2 Basic pathophysiology.
Bone mass in older adults equals the peak bone mass achieved by age 18-25 years minus the amount of bone subsequently lost. Peak bone mass is determined largely by genetic factors, with contributions from nutrition, endocrine status, physical activity and health during growth. (5) The process of bone remodeling that maintains a healthy skeleton may be considered a preventive maintenance program, continually removing older bone and replacing it with new bone. Bone loss occurs when this balance is altered, resulting in greater bone removal than replacement. The imbalance occurs with menopause and advancing age. With the onset of menopause, the rate of bone remodeling increases, magnifying the impact of the remodeling imbalance. The loss of bone tissue leads to disordered skeletal architecture and an increase in fracture risk.
Figure 1 shows the changes within cancellous bone as a consequence of bone loss. Individual trabecular plates of bone are lost, leaving an architecturally weakened structure with significantly reduced mass. Increasing evidence suggests that rapid bone remodeling (as measured by biochemical markers of bone resorption or formation) increases bone fragility and fracture risk.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Bone loss leads to an increased risk of fracture that is magnified by other aging-associated declines in functioning. Figure 2 shows the factors associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis-related fractures. These include general factors that relate to aging and sex steroid deficiency, as well as specific risk factors, such as use of glucocorticoids, which cause bone loss, reduced bone quality and disruption of microarchitectural integrity. Fractures result when weakened bone is overloaded, often by falls or certain activities of daily living.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
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|Publication:||Journal of Family Practice|
|Article Type:||Brief article|
|Date:||Oct 1, 2009|
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