2007-2008 ASHRAE research report.
The major goals of the ASHRAE research program are presented in the Society's 2005-2010 Strategic Plan for Research, which helps guide the development of research topics so that the greatest benefit is achieved for our members and society in general. Developed over a three-year period with input provided by grass root members, TC/TG members, research fund contributors, and representatives from HVAC&R related outside organizations, the plan provides outcome-based goals, which means rather than specifying the exact type of research that should be conducted, the outcomes in terms of performance are specified. The plan will be updated every five years so that it remains pertinent in a rapidly changing HVAC&R research environment. The next update to this plan began in July 2007.
Complementing the Society's Strategic Plan for Research is the Society's Research Implementation Plan, which documents all TC/TG research topics that support the strategic plan and have been approved for further development into ASHRAE research projects. The implementation plan currently includes 67 projects in various stages of development. The estimated dollar value of these projects is $7.8 million. This, when coupled with the cost of projects already under contract, exceeds ASHRAE's current annual budget for research. ASHRAE hopes to implement most of these projects in the near future.
Details about ASHRAE's research plans, active research projects, completed projects, currently available requests for proposals and guidelines for submission can be reviewed on the Research page of the ASHRAE Web site (www.ashrae.org/technology/page/39).
The members of the Research Administration Committee (RAC) maintain stewardship of the funds entrusted to ASHRAE by careful planning and oversight of the research program. ASHRAE uses an extensive unpaid volunteer network of Technical Committee and Task Group members to prepare work statements, select projects, select contractors and monitor research projects to ensure that maximum benefits accrue from ASHRAE-sponsored research. Additionally, the Research Administration Committee plans the research program, evaluates and approves the projects and ensures that results are properly presented. In summary, ASHRAE research gets a lot of bang for its bucks.
Expenditures for projects and grants-in-aid for FY 2006-2007 were just under $2 million. In addition to the research project and grants-in-aid expenditures, ASHRAE joined with government and private agencies to fund and support special projects of mutual benefit, including expediting standards, producing technical publications and conducting research.
ASHRAE, under the leadership of the Research Administration Committee, initiated nine new research projects and completed 19 projects during fiscal year 2006-2007 (ending June 30, 2007). The average cost of new projects was approximately $205,000. Fourteen technical papers and one seminar based on research projects were presented at Society meetings during the year.
ASHRAE research projects result from work statements initiated by the Society's technical committees and task groups, or from unsolicited proposals submitted by organizations interested in conducting research for ASHRAE. Any research that advances the arts and sciences of heating, ventilation, refrigeration, air conditioning or the allied arts and sciences, and related human factors, is eligible for funding. This is ASHRAE's mission.
Work statements originating from technical committees or task groups, after approval by the Research Administration Committee, are offered to prospective bidders for proposals. The bidders' list includes universities and agencies that have a history of cooperative research with ASHRAE or have indicated an interest in ASHRAE research. If you wish to add your name to the bidders' list and receive automatic e-mail notification when projects are released for bid, please go to www.ashrae.org/publications/detail/14931.
Unsolicited proposals are accepted from organizations interested in conducting ASHRAE-related research from self-generated ideas.
Whether the proposals are solicited from work statements or are unsolicited, they should include the following information: precisely what is to be done, by whom, under whose personal supervision, with man-hours, materials, instruments and apparatus required, and costs for each; information regarding the investigator's special expertise, experience, and/or ability that especially qualifies the individual for the proposed research; and identified contribution from the research organization's resources for conducting the project.
More than 500 ASHRAE research reports are available for free to ASHRAE members at www.ashrae.org. Click on Research Reports under Member Central on the home page to access the reports.
A summary of recently completed research projects and instructions for obtaining results from those projects are provided as a regular feature of ASHRAE Insights and the "Research" page of the ASHRAE web site. A sampling of recently completed projects with broad appeal outside ASHRAE include a project to improve the medical procedure cryosurgery to locally treat cancers such as prostrate (1247-RP), another project evaluated the hazard to human life from computer and communication cable fires in return air plenums above ceiling (1108-RP). Many more active projects on schools, commercial aircraft, and indoor swimming pools will soon complete with the same broad appeal.
ASHRAE grants-in-aid provide up to $10,000 each for graduate students to conduct research in fields of interest to ASHRAE. In 2006 - 2007, 19 graduate student grants-in-aid were awarded. These went to: Ebrahim Al-Hajri, University of Maryland, Mohamed Alshehhi, University of Maryland, Ian Bell, Purdue University, Yang Bin, National University of Singapore, Soolyeon Cho, Texas A&M, Jeremy Dreiling, Kansas State University, Scott hackle, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Josephine Lau, Pennsylvania State University, Bereket Nigusse, Oklahoma State University, Frederico Noris, University of Texas, Prakash Rapolu, University of Cincinnati, Donghyun Rim, University of Texas at Austin, Lauren Ronsse, University of Nebraska Lincoln, Donghyun Seo, University of Colorado, Robert Slowinski, University of Colorado, Paulo Velasco, Pennsylvania State University, Benjamin Welle, University of California Berkeley, Zhao Zhang, Purdue University. The highest-rated recipient, Ian Bell of Purdue University, holds the added distinction of being named the Life Members' Club GIA recipient, and his grant is funded by financial contributions from club members.
The latest grants brought the total to $3,015,700 awarded to 479 students during the 40 years the program has been in effect. Recipients have represented more than 80 colleges and universities.
Graduate grants-in-aid solicitations are mailed each September to appropriate universities. Faculty advisors send applications for graduate grants-in-aid to the Manager of Research & Technical Services, ASHRAE, 1791 Tullie Circle, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329 by December 15 of each year. The application should provide: (1) the student's name, qualifications, his or her need for support, and a copy of his/her transcript; (2) significance of the proposed research; (3) an outline of the procedure; (4) approximate budget; (5) extent to which the institution will support the work; (6) plans for seeking other funds for this or related work; (7) anticipated plans for publication of research results; and (8) faculty advisor's and institution's qualifications.
The Board of Directors has approved $2,577,800 for research projects and grants-in-aid for fiscal year 2007 - 2008. Competing for new project funds are 18 tentative research projects, two unsolicited research proposals, and many other project topics in various stages of development.
Active projects are summarized in this report. The summaries include: the title of the project, the start date, the end date or projected (P) end date, the names of the contractor and principal investigator, the sponsoring Technical Committee or Task Group monitoring the research, earmarked co-funding, a listing of research strategic plan goals supported by this project, and a brief description of the project.
Research Program Volunteers
2006-07 Proposal Evaluating Subcommittee (PES) & Project Monitoring Subcommittee (PMS) Contributors and Reviewers
(ASHRAE Research is very thankful to the many individuals who freely gave their time to review and evaluate research projects and proposals during the year.)
Abushakra, Bass Adams, Eric Adams, George Agopian, Nick Akbari, Hashem Albrecht, Raymond Albreight, Ray Arnold, Billy Arnold, Dean Aswegan, James Ayub, Zahid Bahnfleth, William Baker, Jeffrey Bansal, Pradeep Barnaby, Charles Baxter, Van Behls, Herman Bernier, Michel Bibee, Douglas Bixby, David Black III, Albert Blanc, Steve Blazier Jr., Warren Bogart, Jim Brambley, Michael Braun, James Braun, Jim Brook, Martha Jo Brooks, Patrick Brown, Stephen Bruning, Steve Burroughs, Courtney Butcher, Thomas Carlson, Jim Carlson, Steve Carnes, Ted Carter, Emily Cermak, Jan Chamra, Louay Chao Hsin, Lin Chen, Qingyan Choi, KJ Clark, Jim Cole, Ronald Collins, Mike Connaghan, Mike Connor, Michael Coogan, James Coogan, Jim Cornick, Steve Cox, Robert Crawley, Drury Crooks, Brian Curcija, Dragan Daswani, Raj Degelman, Larry Derrick Ahler Deru, Michael Desjarlais, Andre Dimiano, Len Dinse, David Doeffinger Jr., Robert Doerr, Robert DuChane, Greg Dunlap, John Dupont, William Eichelberger Jr, Curt Elizabeth, Patricia Ellis, Rebecca Eutech, Bob Evans, Richards Falke, Marcia Faris, Eugene Farrellm Tim Federspiel, Clifford Fenton, Donald Field, Jay Fields, Barry Finck, Mark Fisher, Donald Fly, Mark Foarde, Karin Frankenfeld, Guy Friedrich, Michele Gage, Cynthia Gamblin, Tonya Garbarino, Art Gartner, James Ghidoni, Dnaiel Ghosh, Dipankar Gillespie Jr., Kenneth Gowri, Krishnan Gu, Lixing Hackner, Rich Hackner, Richard Hartfield, Jon Hatzikazakis, Pantelis Haves, Philip hays, Henry Hegberg, Mark Heindenreich, Mike Heitzmann, Paul Hewett, Martha Hinge, Adam Hitchcock, Robert Hitchcock, Robert Hogan, John Hogeling, Jaap Holm, Andreas Hopper, Bob Horstman, Raymond House, John Huang, Joe Huang, Yu Joe Hubbard, Kenneth Huber, Joe Hughes, H. Michael Hutchinson, Ken Idem, Steve Int Hout, Daniel Jang, Kyung John, David Johnson, Richard Katipamula, Srinivas Kato, Shinsuke Kern, Charles Kerr, Gemma Kettler, John