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1991: Sports; social issues and crime; folkways; fashion; holidays.

Thanks to Title IX of the Educational Amendments Act of 1972, many more young women were participating in sports at all levels. This law prohibited sexual discrimination in programs in schools receiving federal financing. As a result, high schools now reported an increase of participation from 7% to 36%, while in colleges where previously all NCAA activities were male, women now accounted for 33% of participants. In spite of the recession the National Football League recorded its third consecutive year of gains in attendance, to 17,752,139, up about 100,000. Thoroughbred horse racing, however, began the year with decreases in both attendance and betting, attributed to the recession and the Persian Gulf War. Hard times also hit Las Vegas, Nev., heart of the gambling industry, where some of the games were down as much as a third in Oct., the busiest month, and two casinos went bankrupt. Rodeo, on the other hand, was prospering. In four years the number of rodeos increased by 25% to 800, while prize money now totalled $2,600,000 at the National Rodeo Finals, compared with about $150,000 in 1970. In professional golf Corey Pavin was the leading money winner at $979,430. At the beginning of the year there were 695,000 inmates in state prisons and 60,000 in federal penitentiaries, an increase in one year of 80,000, the most ever. After five years of mostly miniskirts, the fashion world began to offer some longer hemlines, to the calf or beyond. Of course many women had ignored fashion's decrees and wore whatever length skirt they thought suited them. Among people of note who died were Luke Appling, Hall of Famer, shortstop for 20 years, Jan. 3, at 83; Laz Berrera, trainer of the Triple Crown winner Affirmed, Apr. 25, at 66; James "Cool Papa" Bell, legendary figure of the Negro Baseball League, Mar. 7, at 87; Paul Brown, innovative pro football coach, Aug. 5, at 82; A. B. "Happy" Chandler, commissioner of baseball from 1945 to 1951, June 15, at 92; Leo Durocher, fiery baseball manager known as "Leo the Lip," Oct. 7, at 86; Charles H. Goren, deviser of the most popular contract bridge bidding system, Apr. 3, at 90; Harold "Red" Grange, star college and pro football running back of the 1920s, Jan. 28, at 87; and Arthur Murray, the best-known teacher of ballroom dancing, Mar. 3, at 95.

Jan. 1

In college football bowl games the results were Miami 46, Texas 3 in the Cotton Bowl; Colorado 10, Notre Dame 9 in the Orange Bowl; Washington 46, Iowa 34 in the Rose Bowl; and Tennessee 23, Virginia 22 in the Sugar Bowl. The AP picked Colorado as the 1990 national champion, but the UPI selected Georgia Tech, which defeated Nebraska, 45-21, in the Citrus Bowl.

Jan. 5

A new basketball record for individual scoring in a game was set by Kevin Bradshaw of United States International University of San Diego, Calif., when he registered 72 points in an NCAA Division I game. The feat broke a 21-year-old record.

Jan. 8-9

Taking steps to deemphasize college athletics the NCAA voted to cut coaching staffs in 33 sports, eliminate athletic dormitories, reduce athletic training tables, reduce scholarships by about 10%, and cut time devoted to practice.

Jan. 21

The exclusion of women from Princeton's eating clubs was finally ended when the Supreme Court let stand a rule that the Tiger Inn, the last holdout, must admit women. By Feb. 10, some 27 female students had been taken in. The case began in 1979 when a woman student filed a civil rights complaint.

Jan. 27

Super Bowl XXV was won by the New York Giants (NFC) who defeated the Buffalo Bills (AFC) 20-19. On Jan. 20 the Giants had won the NFC championship by defeating the San Francisco 49ers 15-13 and Buffalo won the AFC title by beating the Los Angeles Raiders 51-3.

Feb. 2

The 500th basketball victory of his career was registered by Lou Carnesecca of St. John's University when his basketball team defeated Seton Hall 81-65. St. John's coach for 23 years, Carnesecca became the 30th major college coach to achieve 500 wins.

Feb. 4

The board of directors of the Baseball Hall of Fame voted to exclude any player who had been banned from the game. The move was triggered by the 1989 banning for life of Pete Rose, star player and manager of the Cincinnati Reds, for having bet on games.

Feb. 14

A law allowing the registration of "domestic partnerships" by homosexual and unmarried heterosexual couples went into effect in San Francisco. Although the law granted no legal rights, about 200 couples registered the first day.

Feb. 15-17

U.S. figure skating championships were won in Minneapolis, Minn., by Tonya Harding, women's singles; Todd Eldredge, for the second consecutive year, men's singles; Natasha Kuchiki and Todd Sand, pairs; Elizabeth Punsalan and Jerod Swallow, dance.

Feb. 20

A half interest in the New York Giants football team was bought by Preston Robert Tisch, a billionaire businessman. The purchase was made from a member of the Mara family that had owned all of the team since acquiring the NFL franchise in 1925 for $500. Tisch was reported to have paid more than $60,000,000 for his 50%.

Mar. 16

Three American women set a figure skating record when they finished one, two, three in the world championships at Munich, Germany. It was the first time in the 73-year history of the event that skaters from the same country accomplished this. The three, in order, were Kristi Yamaguchi, Tonya Harding, and Nancy Kerrigan.

Mar. 31

The NCAA women's basketball championship was won by Tennessee, which defeated Virginia 70-67 in overtime.

Apr. 1

The NCAA men's basketball championship was won by Duke, which defeated Kansas 72-65.

Apr. 14

The Masters golf tournament was won by Ian Woosnam of Wales by one stroke on the last hole.

