doses for the treatment of gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Reproductive studies in animals have not been conducted. How ever, all radiopharmaceuticals have the potential to cause embryo-fetal harm. They also can cause infertility in males and females.
Talzenna (talazoparib), which has a MW of about 553, is a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of certain types of breast cancer. At doses much less then the human dose, the drug caused fetal malformations and embryo-fetal death in rats.
Tibsovo (ivosidenib), which has a MW of 583, is an isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 inhibitor used for patients with relapsed or refractory AML.
The drug caused embryo-fetal toxicity in rats and rabbits at doses slighter higher than the human dose.
There are seven new kinase inhibitors.
Braftovi (encorafenib), which has a MW of 540, is indicated in combination with Mektovi for patients with a specific type of metastatic melanoma. The drug caused embryo-fetal toxicity in rats and rabbits.
Copiktra (duvelisib), which has a MW of about 435, is indicated for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and follicular lymphoma. In rats and rabbits, the drug caused embryo-fetal death, lower fetal weights, and malformations.
Lorbrena (lorlatinib), which has a MW of about 406, is given for the treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. In rats and rabbits, the drug caused abortions, decreased fetal body weight, and major malformations.
Mektovi (binimetinib), which has a MW of about 441, is used in combination with Braftovi for patients with a specific type of melanoma. The drug was embryotoxic and abortifacient in rabbits.
Vitrakvi (larotrectinib), which has a MW of about 527, is used for patients with solid tumors. Studies in rats revealed fetal anasarca (extreme generalized edema) and omphalocele in rabbits.
Vizimpro (dacomitinib), which has a MW of about 488, is indicated for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. The drug caused embryo-fetal toxicity in rats and mice.
Xospata (gilteritinib), which has a MW of about 1,222, is indicated for relapsed or refractory AML. In rats, the drug caused embryo-fetal death, suppressed fetal growth, and caused multiple malformations.
Three drugs are classified as monoclonal antibodies.
Gamifant (emapalumab), which has a MW of about 148,000, is indicated for primary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. A murine surrogate antimouse antibody was given to pregnant mice throughout gestation and no fetal harm was observed.
Libtayo (cemiplimab-rwlc), which has a MW of 146,000, is indicated for patients with metastatic or locally advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted; however, based on its mechanism, increased rates of abortion or stillbirth may occur if the drug is used in human pregnancy.
Poteligeo (mogamulizumab-kpkc), which has a MW of about 149,000, is given for relapsed/refractory mycosis fungoides or Sezary syndrome. In pregnant monkeys, there was no embryo-fetal lethality, teratogenicity, fetal growth restriction, spontaneous abortion, or increased fetal death.
There are three antimigraine agents that are monoclonal antibodies given as a subcutaneous injection.
Aimovig (erenumab-aooe), which has a MW of about 150,000, caused no adverse effects in monkey offspring.
Ajovy (ffemanezumab-vfrm), which has a MW of about 148,000, had no adverse effect in rat and rabbit offspring.
Emgality (galcanezumab-gnlm), which has a MW of about 147,000, produced no adverse effects in rat and rabbit offspring.
Diacomit (stiripentol), which has a MW of about 234, is an anticonvulsant used to treat seizures associated with Dravet syndrome. The drug caused severe embryo-fetal toxicity in mice, rabbits, and rats. The drug is included in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry. Patients can enroll themselves by calling the toll-free number T888-233-2334 or visiting http://aedpregnancyregistry.org/.
Epidiolex (cannabidiol), which has a MW of about 314, is an anticonvulsant indicated for the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or Dravet syndrome. In pregnant rats, doses up to about 16 times the recommended human dose (RHD) caused no embryo-fetal adverse effects. The drug caused decreased fetal body weights, increased fetal structural variations, and maternal toxicity when the drug was given to pregnant rabbits throughout organogenesis. The no-effect dose for embryo-fetal toxicity was less than the human dose. Patients can enroll themselves in the NAAED Pregnancy Registry by calling the toll-free number 1-888233-2334 or visiting http://aedpregnancyregistry.org/ .
Firdapse (amifampridine), a potassium channel blocker with a MW of about 201, is used for the treatment of Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. No adverse effects on embryo-fetal development were observed in rats and rabbits given the drug throughout organogenesis. However, in rats given the drug throughout pregnancy and lactation, there was an increase in stillbirths and pup deaths, reduced pup weight, and delayed sexual development in female pups.
Lucemyra (lofexidine), which has a MW of about 296, is used to mitigate opioid withdrawal symptoms to facilitate abrupt opioid discontinuation in adults. The drug caused severe toxicity in the fetuses of rats and rabbits.
Olumiant (baricitinib), which has a MW of about 371, is a Janus kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The drug was teratogenic in pregnant rats given doses about 20 times greater than the maximum RHD based on area under the curve. In rabbits, embryo death and rib anomalies were observed with doses 84 times greater than the maximum RHD, but no developmental toxicity was seen with doses 12 times greater than the maximum RHD.