Khankari, Kishor King, Jason Kingsbury, Howard Kintner, Michael Kittler, Reinhold Kohler, Christian Kohler, Jay Kohout, Frank Kotem John Krafthefer, Brian Krause, Paul Kriegsman, Axel Kubokawa, Jim Kuiper, Eric Kulankara, Sateesh Kwok, Alison Lama, Patrick Landsberg, Dennis Lawton, Wayne Legarreta, Rolando LeRoy, Jason Levin, Hal Lewis, Rodney Lichtenwald, Roger Lievens, Ron Lilje, Kenneth Lilly, Jerry Lin, Chao-Hsin Lindahl Jr., Paul Lippmann, Morton Listvan, Marilyn Livchak, Andrey Lorch, Fred Loudermilk, Kenneth Lowenstein, Andrew Lstiburek, Joseph Lucens, Bruce Lull, William Lyle, John Maccracken, Mark MacDonald, J. Michael Macher, Janet Maddox, Jeff Malone, Peter Marks, Pat Marks, Patrick Martin, Ted May, Noel McCluney, Ross McCoy, William McDonald, Bruce McDowell. Rim McInerny, Sally Mcjimsey, Bert Meeuwsen, Gregory Meisel, Paul Meline, Lisa Merrigan, Tim Meurer, Christoph Miller, Richard Minor, Barbara Mitchell, John Morgan, Michael Morris, Bob Mouratidis, Emanuel Mowrer, Steve Murawski, Judith Murphy, John Nagda, Niren Narayanamurthy, Ram Needelman, Bill Nelson, Bruce Nolfo, Anfrew Norford, Leslie Oliver, Patrick Osborn, Kim Paige, Tom Palmer, Mark Papar, Riyaz Peet, Kenneth Penar, Victor Peppers, Vernon Peppin, Richard Phillips, Duncan Ponder, Tom Price, B. Andrew Price, B. Andrew Price, Gary Pucciano, Frank Punwani, Dharam Rajkovich, Nick Ratcliff, Michael Ratts, Eric Reardon, James Reardon, Jim Rebsamen, Robert Reedy, Wayne Renn, Mark Richard, Robert Richardson, Gaylon Rite, Ray Roberts, Carl Rockwood, William Rolotti, Gustavo Rolph, Neil Romine Jr., Thomas Ronald, Petersen Rose, Charles Rossi, Todd Roy, Billy Roy, Kenneth Ruehle, Charles Sarkisian, Paul Saroka, Mary Schaffer, Mark Scheatzle, David Schmidt, Robert Schrock, Derek Schwartz, Walter Scruton, Chris Seyffer, Charles Shedd, Timothy Shultz, Ken Sikir, Paul Silvetti, Brian Simmonds, Peter Simmons, Robert Sinclair, Ray Singh, Rajiv Sipes, Jerry Smith, Cary Sonderegger, Robert Songkakul, Pornsak Sorrell, Valli Space, Daid Spevak, Frank Srebric, Jelena Stein, Jeff Stein, Jeffrey Strong, Ronald Sun, Larry Swierczyna, Richard Tager, Ira Taylor, Steve TenWolde, Anton Thevenard, Didier Thor, Peter Timm, Martin Tonville, Paolo Topliss, John Turnbull, Paul Uhl, Robert Underwood, Dave Urness, Randy Van Geem, Martha Vanosdell, Douglas Varley, John Virgil, Hall Wagner, Timothy Walker, Iain Wang, Zhiping Watson, Thomas Webb, William Weiland, Martin Welch, Jeff Weschler, Charles Wessel, Dennis West, Jonathan Weston, Theresa Wilkins, Christopher Wilson, David Winters, Philip Wray, Craig Wright, Charlie Wyatt, Gerald Wyon, David Yana Motta, Samuel Yang, Xudong Yavuzturk, Cenk Zeng, Ling-Zhong Zhang, Jianshun Zhang, Ming
Research Work Statement Authors
Work Statement Authors 2006-07 FY
(ASHRAE Research is very thankful to the many individuals who freely gave their time and dedication to the development of new research projects.)
Arnold, Dean Aswegan, James Ayub, Zahid Bahnfleth, William Barnaby, Charles Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian Behls, Herman Brickely, Stephen Brooks, Patrick Brown, Stee Chen, Qian Yan Chen, Yan Choi, KJ Cole, Ron Cornick, Steve Cox, Robert Crall, Chris Desjarlais, Andre Dimiano, Len Doeffinger, Bob Eutech, Bob Evans, Richard Ferrari, Sarah Fisher, Dan Fisher, Don Fly, Mark Foarde, Karin Frankenfeld, Guy Gage, Cynthia Garbarino, Art Haves, Phillip Heitzman, Paul Hendry, Robert Hogeling, Jaap Horstman, Raymond House, John Huang, Joe Humble, Jonathan John, David Katipamula, Srinivas Kerr, Gemma Khankari, Kishor Kloostra, Leon Krafthefer, Brian Kubokawa, Jim Kuiper, Eric Lawson, Carl Levin, Hal Lievens, Ron Lin, Chao-Hsin Lowenstein, Andrew McDowell, Tim Merrigan, Tim Miller, Scott Mowrer, Steve Mullen, Matthew Naduvath, Mahesh V. Narayanamurthy, Ram Nellis, Gregory New, John Parsons, Sidney Patton, Mike Phetteplace, Gary Poulos, Jim Price, Gary Rees, Simon Richardson, Gaylon Roberts, Carl Sanderson, Charlie Saroka,Mary Sheatzke, David Silvetti, Brian Simmonds, Peter Slayzak, Steven Sorrell, Valli Stein, Jeff Strand, Rick Sundell, Jan Swierczyna, Rich Taylor, Steve Thevenard, Didier Thome, John Timm, Martin Varley, John Wade, David Walton, George Wang, Zhiping Weiland, Martin Welch, Jeff Wilkins, Chris Winters, Phillip Wyatt, Gerald Yang, Xudong
(The Research Strategic Plan is available at www.ashrae.org/technology/page/39)
1083-RP 7/04-7/07 Imagination Resources Principal Investigator: Richard Cavestri TC 8.10, Mechanical Dehumidification Equipment and Heat Pipes Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A5, A6, A7, B2, C1, C2, E1
Chemical Off-Gassing From Indoor Swimming Pools
ASHRAE Standard 62.1, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, requires 0.5 cfm (0.25 L/s) of outdoor air per square foot of pool and deck area. This amount of outdoor air may or may not be sufficient to dilute the chemicals emitted by the water body into the air. Ventilation data based on chemical contaminants off-gassed from the pool are non-existent. With little or no knowledge about the pool water chemistry and off-gassing rates, it is virtually impossible to design a ventilation system that addresses all pollutants generated in an indoor pool environment. The goal of this project is to establish the interaction between the pool water treatment system and the ventilation system in order to provide the design engineer with more accurate specification guidelines.
1128-RP 4/03-6/07 (P) University of Nebraska-Lincoln Principal Investigator: Amy Musser TC 2.1, Physiology and Human Environment Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: B1, B2, B4, C4, C5, D5, E1
Trade-off Function for the Combined Effects of Noise and Temperature on Human Comfort And Performance
For the design engineer it is of major importance to know the relative effect of different factors of the indoor environment on people. Based on this knowledge, an appropriate allocation of financial resources for the establishment and control of the total indoor environment can be made in order to obtain optimal comfort for the occupants in buildings. Not only human comfort will be improved by optimization of the indoor environment; most likely the occupants' performance will also improve. An overall optimization of the environment is of major importance for the expenses incurred in the construction and operation of a building and for the use of energy to run it. The objective of this research project is to determine the relative effect of thermal load, indoor air pollution and noise on human comfort and to develop a model that predicts discomfort for human beings when they are exposed to more than one form of indoor climate simultaneously.
1196-RP 9/00-10/07 (P) Iowa State University Principal Investigator: Ron Nelson TC 6.1, Hydronic and Steam Equipment and Systems Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A6, C1, C3, C6, E1
Develop Software to Calculate the Application Seasonal Efficiency of Commercial Space Heating Boiler Systems Based on ASHRAE Standard 155P
Boilers are estimated to account for 42% of space heating energy use in the commercial and multifamily sectors in the U.S. Significant energy savings could be achieved in commercial and multifamily buildings by optimizing the selection of commercial boiler systems in new buildings and at the time of boiler replacement. Currently, however, commercial boilers and all other types of commercial heating equipment are rated only in terms of steady-state efficiency at full load, which does not provide a meaningful indication of relative operating costs. The objective of this research project is to develop user-friendly windows-based software will greatly accelerate adoption of seasonal efficiency analysis for commercial boiler systems. A significant obstacle to the use of any new standard is the learning curve for users to become familiar with the new terminology and inputs and learn how to do the computations. With this software, the level of effort required of new users of the standard will be dramatically reduced, and can be focused on the more important tasks of evaluating outputs and developing an intuitive sense of the factors that affect the seasonal efficiency of commercial boiler systems.
1210-RP 4/04-06/07 (P) Massey University Principal Investigator: Donald Cleland TC 10.8, Refrigeration Load Calculations Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A4, C1, E1, E2
Refrigeration Load Due to Moisture Desorption From Food Packaging Materials
Numerous materials are used to package frozen food and other products. To some extent these materials absorb and desorb moisture depending on the condition of the air surrounding them. The crucial quantity in the determination of the added refrigerating load is the packaging material's moisture desorption rate. This quantity is difficult to predict. Accurate knowledge of the moisture desorption rate for a product packaging material and the consequent refrigerating load is needed by designers for the selection and design of refrigerating equipment. The method developed as a result of this research consisting of equations, tables, and charts as required to estimate the refrigerating load contribution due to packaging material moisture loss, will improve the chapter on loads in the ASHRAE Handbook--Refrigeration.
1219-RP 09/04-10/07 (P) Iowa State University Principal Investigator: J. Adin Mann TC 2.6, Sound and Vibration Control Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: B1, B2, C1, C3, E1
Qualification of Duct Rumble Noise Resulting From Aerodynamic System Effects at the Discharge of a Centrifugal Fan
Ductwork installed at the discharge of a centrifugal fan must be aerodynamically designed to minimize large-scale airflow separation, reduce severe pressure differentials, and reduce duct resonance. Currently, the acoustic impact of centrifugal fan discharge duct configurations is qualitatively documented in the ASHRAE Handbook. However, the additive sound pressure levels of duct rumble as it relates to system effects are not accurately predictable in the initial design, and are not available in the Handbook. The objective of the research is to quantify low frequency sound pressure levels and in-duct air pressure data for the centrifugal fan, supply air duct configurations now shown in the ASHRAE Handbook. The results will present the sound pressure level, and pressure data in a form suitable for inclusion to the ASHRAE Handbook for use by the HVAC industry in predicting duct rumble and system pressure effects.
1223-RP 03/05-12/07 Tennessee Technological University Principal Investigator: Corrine Darvennes TC 5.1, Fans Co-funding: Sheet Metal and Air-Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA) Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A6, B1, B2, C1, C3, E1
Inlet Installation Effects on Small Propeller Fans, Air, and Sound
The existence of significant system effects on small propeller fans due to inlet appurtenances is widely accepted. Reports of installed performance indicates reductions in total efficiency of over 25% and sound output changes of over 10 dB can be found in case histories. Small propeller fans are a common fan type used for general ventilation, supplying and exhausting air from a wide variety of building types including restaurants, garages, and factories. Therefore, the total installed horsepower is large. The wasted energy is estimated to be in the millions of megawatts per year. The estimated capital expenditures necessary to resolve the comfort and noise problems are over several million dollars. Improved knowledge of the precise values for these system effects could greatly reduce both the amount of wasted energy and capital expenditures.
1235-RP 04/05-09/08 Concordia University Principal Investigator: Dominique Derome TC 4.4, Building Materials & Building Envelope Performance Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, C1, C3, D3, E1
The Nature, Significance and Control of Solar Driven Vapor Diffusion in Wall Systems
The objective of this study is to develop a better understanding of the nature and significance of solar-driven inward vapor diffusion, in order to develop appropriate design guidelines to predict and manage this phenomenon as a function of climate. The knowledge generated from this research project will be directly transferred to the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals.
1245-RP 04/05-12/07 Kansas State University Principal Investigator: Bruce Babin TC 1.2, Instruments and Measurements Co-Funding: National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB), $10,000 Sheet Metal and Air-Conditioning Contractors' National Association (SMACNA) Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A7, B2, B4, C4, C5, D1, D5, E1
Determine the Efects of Duct Fittings on Air Velocity Measurements
There are two projects within this single research proposal. Each has its own justification of need. As to the issue of the equal area method or the log-Tchebycheff method, there is uncertainty in the ventilation measuring community as to which method is suitable for performing duct traverses under field conditions. This uncertainty has caused disagreements between the building owner or engineer and the TAB engineer, as well as between different TAB engineers. Information in the ASHRAE Handbooks and Standards concerning these measurement methods has been less than forceful due to the lack of evidence for either of the methods. This research will quantify the differences between the two methods and lead towards more accurate field measurements. Proper methods for validating the flow performance in systems, is critical for the comfort, safety and health of our buildings. Testing in the past has not quantified the differences between the two methods nor has it given an indication of the type of errors balancers will encounter when they have to make a measurement at less than ideal conditions. This result will give engineers an idea on what is the achievable accuracy of the test and balancing of systems and translate into more definitive data for design engineers to properly apply in HVAC system design.
1249-RP 12/05-07/07 University of Dayton Principal Investigator: Robert E. Kauffman TC 3.2, Refrigerant System Chemistry Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, D1, E1
Determine the Mechanism for Copper Plating and Methods for Its Elimination from HVAC Systems
The establishment of the chemical mechanism of copper plating would provide specific information regarding the cause of copper plating. Use of this information would result in procedures and practices that would prevent copper plating and eliminate compressor failures caused by failed bearings or seized parts. Since copper plating occurs in virtually all types and sizes of compressors the success of this research will ultimately help to make all refrigeration and air conditioning systems more reliable.
1257-RP 12/03-01/08 (P) Technical University of Denmark Principal Investigators: David P. Wyon, Pawel Wargocki TC 2.1, Physiology and Human Environment, Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A5, A6, A7, B1, B2, B4, C4, C5, D5, E1, E2
Indoor Environmental Effects on the Performance of School Work by Children
The objective of this research project is to perform intervention experiments to test the hypothesis that classroom upgrades resulting in improved thermal control or improved air quality would significantly improve the performance of school work by children, to determine as far as possible the causative mechanism or mechanisms by which this would occur, and to quantify the improvement in health, absenteeism and school performance that would be likely to occur in practice if such improvements were implemented by school authorities.
School performance will be assessed by using the "embedded task" approach, in which standardized tests of specific skills taught by schools will be included as a natural part of an ordinary school day. Parallel versions of each test will be applied under the different experimental conditions taking care not to confound test versions with conditions (i.e., ensuring that each version is applied equally under each condition.)
1262-RP 01/07-12/08 Battelle Memorial Principal Investigator: Jeffrey Myers TC 9.3, Transportation Air Conditioning Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: B2, B3
Relate Air Quality and Other Factors to Comfort and Health Related Symptoms Reported by Passengers and Crew on Commercial Transport Aircraft (Part 2)
The principal aim of this research project is to relate perceptions of discomfort or health related symptoms of flight attendants and passengers to possible causal factors, including cabin and bleed air quality and other factors such as reduced air pressure, jet lag, inactivity, humidity, flight attendant duty schedule and fatigue, circadian rhythm, stress and noise. In particular, the following specific objectives are to be addressed in Part 2 of this project:
1. Measure and characterize contaminants in cabin air that are introduced via ECS in a variety of airplane types.
2. Measure and characterize contaminants in cabin air that are not introduced via ECS. Ventilation rates shall be assessed.
3. Quantify the effect of aircraft type, maintenance, APU, engine age and operations-related parameters on cabin and bleed air quality
4. Investigate relationship of the measured cabin air contaminants, ventilation rates and other factors with reported symptoms among passengers and flight crew.
1269-RP 09/05-09/07 Technical University of Denmark Principal Investigator: Jorn Toftum TC 2.1, Physiology and Human Environment Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A6, A7, B2, B4, C2, C4, D5, E1, E2
Occupant Responses and Energy Use in Buildings with Moderately Drifting Temperatures
Up to one third of the world's energy consumption is currently used for heating and cooling of buildings (DOE 2004, IEA 2004). Indoor operative temperatures that drift within the comfort zone may be used as a means of energy savings. However, research is needed to understand the effects of drifting temperatures on occupants' thermal comfort, perceived air quality, sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms and productivity. In particular, buildings that use night cooling with outside air, naturally ventilated and non-air-conditioned buildings, and buildings with hydronic systems using relatively high water temperatures for cooling, may experience temperatures that drift somewhat during the time of occupancy. For these and other types of buildings, detailed knowledge of occupant comfort, perception of SBS symptoms and performance under non-steady indoors thermal environment is highly relevant and needed.
1270-RP 12/04 -07/07 University of Maryland Principal Investigator: Michael Ohadi TC 1.3, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A4, A6, C1, D1, D3, E1
Performance Characterization of Selected Refrigerants in Flat Plate Microscale Condensers
The objectives of the research are: 1. Generate, through experimentation, comparisons of heat transfer rates and pressure drops for selected refrigerants in a flat plate, single-channel, and micro-scale condenser. 2. Develop correlations of heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop using the experimental data obtained in this project together with data obtained in the literature and present it in a useful form for designers and suitable for publication in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals. Because fundamental flow, energy and mass transfer mechanics are being explored, the interpretation of the phenomena is critical. 3. Find if there is any deviation in heat transfer and pressure drop compared to macro-scale, conventional heat exchangers and if there is, to quantify it.
1271-RP 09/07-08/09 Purdue University Principal Investigator: Qingyan Chen TC 4.10, Indoor Environment Modeling Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported:A5, A6, B2, B3, C1, C2, C3, E1
Modeling Low Velocity Large Scale Fluctuating Flows in Ventilated Spaces at Transitional Reynolds Numbers
The objective of this research is to provide a suitable adjustment to a standard turbulence model that predicts turbulence levels in a small room at transitional Reynolds numbers (based on the supply grille dimensions and flow).
A benchmark quality room will be built and tested in order to validate all CFD models (figure 1). The dimensions of the room were selected to represent roughly 1/2 of an airplane passenger cabin or a passenger train or bus. Using existing test rooms of a similar size is encouraged. Changes in the supply and exhaust dimensions or location may be made to optimize flow instability. The instability must be measured and reported as a spatial (3D) distribution of Vx, Vy, Vz and V'x, V'y, V'z versus time. The room will be enclosed in a chamber in order to maintain as nearly adiabatic and isothermal conditions as possible.
The turbulence levels will be defined two ways. First, as the standard kinetic energy of turbulence. Second, as some sort of second moment, V'2, or skewness in the distribution of V' in an effort to quantify the brief excursions of V' beyond twice Vavg.
Several standard turbulence models shall be run and compared to the test results after the testing phase; at which point, a determination by the monitoring committee will be made to continue based on feasibility of the turbulence model adjustments. If the adjustment technique is satisfactory, the model adjustments will be made and CFD/model comparisons will be documented for the range of Reynolds numbers. If the techniques are not satisfactory, a recommendation should be made by the contractor as to which model is most accurate in regard to mean velocity, turbulence level and effective viscosity.
1272-RP 04/07-09/07 AMCA Principal Investigator: Mark Stevens TC 5.1, Fans
Inlet Installation Effects on Forward Curved Centrifugal Fans, Air and Sound
The objective of this project is to obtain a body of measured inlet system effects for both air and sound for one typical size (12") of FC centrifugal fans. The test fan is to be FC single width single inlet SWSI) centrifugal fan. The aerodynamic and acoustic investigations should be made with carefully selected and controlled inlet appurtenances. Tests should be in accordance with ASHRAE 51 / AMCA 210 air performance testing standard and AMCA 300 reverberant room sound testing standard with the resulting relationships cataloged as to show the relationship between aerodynamic and acoustic parameters with respect to geometric parameters.
1274-RP 04/04-10/07 ADM Associates Principal Investigator: Taghi Alereza TC 7.5, Smart Building Systems Co-Funding: $1,000 Bellsouth Telecommunications Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A5, A6, A7, C6, D5, E1
Field Performance Assessment of Package Equipment to Quantify the Benefits of Proper Service and Determine the Long Term Need for Monitoring, FDD, and Continuous Commissioning Technology
The motivation for this research arises from recent ASHRAE-sponsored research projects to study commissioning and fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) technology for HVAC equipment including 1020-RP, 1043-RP, and 1139-RP. These research projects primarily focus on air handling units and large chiller plants used in larger facilities. This study deals with field performance assessments of packaged HVAC equipment for small and medium size commercial buildings. The objective of this project is to quantify the benefits of proper service in this type of equipment by assessing the equipment's current performance level in the field and documenting how the performance improves when equipment is properly serviced. This establishes a baseline for the maximum possible benefits. The project's outcome should help establish the need for automated FDD and continuous commissioning tools.