Orilissa (elagolix), which has a MW of about 654, is a gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist indicated for the management of pain associated with endometriosis. The drug caused abortions in rats and rabbits. Because the drug may increase the risk of early pregnancy loss, the manufacturer classifies it as contraindicated in pregnancy.
Ilumya (tildrakizumab), which has a MW of about 147,000, is given by subcutaneous injection for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. When given during organogenesis in monkeys, no maternal or embryo-fetal toxicities were observed. However, when given throughout pregnancy a few neonatal deaths occurred, but the clinical significance of these non-clinical findings were unknown.
Agent for Fabry disease
Galafold (migalastat), which has a MW of about 200, is an alpha-galactosidase A pharmacologic chaperone indicated for the treatment of Fabry disease. Three pregnant women with Fabry disease were exposed to the drug in clinical studies but no information was provided on the pregnancy outcomes. No adverse developmental effects were observed in pregnant rats and rabbits.
Akynzeo (netupitant or fosnetupitant palonosetron), which have MWs of about 579, 333, and 762, respectively, is available as an oral capsule (netupitant + palonosetron) and as an intravenous formulation (fosnetupitant + palonosetron). They are indicated, in combination with dexamethasone, for the prevention of nausea and vomiting related to cancer chemotherapy. Netupitant and fosnetupitant produced no embryo-fetal adverse effects in rats but were toxic to rabbit embryos. Palonosetron caused no embryo-fetal adverse effects in rats and rabbits.
Motegrity (prucalopride), which has a MW of about 486, is indicated for chronic idiopathic constipation. No adverse embryo-fetal developmental effects were observed in rats and rabbits.
Doptelet (avatrombopag), which has a MW of about 766, is indicated for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in adult patients with chronic liver disease who are scheduled to undergo a procedure. No embryo-fetal effects were observed in rats, but in rabbits the drug was associated with spontaneous abortions.
Lokelma (sodium zirconium cyclosilicate) is a nonabsorbed zirconium silicate that exchanges potassium for hydrogen and sodium. Animal studies have not been conducted. Because it is not absorbed, it is not expected to result in fetal exposure to the drug.
Mulpleta (lusutrombopag), which has a MW of about 592, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, is indicated for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease. High levels of the drug in pregnant rats were associated with adverse developmental outcomes.
No adverse embryo-fetal effects were seen in pregnant rabbits.
Palynziq (pegvaliase-pqpz), which has a MW of about 1,000,000, is a phenylalanine-metabolizing enzyme indicated to reduce blood phenylalanine concentrations in patients with phenylketonuria. In pregnant rats, the drug caused an increase in skeletal variations. In rabbits, the drug caused a high incidence of multiple malformations.
Takhzyro (lanadelumab-flyo), which has a MW of about 49,000, is a monoclonal antibody indicated for prophylaxis to prevent attacks of hereditary angioedema. The drug caused no fetal harm in monkeys.
Tavalisse (fostamatinib disodium hexahydrate), which has a MW of about 733, is a kinase inhibitor used for the treatment of thrombocytopenia. In pregnant rats and rabbits, the drug caused adverse developmental outcomes including embryo-fetal mortality, lower fetal weights, and structural anomalies.
Ultomiris (ravulizumab), which has a MW of about 148,000, is a humanized monoclonal antibody indicated for adult patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
In mice, the drug was associated with increased rates of developmental abnormalities and an increased rate of dead and moribund offspring.
Revcovi (elapegademase-lvlr), which has a MW of about 113,000, is a recombinant adenosine deaminase indicated for the treatment of adenosine deaminase severe combined immune deficiency. Animal studies in pregnancy have not been conducted.
Fish oil is indicated as a source of calories and fatty acids in pediatric patients with parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted. It is doubtful if this product will be used in pregnancy.
Ophthalmic--nerve growth factor
Oxervate (cenegermin-bkbj), which has a MW of 13,266, is a solution that contains 118 amino acids. It is a recombinant human nerve growth factor indicated for neurotrophic keratitis. In rats and rabbits given the drug during organogenesis, there was a slight increase in postimplantation loss at doses greater than or equal to 267 times the human dose.
Symdeko (tezacaftor + ivacaftor), which have MWs of about 521 and 392, is indicated for the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis who are homozygous for the F508del mutation or who have at least one mutation in the cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulator gene. There were no adverse developmental effects in pregnant rats and rabbits when the drugs were used separately or combined.
Yupelri (revefenacin), which has a MW of about 598, is an anticholinergic drug. It is an inhaled solution for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In rats and rabbits, doses that were about 209 times the RHD produced no evidence of fetal harm.
BY GERALD G. BRIGGS, BPHARM, Mr. Briggs is clinical professor of pharmacy at the University of California, San Francisco, and adjunct professor of pharmacy at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, as well as at Washington State University, Spokane. Mr. Briggs reported no relevant financial disclosures. Email him at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Caption: AT-cell infected by human immunodeficiency virus is shown.
Please Note: Illustration(s) are not available due to copyright restrictions.
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|Title Annotation:||Drugs, Pregnancy, & Lactation|
|Author:||Briggs, Gerald G.|
|Publication:||OB GYN News|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2019|
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