1276-RP 09/04-02/08 Building Solutions, Inc. Principal Investigator: Grenville K. Yuill TC 4.3, Ventilation Requirements and Infiltration Co-Funding: $500 Orange Empire SMACNA Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A5, A6, B2, C1, C3, E1
Multiple Space Effects on Ventilation System Efficiency in Standard 62
Standard 62-2001, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality, (ASHRAE 2001) includes an equation (Eq. 6-1) that is used to adjust the HVAC system's outdoor air intake requirement, accounting for variations in supply airflow rates and ventilation needs among the spaces it serves. The adjustment tends to increase outdoor requirements above the sum-of-zone outdoor air requirements by 10% to 200%or more depending upon the population diversity among the spaces served and the nature of the HVAC system design. Due in part to this significant impact on ventilation rates, and because of its complexity, the equation is controversial and many users of Standard 62 ignore it. This research will improve ASHRAE Standard 62, and model building codes that are based on Standard 62, by providing direction for how to correctly determine ventilation rates for systems serving multiple spaces. Specifically, this project will examine the validity of the "multiple spaces" ventilation efficiency equation in ASHRAE Standard 62-2001 and Addendum 62n to Standard 62 over a range of operating conditions and provide data to support reasonable ranges of variables used in these equations.
1280-RP 09/03-03/08 (P) University of Pretoria, Africa Principal Investigator: Josua P. Meyer TC 1.3, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A4, A6, C6, D1, D3, E1, E2
Measurement and Evaluation of Single-Phase Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Inside Enhanced Tubes for Transition Flow
The objective of this research project is to quantify the tube-side heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of enhanced tubes in the transition region for single-phase flow and to study the effect of fin geometry and inlet flow configuration on transition Reynolds number. This study is designed to increase fundamental understanding of transition flows inside commercially available enhanced tubes.
1281-RP 11/04-10/07 (P) University of Colorado Principal Investigator: Shelly Miller TC 2.4, Particulate Air Contaminants and Particulate Contaminant Removal
Identification, Classification and Correlation of Ultrafine Indoor Airborne Particulate Matter and Contrasted to Outdoor Values
It has been recognized in health studies that fine particles, PM10 (Particulate Matter 10 micrometer and smaller), are a serious health threat and that the ultra fine particle, PM2.5 (Particulate Matter 2.5 micrometers and smaller, are potentially a bigger health threat. This study is intended to provide detail on the size and chemical makeup of airborne particulate down to 0.01micrometer size range in the atmosphere at 2 locations around the United States and simultaneously in occupied buildings. This study will provide information on the variability of the particulate from location to location and also variability between times of the day and seasons of the year. With this information, better assessments of filtration requirements and removal mechanisms can be made as new studies determine the health risks associated with inhalation of fine particulate matter. At the same time a comparison can be made of the particulate make up indoors versus outdoors to better evaluate the performance of HVAC systems in conditioning the outside air make up as well as recirculated air.
1282-RP 04/04-06/07 Oklahoma State University Principal Investigator: Daniel Fisher TC 4.1, Load Calculation Data and Procedures Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A4, A6, C1, C3, C6, E1
Lighting Heat Gain Distribution in Buildings
Lighting is a major contributor to the heat gain in all buildings. The magnitude of the heat gain from a specific fixture is not difficult to determine because wattage of specific lamps is very well documented. The magnitude is not the only factor relevant to the cooling load and energy calculations. Radiant convective split can affect the time and the magnitude of the peak-cooling load. Another important consideration is the amount of heat from the light fixture that is dissipated to the space vs. the amount of heat dissipated to the ceiling plenum. The objective of this research is to better document the interaction of the heat generated by a light fixture and the surrounding space. Data will be developed for the most typical arrangements and presented in tables and graphs to enhance the ability to engineers to perform load calculations and energy evaluations for conventional and under floor air distributions systems.
1284-RP 04/06-09/07 Blue Heaven Technologies, Inc Principal Investigator: Robert Burkhead TC 5.4, Industrial Process Air Cleaning Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, B2, C4, E1
Develop a Standard for Testing and Stating the Efficiency of Industrial Pulse Cleaned Dust Collectors
Although ASHRAE Standard 52 and RP671 deal with test methods for evaluation of general ventilation air cleaners, their particulate loading rates are so low that they are not practical to evaluate industrial air cleaning equipment. Further, these test methods do not take into account the automatic cleaning methods that are usually in industrial air cleaners to keep a steady pressure drop, yet the cleaning action can result in increased emissions. As a result, there is a great need for a performance test procedure that addresses the higher particulate loading, and the wide variety of particulate contaminant types to permit measurement and reporting of the mass emissions and fractional collection of efficiency of industrial air cleaning devices.
1287-RP 09/07-11/08 RTI International Principal Investigator: James Hanley TC 2.4, Particulate Air Contaminants/ Removal Equipment Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: B2, B3, C4
Particle Counter Specification for the use with Filter Performance Test Standard ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999
This project will advance the state-of-the-art by providing a scientific and technical basis for specifying those particle counter properties that are necessary and sufficient to optimize the accuracy and repeatability of tests performed under Standard 52.2. These results will be of similar benefit to the SAE and CEN organizations for improving their filter testing standards.
One reported problem with ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999 is that despite the current specifications in the standard, a filter's measured performance can still be significantly influenced by the choice of particle counter. Also there are questions raised that the particle counter specifications are unnecessarily narrow and therefore discriminate against certain types of manufacturers without a sound technical basis. There is also concern that some of the existing specifications in ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999 are too vague or undefined (such as "wide angle" and "good correlation"). To address these issues, the adequacy and rationale behind the specifications need to be determined. Reported problems associated with particle counter selection have to be examined to determine if, and where, the existing specifications need to be improved. If these issues are not evaluated and addressed, the value of ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999 will be diminished, since the data it provides will be questioned, based on where the tests were performed and what equipment was used. New developments including the use of various types of built-in diluters, low flow counters for high concentrations (i.e. from Grimm Technologies), aerodynamic particle counters etc., are available and may not meet all of the criteria in ASHRAE Standard 52.2. In ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999, devices that show a good correlation with an optical particle counter are allowed. When possible this definition should be narrowed. For this reason also non-optical particle counters are part of the scope, but the main focus should be on Optical Particle Counters.
1289-RP 04/04-06/07 (P) CANMET Principal Investigator: Roberto Sunye TC 10.2, Automatic Icemaking Plants and Skating Rinks Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, C1, C3, C6, E1
Develop and Verify Methods for Determining Ice Sheet Cooling Loads
The information available on ice sheet refrigeration loads and operational costs in the 2002 ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook is based on data from the 1970s/80s and rule-of-thumb approaches that need to be verified and upgraded. A verified numerical model is needed to update the existing data, tables and charts in the ASHRAE Refrigeration Handbook. The upgraded data is needed by HVAC&R engineers, designers and contractors for designing, specifying and installing ice sheets, comfort and ventilation systems and facility operational guidelines. Furthermore, the model could be used to perform sensitivity analyses of various design and operating strategies, which would further enhance the Refrigeration Handbook and provide additional information for arena owner/operators. The objective of this project is to develop and validate a two-dimensional transient numerical model capable of simulating ice sheet heat transfer with transient operating conditions, for several typical floor and cooling system designs, and with the capability to predict average daily ice sheet cooling loads.
1292-RP 04/04-10/07 Texas A&M University Principal Investigator: John Bryant TC 5.3, Room Air Distribution Co-Funding: $50,000 Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARTI), $10,000 National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB) Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A6, C1, C6, D1, E1
Comparison of Total Energy Consumption of a Series Fan Powered VAV Terminal Unit vs. Parallel Fan Powered VAV Terminal Unit
New testing is needed to assure which contemporary air distribution design provides the most energy efficient air distribution system, one using series fan powered VAV terminal units, or parallel fan powered terminal units. Questions exist as to whether the energy efficiency of the complete air distribution system is being considered when comparing the two different types of fan powered terminal units. No current test data compare the energy consumption of series and parallel fan powered VAV terminal units operating in a system with the latest air handlers, controls, and design technologies currently used in buildings. The objective of this research is to obtain test results that predict the annualized energy consumed by the total air distribution system when each type of fan powered terminal unit is operated normally throughout their respective operating ranges for one year. This research will provide knowledge needed to develop future tools and guidelines directing how fan powered terminal units can be best applied to minimize energy use by HVAC systems.
1299-RP 04/07-04/09 The University of Texas at Austin Principal Investigator: Jeffrey Siegel TC 2.4, Particulate Air Contaminants and Particulate Contaminant Removal Equipment
Energy Implications of In-Duct Filtration in Residential and Light Commercial Applications
Directly measure the energy implications of typical in representative residential and light commercial applications to ascertain the real costs of each technology as they compare to filtration performance. Parameters in this study include: fan energy use, heating/cooling energy use, filter type, location, and pressure drop, filter change frequency, frequency of required coil and duct cleaning. In addition to measurements, the contractor should develop a model that uses these and other measurable parameters as input and predicts the energy use associated with filtration. The measured data should be used to validate the model.
1300-RP 04/05-06/07 (P) Carleton University Principal Investigator: George Hadjisophocleous TC 5.6, Control of Fire and Smoke Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: B2, C1, C3, D7, E1
Maximum Velocity of Makeup Air for Smoke Management Systems in Atria and Other Large Spaces
There is little information about the impact of an air jet on a smoke plume, yet codes and standards have established what appears to be a low limit. The value is inadequately described in that it is not specific about the location of the velocity limit in the plume. It is possible that current criterion could be either inadequate or excessive. Providing for adequate smoke exhaust is generally not difficult for atrium systems. Often, the greater challenge is how to achieve the required make-up air at a velocity of < 200 fpm (1 m/s). If the criterion is inadequate, smoke control system failure could result, endangering persons and property. If the criterion is excessive, unnecessary costs would be incurred and an opportunity would exist to develop a new criterion that would be easier to meet and less expensive. This project will take a first look at this phenomenon. In addition to evaluation of criteria, this project will provide basic understanding of the mechanisms involved. This understanding is intended to be the basis of future fire tests, if necessary to develop a new criterion.
1301-RP 09/05-08/07 University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Principal Investigator: Xinlei Wang TC 2.2, Plant and Animal Environment Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, B1, B2, B4, C3, C4, C5, D4, E1
Quantification and Ventilation Effectiveness for Air Quality Control in Plant and Animal Environments
Ventilation effectiveness measurement plays an important role in establishing a comprehensive baseline of ventilation performance in large animal buildings. Efforts have been made to develop quantitative criteria and method for evaluating ventilation effectiveness. The majority of these efforts were conducted in laboratory scale or small buildings; a few were carried out in typical commercial animal buildings. Many factors in the field have been thought to affect the ventilation effectiveness, such as: ventilation system configuration; outdoor air condition; indoor obstruction; and occupant capacity. Further investigation is needed to determine the uncertainties of ventilation effectiveness and to develop a practical method to evaluate the ventilation effectiveness of a system.
1302-RP 06/05-07/07 University Denver Principal Investigator: Donald Stedman TC 2.3, Gaseous Air Contaminants and Gas Contaminant Removal Equipment Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, B2, B4, C3, C4, D5, E1
Comparison of Gas Phase Air Filtration (GPAFE) Lab Tests to Field Experience
This project will create correlations between media performance comparisons generated at higher concentrations (accelerated tests in lab environments) and comparisons generated at low concentrations (as would be found in real-world IAQ applications). The completion of this project will provide the ASHRAE membership with confidence in media comparisons generated using accelerated testing, such as that described in testing standards being generated by ASHRAE subcommittees (SPC-145.1 (loose media); SPC145.2 (full-filter), and SPC-145.3 (field testing). This project provides direct support to the SPC-145.1 test standard for loose media. While SPC145.1 is not waiting on this research before approval, the research will aid in the translation of the results to real-world applications. It will also provide the basis for further research regarding prediction of useful life of GPAFE based on these lab results.
1303-RP 04/04-06/07 (P) Imagination Resources, Inc. Principal Investigator: Richard Cavestri TC 3.1, Refrigerants and Secondary Coolants Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A4, C6, D1, D5, E1
Partitioning of Non-Condensable Gases in Refrigerant Liquid and Vapor Phases
The presence of non-condensable gases (NCG) in a refrigeration or air conditioning system will cause increased head pressure and impact the energy performance of the system. Field service personnel often take samples to evaluate the NCG content in a system. The highest concentration is often at the "top" of the condenser; however it is often not possible to take samples at this point. As a result, a sample taken elsewhere in the system will show a lower NCG content but the system is still being impacted by the NCG. Solubility data and the equilibrium partition between liquid and vapor would provide the tools needed to evaluate compliance with refrigerant specifications. Equipment manufacturers would also use the data to research the impact of NCG content on their system design, providing specifications for air content in refrigerant, sampling guidelines for future field testing, settings for purge units, and design criteria for heat exchangers. The objective of this project is to perform solubility and equilibrium measurements on refrigerants/NCG combinations; determine Henry's Law constants; and correlated data into equations that provide for changes in temperature. R-22 will be run as a check against existing data, and established solubility data will be formatted and included in the final delivered package.
1306-RP 04/06 -01/08 (P) TNO Environmental and Geosciences Principal Investigator: JBGA Havermans TC 9.3, Transportation Air Conditioning Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: B1, B2, B4, C5, D5, E1, E2
Incident-Response Monitoring Technologies for Aircraft Cabin Air Quality
Research is needed to strengthen the role of a new ASHRAE Standard (ASHRAE 161) that will address incidence response monitoring in aircraft. Standard developers need to be certain that there is equipment available to support a newly developed standard by means of measurement capabilities. The results of this research project will provide a knowledge base on equipment availability and limitation. This research project is anticipated to result in demonstration of methods and technologies for characterization of aircraft engine/ APU systems contaminants in aircraft cabins during an incident occurrence. Use of these methodologies will generate data that can be correlated with passenger and flight attendant complaints about air quality. Such data will also enable the aircraft manufacturers, airline companies, and regulatory authorities to analyze the underlying causes of air supply contamination in the aircraft cabin environment and ultimately institute preventive design and operations measures.
1308-RP 04/06-11/07 The Catholic University of America Principal Investigator: J. Steven Brown TC 3.1, Refrigerants and Secondary Coolants Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: C7, D2, D3, E1
Identification and Evaluation of Working Fluids for High Temperature Heating Applications (Including Replacements for R-114)
Justification for this research topic is based on the need for a replacement for CFC refrigerants formally used in high temperature applications for both existing and new systems. Applications engineers need to be able to specify high temperature heat pumps, which mean that manufacturers need viable refrigerants to use in them.
1311-RP 09/04-03/08 University of Waterloo Principal Investigator: John L. Wright TC 4.1, Load Calculation Data and Procedures Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A4, A6, C1, C3, C6, C7, E1
Improving Load Calculations for Fenestrations With Shading Devices
The users of fenestration data, represented by TC 4.1 and TC 4.7, need comprehensive and reasonably accurate procedures to calculate realistic loads, including the effects of shading. This makes it of first importance to integrate the new information about glazing products with some level of information about the behavior of shading devices. Further, this integrated information must offer a suitable interface for inclusion in loads calculation procedures. Characterizing fenestrations solely by their U-factor and SHGC is not adequate.
1312-RP 09/05-08/07 Drexel University Principal Investigator: Jin Wen TC 7.5, Smart Building Systems Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A4, A6, B4, C6, D1, D5, E1
Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for Air-Handling Units
Establishing accepted testing tools represents an important step in the development of new products. The simulation tool and supporting data developed in this project will provide developers of air-handling units air-handling fault detection and diagnostic (AFDD) methods with resources that can be used to assess their performance. In doing so, commercialization of AFDD technology will be expedited, thereby benefiting building owners, facility managers, operators, and occupants by helping ensure buildings are comfortable and utilize energy efficiently. This project, coupled with work performed in 1043-RP, could represent an important step toward the establishment of an ASHRAE guideline for testing AFDD tools. A previous ASHRAE investment in 825-RP "A Standard Simulation Test Bed for the Evaluation of Control Algorithms and Strategies" could be leveraged to reduce the effort required to adapt a simulation tool for the project.
1313-RP 09/04-09/07 (P) University of Nebraska Principal Investigator: Gregor P. Henze TC 7.4, Building Operation Dynamics Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A3, A6, C3, C6, C7, D7, E1
Evaluation of Building Thermal Mass Savings
This research will develop and document control strategies that can be implemented within current buildings and that result in significant reduction in building operating costs and peak electrical demand. A follow-on project (Phase 2) to this work will involve demonstration of the control strategies in selected sites.
1314-RP 09/04-06/07 The Georgia Institute of Technology Principal Investigator: Kenneth A. Cunefare TC 2.6, Sound and Vibration Control Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, B1, B2, C1, C3, E1
Reflection of Airborne Noise at Duct Terminations
Much of the low-frequency HVAC noise in rooms is airborne noise that propagates inside ducts and is then transmitted through the duct termination into the room. Simple & accurate methods for estimating the losses of airborne noise inside ducts by the End Reflection Effect will provide the HVAC system designer with an essential, but now largely missing, element required in estimating noise emitted from duct terminations, particularly at low frequencies. Since it is at low frequencies where noise is often the subject of complaints and because low-frequency noise control treatments are costly, remedial fixes in response to complaints and/or installation of unnecessary noise control treatments may be avoided if accurate estimates of low frequency end reflection loss (ERL) values at duct terminations are used during system design.
1316-RP 04/05-02/08 Kansas State University Principal Investigator: Bruce Babin TC 8.5, Liquid-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers Co-funding: $5,000 Associated Air Balance Council (AABC) Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, C1, D1, D3, E1
Experimental Evaluation of the Heat Transfer Impacts of Tube Pitch in a Highly Enhanced Surface Tube Bundle
Fundamental understanding of boiling in tube bundles and comprehensive predictive models form the basis from which flooded evaporators are designed across the HVAC&R industry. It is envisioned that the results generated by this project would serve to validate existing and future modeling techniques and simultaneously expand fundamental understanding by examining a variable often overlooked in both the scientific study and design of flooded evaporators (tube pitch). Focusing on the effect of tube pitch and localized wetting is driven primarily by the application of a large flooded evaporator such as would be found in larger commercial air conditioning or refrigeration applications. The equipment typical to this type of application has among the highest initial costs and the highest energy utilization of any in the HVAC&R industry. ARI statistics suggest the global market size for centrifugal chillers with cooling capacities over 500 tons can be estimated at approximately $390 million for 2004. This represents a significant investment by much of the ASHRAE community, including both manufacturers who design and manufacture the equipment and by customers who purchase it. In addition, the energy costs associated with operating this type of equipment over a 20-25 year life cycle will typically be much greater than the initial capital expense. By further improving the understanding of boiling in tube bundles, it will be possible for equipment manufacturers to improve both design methods and equipment that utilizes flooded evaporators. Because of the magnitude of the costs (both direct and long term energy costs) associated with this equipment, even incremental improvements in evaporator design can provide tangible benefits. These benefits extend through ASHRAE and beyond by allowing the construction and installation of more efficient HVAC&R equipment at a constant cost or lower cost equipment at the same efficiency level.
1319-RP 01/06-12/07 Tennessee Technological Institute Principal Investigator: Stephen Idem TC 5.2, Duct Design Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A6, C1, C3, C6, D1, D7, E1
Laboratory Testing of Duct Fittings to Determine Loss Coefficients
The intent of this research is to improve the ASHRAE database by testing fittings not in the database. The TC 5.2 subcommittee responsible for the database has identified fittings in this category. This will improve the ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database allowing designers to (1) accurately select fittings from a large diverse set of information, and (2) improve the use of duct design programs that utilize the database.
More reliable data and/or a large database of fitting loss coefficients will help members to better design ductwork for their clients, enabling more accurate pressure drop calculations and less safety factor. This will allow fans to be sized properly, reducing energy consumption and wasted material. It should also generate an increase in sales for the ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database and ASHRAE's T-DUCT, Optimization design program marketed as a package.
1320-RP 09/05-02/08 (P) Iowa State University Principal Investigator: Michael Pate TC 8.9, Residential Refrigerators and Food Freezers Co-Funding: $5,000 Viking Range Corporation Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A4, D4, E1
The Impact of Household Refrigerator Storage Conditions on Shelf-Life of Fruits and Vegetables
The main function of a refrigerator is to preserve food. Both the equipment manufacturers and the consumers will benefit if additional value is delivered to consumers through refrigerators that preserve food better and longer. A reasonable estimate of the value of refrigerated food that is discarded in a typical U.S. household due to spoilage is $2 per week. With approximately 104 million households in the U.S., this amounts to $208 million per week, or $10.8 billion per year for the national cost of food lost in households due to spoilage in the refrigerator. In addition to food spoilage costs, the risk of the spread of food-born illnesses increases as the storage conditions deviate from accepted guidelines. Equipment developers and designers can most effectively improve the food preservation performance of refrigerators with access to research results showing how food preservation can be influenced by storage conditions. A substantial body of research is in the public domain regarding the effect of food merchandizing storage conditions on food preservation, but there is little research work done in the area of household refrigerators, where humidity is lower, temperature fluctuations are greater, and exposure to condensation is more common. The results of this research can be an important addition to the ASHRAE Handbook in the form of guidance for design engineers, helping them understand the impact of their design decisions on food shelf life. It is expected that the guidance generated from this research will provide long term benefits since it is not based on any particular technology that might become obsolete in the future.
1321-RP 09/07-08/09 Tsinghua University Principal Investigator: Xudong Yang TC 4.10, Indoor Environment Modeling Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: B2, C2
Modeling VOC Sorption of Building Materials and Its Impact on Indoor Air Quality--Phase II (Second Phase of RP-1097)
The ultimate goal of this project is to move forward the current understanding of building material sorption, and obtain a useful and reliable VOC sorption model for building materials that can be used for indoor environment design. Based on the results and recommendations from Phase I, the objectives of Phase II are (1) to further investigate the mechanisms of the effect of different environmental conditions (i.e., air temperature, humidity and airflows) on building material sorption, (2) to develop a mechanistic VOC sorption model for building materials, and (3) to demonstrate the use of the sorption model for IAQ design.
1322-RP 01/05-06/07 University of Nebraska Principal Investigator: Lily Wang TC 5.1, Fans Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, A7, B1, B2, C1, C3, C4, C5, D5, E1
Productivity and Perception Based Evaluation of Indoor Noise Criteria
This project will assess various indoor noise criteria systems which are currently used to evaluate the acceptability of background noise level in buildings, often caused by mechanical systems. Subjective experiments will be run to test productivity and human perception of background noise for individuals exposed to: 1) discrete tones and 2) time-varying fluctuations in background noise spectra. The goal is to determine how the current noise criteria systems correlate to productivity and psychoacoustic perception under the variety of systems-induced indoor noise situations. Based on the results, suggestions or modifications to noise criteria systems may be proposed to allow the rating systems to account better for the subjective results. The final results will directly impact the information provided in the ASHRAE Fundamentals and Applications Handbooks on how mechanical system designers should quantify and diagnose background noise in spaces.
1323-RP 04/05-03/08 University of Buffalo SUNY Principal Investigator: Andre Filiatrault TC 2.7, Seismic and Wind Restraint Design Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, B2, D1, E1
Static/Dynamic Equipment Testing and Certification
The specific objectives of this research are: 1. Determine force amplification (impact) factors for generic ASHRAE-Type isolators/ restraints for different equipment types subjected to earthquake motions. 2. Determine acceleration amplification factors for equipment hard mounted and/or supported on generic ASHRAE-Type isolators/restraints subjected to earthquake motions. 3. Investigate the relationship between static capacities determined according to the draft testing protocols developed by ASHRAE SPC-171 and actual dynamic capacities for various supported equipment and/or restraint types. 4. Suggest modifications to the ASHRAE SPC-171 draft testing standards to allow dynamic system evaluation from individual component static testing results.
1325-RP 09/05-03/08 Syracuse University Principal Investigator: Jensen Zhang TC 4.4, Building Materials and Building Envelope Performance Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, B1, B2, C1, C3, D3, E1
Environmental Weather Loads for Hygrothermal Analysis and Design of Buildings
Mold in buildings has become a major issue. The vast majority of mold problems are caused by excessive moisture accumulation in building materials. ASHRAE Standard Committee 160P "Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings" is currently developing a methodology for moisture design analysis and concluded that weather data are needed that are appropriate for this purpose. ASHRAE has been a leader in the field of moisture control in buildings for many years. While the 2005 Handbook of Fundamentals has made significant progress in updating the moisture transport physics, especially on water movement due to rain wetting, corresponding weather data does not exist. ASHRAE has long recognized the importance of weather data in building design and has taken the lead in development of weather data for energy calculations. The development of analogous data for moisture analysis will assist ASHRAE members in the design of buildings and equipment to provide durable, healthy, and comfortable indoor environments.
1326-RP 09/05-12/07 Oklahoma State University Principal Investigator: Jeffrey Spitler TC 4.1, Load Calculation Data and Procedures Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A6, C1, C3, D7, E1
Application Manual for Non-Residential Load Calculations
This project proposes to advance the state of the art for both new load calculation methods. The most current ASHRAE publications that address loads are the 1992 Load Calculation Manual (LCM), and the 1998 Load Calculation Principles (LCP). Neither of these publications can be used directly as a tool to complete a load calculation computation. Both of these publications offer well documented information on the theory behind the physics of the building load phenomenon. The 1998 LCP Manual supersedes the LCM and has an in depth presentation of Heat Balance Method principles and provides an introduction to the RTS Method. This manual will allow presentation of HB developments not previously published. It will also expand the presentation of RTS significantly. This expanded presentation will allow the use of the RTS Method in a very hands-on manner and will serve as a tool for both teaching and practice.
1327-RP 04/07-10/08 Teknologisk Institut (DTI) Principal Investigator: Thomas Lund TC 10.3, Refrigerant Piping, Co-Sponsors: TC 10.1, Custom Engineering Refrigeration Systems and TC 1.3, Heat Transfer & Fluid Flow Co-Funding: IIAR
Flow Regime and Pressure Drop Determination for Two-phase Ammonia Upward Flow in Various Riser Sizes
The objective of this research project is to determine the minimum vapor velocity required to sustain vertical upward flow of liquid anhydrous ammonia when transported by vapor anhydrous ammonia in the same pipe. This velocity shall be determined for a range of pipe diameters, overfeed rates, and temperatures. The pressure drop per foot of pipe as a function of velocity, temperature, and overfeed rate will also be determined.
1328-RP 04/06-10/07 National Research Council Canada Principal Investigator: Kashef Ahmed TC 5.6, Fire and Smoke Control Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, B2, C1, C3, E1
Algorithm for Smoke Modeling in Large, Multi-Compartmented Buildings
The ability to analyze smoke transport in large, multi-compartmented buildings will be used for design analysis of smoke control systems. This will be particularly applicable to code equivalency designs and performance based code designs. Computer programs based on the algorithm of this research project could result in efficient smoke transport analysis allowing ASHRAE members to quickly simulate smoke transport and to develop cost effective designs of superior performance. Further, such a hybrid model could be used for research that would result in significant advancements including improvements in smoke control system concepts.
1332-RP 04/05-06/07 (P) Charlie Huizenga Principal Investigator: Charlie Huizenga TC 2.1, Physiology and Human Environment Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A5, B1, B2, C1, C3, C6, E1
Revisions to the ASHRAE Thermal Comfort Tool to Maintain Consistency with Standard 55-2004
In 1997, ASHRAE published the ASHRAE Thermal Comfort Tool (Fountain and Huizenga, 1997) to provide a simplified, consistent method for evaluating thermal comfort under a range of thermal conditions. The software is consistent with ASHRAE Standard 55-1992 and indicates whether a set of environmental conditions are in compliance with that standard. ASHRAE recently published ASHRAE Standard 55-2004, which incorporates several important changes from Standard 55-1992 (Olesen and Brager, 2004). The purpose of this modest project is to make several important changes to the existing ASHRAE software so that it is consistent with the new standard.
1333-RP 06/05-12/07 Texas A&M Principal Investigator: Charles Culp TC 5.2, Duct Design Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A6, C1, C3, C6, D1, D7, E1
HVAC Duct Efficiency Measurements
The purpose of this project is to provide ASHRAE with additional pressure drop measurements of flex duct and duct fittings to be used in ASHRAE's Duct Fitting Database. Testing will follow ASHRAE Std. 120. Also an As-Built Test Protocol will be defined and tests run to this protocol. The experimental set-up was funded by the Air Distribution Institute (ADI) and can be used directly for the ASHRAE project. This data will also be used to update Fundamentals Handbook. Lastly, computational fluid dynamic calculations and graphics, using Fluent, are part of the larger ADI project and will be made available to ASHRAE.
1340-RP 04/06-09/07 PWI Energy Principal Investigator: Itzhak Maor TC 7.4, Building Operation Dynamics Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, C3, C6, D1, D7, E1
Intelligent Control of Combined Heat and Power Systems
The main objective to this research effort is to identify guidelines for more cost-effective operation and control of BCHP plants. Two primary tasks are needed to fulfill this objective:
1. Phase A: Collection and Analysis of Necessary Data" would involve specifying the detailed scope of the research including selection of representative building types, representative electric utility dynamic rate schedules and development of methodologies for performance and cost benefit analysis of supervisory.
2. Phase B: "Controller Section, Evaluation and Comparison:" would involve developing a simulation environment able to predict the impact of different control strategies of operating a BCHP plant, perform numerous simulations under large number of different scenarios, distill the results, and develop operating guidelines or/and a set of tools.
1343-RP 04/07-04/08 IES Engineers Principal Investigator: Daniel Koenigshofer TC 9.6, Healthcare Facilities
Method of Testing and Data Collection for Energy Characteristics of Healthcare Medical Equipment
A Method of Testing (MOT) will be developed to measure energy inputs and heat gain outputs, over time, both in standby and over the cycle (or multiple cycles) of the equipment. The Method of Testing should be appropriate for submission to the ASHRAE Standards process, for adaptation and adoption as a new ASHRAE Standard. A broad range of medical equipment will be tested to the MOT, and the data will be presented for inclusion in the ASHRAE Handbooks and other resources.
1352-RP 09/06-08/08 Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute Principal Investigator: Sultan Khan TC 1.3, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Co-Funding: $10,000 International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A8, D1, D2, D3, E1
Evaporation in Flooded Corrugated Plate Heat Exchangers With Ammonia and Ammonia/Miscible Oil
Perform evaporation heat transfer and pressure drop tests on plate heat exchangers with ammonia and ammonia/miscible oil mixtures at various temperatures and pressure conditions in order to develop correlations to estimate heat transfer and pressure drop. Included in the scope of experimentation are test on three different stainless steel geometrics for variable operating parameters such as temperatures, ammonia feed ratio, heat flux, oil concentration and exit quality.
1353-RP 09/07-02/09 Drexel University Principal Investigator: Jin Wen TC 1.4, Control Theory and Application Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, C6, D1
Stability and Accuracy of VAV Box Control at Low Flows
Box manufacturers and controls vendors are under tremendous competitive pressure to reduce equipment costs. Many in the industry claim that stability and accuracy at low flow are being compromised due to cost-cutting measures. Without objective research on performance consumers will make decisions based only on price. This research will shed light on what equipment works well and what does not and give consumers the information necessary to base decisions on performance as well as price. It will also give manufacturers the incentive to improve performance and/or switch to more promising technologies. While it is not the primary objective, this research will also be valuable for developing modifications or an appendix to ASHRAE Standard 130 with a Method of Test (MOT) for VAV box velocity sensors and guidance on the use of VP amplification (K-factors). This MOT is also necessary for developing an ARI 880 rating standard and reporting requirement for testing minimum flow rates and K-factors based on pre-determined minimum velocity pressure signals (e.g. 0.004", 0.01", 0.03", etc). Furthermore, it is intended that this research will lead to a definition and method of test for the minimum velocity or velocity pressure signal at which a terminal unit zone controller can stably control, which in turn could lead to an industry rating standard for zone controllers and the minimum controllable signal they require for reliable operation with specific box types. Once these two ratings are developed an engineer will be able to accurately calculate the minimum controllable flow set-point for any combination of VAV box and controller by applying the rated minimum controllable signal of the controller to the VAV box's rated minimum flow at that signal.
1354-RP 04/06-09/07 GARD Analytics, Inc Principal Investigator: Jason Glazer TC 1.5, Computer Applications Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: C1, E1
Common Data Definitions for HVAC&R Industry Applications
The objective of this research is to assemble information supporting development of interoperability among software applications used at all stages of the HVAC&R project life-cycle. Based on comparison and analysis of existing data models and the GPC-20 use cases, the research will identify, characterize, and document: core data items: generally required items defined similarly in multiple data models; extension data items; items suggested by use cases but not well represented in existing models; conflicting/problem items; items that are addressed inconsistently in existing models; and mappings among existing data models; information supporting translation among existing models. This information will be presented in tabular and text form for use in the development of Guideline 20P, other standards or guidelines, and software applications. A secondary objective is to produce a demonstration implementation of automated inter-model data exchange.
1362-RP 04/06-04/08 Fisher-Nickel, Inc Principal Investigator: Donald Fisher TC 5.10, Kitchen Ventilation Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A6, B2, C1, D7, E1
Revised Heat Gain and Capture and Containment Exhaust Rates from Typical Commercial Cooking Appliances
The objective is to refine and expand the database on the heat gain for commercial food service equipment and, where applicable for hooded appliances, report the exhaust ventilation rate required for capture and containment. The goal is to provide reliable heat gain data for the ASHRAE Handbook to help engineers accurately calculate cooling loads for commercial kitchens. A parallel goal is to report associated exhaust ventilation rates to assist engineers with hood selection and sizing. At least 80 hooded and un-hooded equipment types will be tested. For the hooded appliances, the study will determine the radiant heat gain to space during idle (ready-to-cook) conditions. For unhooded appliances, where the kitchen air conditioning load is based on total enthalpy, the data will establish the radiant and convective split for appliances including the latent contribution.
1363-RP 04/06-09/07 GARD Analytics, Inc. Principal Investigator: Roger Hedrick TC 4.2, Climatic Information Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A6, C1, C3, E1
Generation of Hourly Design-Day Weather Data
Develop a method of generating hourly weather data profiles, 24 hours, including dry-bulb, wet-bulb, dew-point, direct solar and diffuse solar radiation for design days. The method must be applicable world wide and generate sequences for any day of the year. The project will involve selecting test sites from the list of sites included in the 2005 Fundamentals list of design weather date, investigating the hourly weather profiles for days that meet design conditions, identifying and developing methods to generate weather profiles, and evaluating their utility and practicality. Investigate solar models, and similarly evaluate their utility and practicality. Agree with the PMS on the best modeling approach, then test it and develop a spreadsheet implementation for use by design practitioners.
1373-RP 09/06-08/08 Building Energy and Environmental Engineering Principal Investigator: Zheng Jiang TC 5.3, Room Air Distribution Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, B2, C6, D1, E1 Air Distribution Effectiveness With Stratified Air Distribution Systems
The objective is to create a database of ventilation effectiveness and air-change effectiveness for thermal displacement ventilation and under-floor air distribution systems for classrooms, auditoriums, office spaces, restaurants, workshops, and retail spaces for determining the minimum amount of outside air for these spaces. The research scope includes literature review, mockup test, CFD validation, CFD parametric study, and development a design guide how to use the database and CFD for evaluating the thermal displacement ventilation and under-floor air distribution systems.
1375-RP 04/06-11/07 University of Minnesota Principal Investigator: Thomas Kuehn TC 5.10, Kitchen Ventilation Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, B2, C1, C3, C7, D7, E1
Characterization of Effluents from Additional Cooking Appliances
The main objective is to characterize grease emissions from typical commonly used commercial kitchen cooking appliances and food products that have no grease emissions data in the plume and in the exhaust dust. Additionally, alternatives to EPA method 5 to quantify the grease vapor emission from cooking processes will be evaluated. The scope is to expand the existing grease emission database determined in 745-RP by applying a similar test method to include additional appliances found in typical commercial kitchens.
1376-RP 09/07-08/08 University of Minnesota Principal Investigator: Thomas Kuehn TC 5.10, Kitchen Ventilation Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A5, A7, B2, C2, C6, D1
Method of Test to Evaluate Field Performance of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Systems
Through laboratory research and follow-up field testing, develop a document that defines a complete method for evaluating field performance of commercial kitchen ventilation systems which shall identify and, using laboratory procedures outlined in ASTM Standard F1704-05 for supply air or duct traverse, validate the accuracy and proper use of one or more cost-effective, practical, and commercially available devices capable of reading the styles of exhaust and compensating MUA designs described in ASHRAE Kitchen Ventilation Chapter 31 (excluding internal) and develop a cost-effective, environmentally safe method to provide a visual confirmation that the airflows documented by these instruments provide proper hood C&C as defined in ASTM F1704-05.
1384-RP 04/06 - 10/07 University of Wisconsin-Madison Principal Investigator: Greg Nellis TC 6.8, Geothermal Energy Utilization Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A2, A3, A6, C1, C3, D1, E1
Development of Design Guidelines for Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump Systems
The overall objective of this project is the development of systematic design guidelines and tools that will reduce the uncertainty associated with sizing hybrid ground-source heat pump (HyGSHP) systems. The initial objective will be identification of the most attractive HyGSHP configurations and relevant operating conditions. Subsequently, we will develop a detailed and physics-based simulation tool that can be sued to evaluate alternative control strategies and optimize a HyGSHP system for a particular application through minimization of the life-cycle cost. The simulation tool will be used to carry out parametric studies over a range of relevant conditions (buildings types and climates); these results will be correlated in order to provide design guideline in terms of a set of charts or correlations that encompass the most widely applicable systems and conditions. Additionally, the simulation tool will be made available as a distribute program with graphical used interface that can be used by engineers with no specific knowledge of the program itself in order to accomplish design studies over arbitrary conditions. The eventual result of this work will be the extension of ground-source heat pump systems to heavily heating and cooling dominated climates through hybridization.
1388-RP 09/07-08/08 Gas Consultants Principal Investigator: Carl Suchovsky TC 6.10, Fuels and Combustion Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A6
Recommendations Based on Field Testing and Analysis of High-Altitude Installations of Gas-Fired Boilers and Water Heaters
Based on first-principle work and recommendations reported in the Gas Research Institute topical report High Altitude Installation of Natural Gas-Fired Appliances with Fan-Assisted Combustion Systems GRI-95/0014, determine whether less derating than is currently prescribed can be safely permitted for operating natural gas-fired and propane gas-fired boilers and water heaters at high-altitude.
Determine the applicability and validity of National Standard of Canada CAN/CGA-2.17-M91, Gas-Fired Appliances for Use at High Altitudes, section 2.2 for use in testing appliances at near sea level (0 to 2,000 feet altitude) to demonstrate robustness at high altitude (2,000 to 10,000 feet altitude).
Investigate alternate testing and prediction methods, which may be used to provide equivalent high altitude performance and validation.
Work with the Project Monitoring Subcommittee (PMS) to provide industry acceptable data and tools for better understanding of high altitude applications and acceptable high altitude appliance heating capacities
1394-RP 09/07-08/09 Washington State University Principal Investigator: Amir Jokar TC 8.5, Liquid to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported:D1, D2
Study of Carbon Dioxide Condensation in Chevron Angle Plate Geometry Exchanger
In order to achieve this it is important to understand the heat transfer and mechanical integrity aspects of equipment that would be able to withstand high condensing pressures. Therefore, it is important to undertake a comprehensive study on the subject that would identify exchanger(s) with high mechanical integrity and enhanced heat transfer characteristics. This requirement could be fulfilled by undertaking an experimental program on brazed plate or a shell and plate exchanger. These types of exchangers offer higher surface-area-to-volume ratios along with enhanced heat transfer and high pressure ratings. It is apparent that 1[degrees]F reduction in approach temperature on average results in 2-3% improvement in COP.
1395-RP 04/06 - 04/08 Kansas State University Principal Investigator: Warren White TC 9.2, Industrial Air Conditioning Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A6, B2, C1, C3, E1
Heat Gains from Electrical and Control Equipment in Industrial Plants, Part 2
The design of the air conditioning systems for an industrial facility including the electrical equipment room is normally performed in parallel with the facility electrical system design. This means that the cooling equipment is sized based on any available estimated heat rejection values or on rules of thumb, guesses and assumptions. Because the heat from the electrical equipment is often a significant percentage of the total cooling load, accuracy is important to a successful air conditioning system design. This is particularly true in mission critical facilities and electronic equipment areas. Appropriately sized systems are also important for energy conservation and moisture control. The scope is this work includes DC, Medium, and low voltage switchgear motor, control centers, UPS systems, adjustable speed drives, panel boards, cables, and cable trays, and bus ways.
1402-RP 09/07-08/09 University of Missouri-Kansas City Principal Investigator: Brian Fricke TC 10.7, Commercial Food Display and Storage Equipment Co-Funding: ARTI Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A4, A6, A7, C6, D1, D4
Comparison of Vertical Display Cases
An estimated cooling load reduction of 50-70% on a typical eight foot case may be expected from using doors on vertical medium temperature cases (Faramarzi, 2002). This reduction in load corresponds to a potential 11-15% reduction in both annual energy use and peak electric kW for a typical supermarket (ADL 1996). On a nationwide scale, DOE estimates total supermarket refrigeration energy use is about 0.33 quads/yr. Assuming 80% of stores eventually adopt doors on vertical cases, the savings would be about 0.04 quads/yr. This savings would be a significant contribution toward ASHRAE's goal (of reducing supermarket energy use by 30%). Energy savings from doors may be achieved both from the smaller cooling loads and from the ability to use higher evaporating temperatures to achieve the same product temperature. Another benefit is that the medium temperature compressor rack size can be reduced by about 15% as well, resulting in a lower first cost to the supermarket. Although product temperature is outside the scope of this proposed research, food safety can also be improved by reducing the wide variations in product temperatures that are observed in open cases. Reduced product temperature ranges can bring about easier compliance with the 41[degrees]F (5[degrees]C) product temperature requirements of NSF standard NSF/ANSI 7-2001 and the 2005 FDA Food Code. Doors also reduce cold air spillage in shopping aisles. This will increase shopper comfort, which may translate into increased sales. Further, doors will prevent partial cooling and dehumidification of the store by the refrigeration system. Instead, it will allow the HVAC system, which operates at higher evaporator temperatures and COPs to cool and dehumidify the store more efficiently, if needed. However, these savings and benefits will not be realized if door cases cannot penetrate into the market. By developing a study that quantifies the benefits and disadvantages of medium temperature reach-in cases equipped with doors, ASHRAE will help the industry to shift the market to more sustainable options.
1438-RP 09/06 - 08/08 American University of Beirut Principal Investigator: Nesreen Ghaddar TC 5.3, Room Air Distribution Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A1, A6, B2, C1, C3, E1, E2
Simplified Thermal Model With Experiments to Design Optimized Chilled Ceiling and Positive Displacement Ventilation System
The first of this work is to develop and validate a simplified plume-multi-layer model to simulate air flow, and associated heat and moisture transport within a radiant cooled enclosure with positive displacement ventilation (PDV) in presence of transient loads.
The second objective is to use the plume-multi layer model to set guidelines for sizing and recommending optimal operational parameters for a combined chilled-ceiling and PDV air conditioning system adapted to local weather conditions of Beirut and Kuwait.
The third objective of the work is to conduct real-time experiments in Lebanon and Kuwait to test optimal control strategies derived from the proposed optimal operational parameters for minimum energy consumption.
1443-RP 04/06 - 07/07 (P) Indoor Air Institute (IAI) Principal Investigator: Hal Levin Environmental Health Committee (EHC) Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A5, B1, B2, E1, E2
Scientific Review of Existing Information Related to the Impact of Ventilation Related to Health
The objective is to perform a critical multidisciplinary scientific review of the current state of knowledge of ventilation rates as they impact occupant health in order to develop priorities for additional research that may be needed to evaluate the effect of ventilation rates on health in multiple types of indoor environments, including but not limited to offices, schools, residences, and day cares.
The products of the project will describe and summarize the results of studies as viewed by a consensus of an interdisciplinary group of scientist and practicing engineers. The group will characterize the extent of the knowledge in the peer-reviewed scientific literature and develop priorities for additional research that may be needed.
1444-RP 09/07-08/10 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Principal Investigator: John Thome TC 1.3, Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, TC 5.4, Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Transfer Equipment and TC 8.5, Liquid-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, C6, C7, D1, D2, D3
Experimental Evaluation of Two Phase Pressure Drops and Flow Patterns in U-Bends for R-134a, R-410A, and Ammonia Review state-of-art of single-phase and two-phase pressure drops and flow patterns in U-bends and develop independent database from other publications; (2) Modify the actual flow boiling LTCM test facility in order to perform pressure drop measurements and flow pattern visualizations in U-bends. (3) Perform experimental test matrix on U-bends for two bend radii using four tube diameters with the refrigerants R-134a, R-410A and ammonia to obtain U-bend pressure drop data and its effect on the pressure drops in a straight tube downstream of the U-bend; (4) Determine the flow pattern at the outlet of the U-bend; (5) Develop new prediction methods incorporating two-phase flow patterns in order to predict pressure drops in the U-bends and its effect on the straight tube pressure drop with attention to U-bend radius effects for vapor qualities up to 0.9 and mass velocities of 100, 230 and 300 kg/m2s, as an extension to our recent straight tube flow pattern based model.
1453-RP 04/07-07/08 Numerical Logics, Inc. Principal Investigator: Didier Thevenard TC 4.2, Climatic Information
Updating the ASHRAE Climatic Data for Design and Standards
The primary objective of this project is the derivation and tabulation of updated ASHRAE weather statistics for publication in the 2009 Handbook of Fundamentals, Standard 169, and one or more special publications. This is primarily data processing work, requiring development of specialized software and using it to generate statistics from multi-year hourly weather files for several thousand worldwide locations.
An important implicit objective is development of print and electronic data presentation formats, a multi-stakeholder process in which this project's contractor will participate (see Scope, Task 1). There are two additional objectives: 1) preparation of an updated WDView application for generating bin data and other specialized statistics for all stations (WDView is distributed as a Special Publication) and 2) documentation and delivery to ASHRAE of all source code developed during the project.
1457-RP 09/07-08/09 University of Wisconsin Principal Investigator: Dean Tompkins TC 2.3, Gaseous Air Contaminants and Gas Contaminant Removal Equipment" Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: B2
By-product Production from Photocatalytic Oxidation Associated with Indoor Air Cleaning Devices
The research project will benefit ASHRAE and the general public as follows: If photocatalytic air cleaners are going to be used as an air cleaning option for Standard 62, then the output from these devices needs to be known in order to verify that the output is acceptable to the standard. With the incidents of asthma on the rise, especially for children, the characterization of the output from photocatalytic air cleaners needs to be known so that the potential for the creation of additional or increased asthma triggers can be limited. Provide data on the output compounds and levels from photocatalysis in indoor air that design engineers can use to produce improved devices for the remediation and control of exposure to disease and pollutants; in order to provide an optimal indoor environment for buildings, vehicles, and facilities with respect to comfort, productivity, health, and safety. Users of photocatalysis air cleaning devices will be more informed on the output of such devices.
Some groups of VOC's have the suspicion of being carcinogenic even in very low concentrations. It should be known if these products are formed
1472-RP 09/07-08/08 University of Wisconsin-Madison Principal Investigator: Gregory Nellis TC 10.4, Ultra-Low Temperature Systems and Cryogenics Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: B1, C1, D6
Experimental Validation of Modeling Tools for Mixed Gas Refrigeration Cycles" A
Refrigeration cycles involving a multi-component, multi-phase working fluid have become increasingly important for a number of cryogenic applications; This work was accomplished under previous ASHRAE funding (RP1246) and is summarized by Fredrickson et al. (200S). The proposed project seeks to verify this modeling tool and extend its utility through additional experimental work. The design and optimization algorithm developed in RP-1246 will be applied to the specific heat transfer surface and operating conditions that are relevant to cryosurgical probes and used to predict the performance of a commercially available cryosurgical system. A series of parametric performance tests on this system, which will be donated by the manufacturer (see the attached, executed agreement to this effect), will provide verification of the design tool and will quantify the range of its utility. Finally, the optimization algorithm developed by RP-1246 will be used to optimize the gas mixture and operating conditions for the cryosurgical in order to demonstrate the utility of this tool to the cryogenics.
1473-RP 04/07-04/08 Texas A & M Principal Investigator: John Bryant TC 5.3, Room Air Distribution
Comparison of the Total Energy Consumption of Series versus Parallel Fan Powered VAV Terminal Units using ECM Motors and SCR Controlled Motors
This is a proposed addition to the work that has been completed on variable air volume (VAV) terminal units (TU) by the Energy Systems Laboratory at Texas A&M University for the American Society of Heating, refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). The initial project, ASHRAE-1292, consisted of characterizing motors. In the initial research, both the series and the parallel boxes were equipped with motors outfitted with SCR speed controllers. For a given set of box conditions the speed of the motor was set with the SCR and the air flow was determined only by the variations in primary air static pressure, a control damper, and the downstream static pressure. The proposed research extension is to characterize VAV terminal unit performance using electronically commutated motors (ECM) and add these results to the VAV models developed in the previous project.
The inclusion of VAV terminal unit types of boxes in the model gives both industry and practicing engineers a more complete analysis tool. The TU characterization will be done in the same manner as the original set of tests on the TU with SCR controllers. The boxes will again be mounted on the test stand that was developed during the first phase of the research. This test stand is located at the Riverside campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas. The same test regimen used for the shaded pool VAV units will be used to characterize the performance of the ECM fan powered TU. Empirical correlations will then be developed that model the air flow, leakage, and fan power of each of the boxes as a function of inlet and outlet conditions.
1477-RP 09/07-08/08 White Box Technologies Principal Investigator: Joe Huang TC 4.2, Weather Information Research Strategic Plan Goals Supported: A6, C1, C6, E2
Development of Typical-year Weather Files from the ISH Data Base of Historical Weather Data for 2,500 International Locations
This project has a single objective of producing a large data set of 3,800 typical-year weather files for non-US locations suitable for use in building energy simulations. For record-keeping purposes and to permit reanalysis or further improvements in modeling solar radiation, etc., the project will provide to ASHRAE the processed historical year weather files, and archive them in a format such as IWEC that would document the provenance of each data element, whether they are as reported on the raw weather files, interpolated, or calculated
By Michael Vaughn, P.E., Member ASHRAE, Manager of Research/Technical Services
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|Date:||Oct 1, 2007|
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