Apr. 15

The 95th Boston Marathon was won in the men's division by Ibrahim Hussein of Kenya with a time of 2 hrs., 11 min., 6 sec. The winner of the women's division was Wanda Panfil of Poland with a time of 2 hrs., 24 min., 18 sec.

May 4

The 117th Kentucky Derby was won by Strike the Gold with a time of 2:03. The jockey was Chris Antley.

May 18

The 116th Preakness Stakes was won by Hansel with a time of 1:54. The jockey was Jerry Bailey.

May 25

The NHL Stanley Cup was won by the Pittsburgh Penguins who defeated the Minnesota North Stars four games to two. It was the first such victory for the Penguins.

May 26

The Indianapolis 500 auto race was won by Rick Mears, who became only the third racing driver to win the event four times. His average speed was 176.460 mph, and the time was 2 hrs., 50 min., 0.791 sec.

June 8

The 123rd Belmont Stakes was won by Hansel with a time of 2:28. The jockey was Jerry Bailey.

June 9

The first championship of the World League of American Football was won by the London Monarchs, who defeated the Barcelona Dragons 21-0. The league began its first season Mar. 23 with ten teams. Three of them represented European cities (Barcelona, Frankfurt, and London), and seven North American localities (Birmingham, Montreal, New York/New Jersey, Orlando, Raleigh-Durham, Sacramento, and San Antonio).

June 12

The NBA basketball championship was won by the Chicago Bulls, who defeated the Los Angeles Lakers four games to two. It was the first time the Bulls had won the title.

June 17

The U.S. Open golf tournament was won by Payne Stewart by two strokes in an 18-hole playoff. On the first day of the tournament, June 13, lightning killed one spectator and injured five others.

June 21

Federal agents announced the largest heroin seizure in U.S. history in San Francisco. Nearly 1080 pounds were found in containers shipped from Southeast Asia. Four people were arrested.

June 30

The LPGA golf tournament was won by Meg Mallon by one stroke with a birdie putt on the final hole.

July 5

National League expansion beginning in 1993, with two new baseball teams, was announced. Owners of the present clubs approved the addition of a Denver team to be known as the Colorado Rockies and a Miami team to be called the Florida Marlins. The additions brought to 28 the total number of major league teams, with 14 in each league.

July 14

The U.S. Women's Open golf tournament was won by Meg Mallon by two strokes. She was the only player to finish with an under par score.

July 21

The Baseball Hall of Fame inducted Rod Carew, a batting champion; two pitchers, Gaylord Perry and Ferguson Jenkins; Bill Veeck, owner of three different clubs; and Tony Lazzeri, a New York Yankee second baseman.

July 25

Jeffrey L. Dahmer was arrested in Milwaukee, Wis., for the serial murder and dismemberment of as many as 17 people. Dahmer later confessed to sexually-motivated-murder charges and on Feb. 17, 1992, was sentenced to 15 consecutive life terms in prison.

July 28

The 15th perfect baseball game in major league history was pitched by Dennis Martinez of the Montreal Expos (NL), who retired all 27 Los Angeles Dodgers batters without any reaching base. The first such game was pitched June 12, 1880.

Aug. 2-18

At the 11th Pan-American Games in Havana, Cuba, the U.S. won the most medals, 352 to Cuba's 265, but Cuba took the most gold medals, 140 to 130; Canada was third with 22 gold and 127 overall.

Aug. 11

The PGA golf championship was won by John Daly by three strokes. He was only the sixth player whose first tournament victory was a major championship.

Aug. 25

A new world track record for the 100-meter dash, 9.86 sec., was set by Carl Lewis at the Tokyo World Championships. He bettered the old mark by .04 sec. On Aug. 30 Mike Powell set a new world record for the long jump of 29 ft., 4.5 in., exceeding the old mark by 2 in.

Sept. 7-8

The U.S. Open tennis singles championships were won by Monica Seles in the women's division and by Stefan Edberg in the men's division. Both won in straight sets.

Sept. 14

The Miss America title was won by Carolyn Suzanne Sapp, 20, of Hawaii, at the annual pageant in Atlantic City, N.J.

Oct. 16

A bloody mass killing occurred at Killeen, Tex., when George Jo Hennard rammed his pickup truck into a restaurant and began firing with a semiautomatic pistol, killing 22 people and wounding 20. He then shot himself. No motive was known.

Oct. 19-27

The World Series was won by the Minnesota Twins (AL), defeating the Atlanta Braves (NL) four games to three. The Twins had won the American League pennant on Oct. 13 by beating the Toronto Blue Jays four games to one; the Braves had won the National League pennant on Oct. 17, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates four games to three.

Oct. 24

The members of Skull and Bones voted to admit women, thus ending the all-male tradition of Yale University's exclusive secret society, founded in 1832.

Nov. 3

The 22nd New York City Marathon was won in the men's division by Salvador Garcia of Mexico with a time of 2 hrs., 9 min., 28 sec. The women's division was won by Liz McColgan of Scotland with a time of 2 hrs., 27 min., 32 sec.

Nov. 7

Earvin "Magic" Johnson, a star of the Los Angeles Lakers basketball team, announced his retirement because he was infected with the HIV virus that causes AIDS. A professional basketball player for 12 seasons, Johnson admitted to having had many unprotected sexual contacts. Johnson changed his mind and signed a one-year, $14,600,000 contract with the Lakers, but retired again on Nov. 2, 1992.

Nov. 30

The first world championship of women's soccer was won in Guangzhou, China, by the U.S. which defeated Norway, 2-1.

Dec. 2

Bobby Bonilla became the highest-paid player in professional team sports when he signed a contract with the New York Mets of the National League that would pay him $29,000,000 over five years. The highest paid pitcher in baseball was Jack Morris of the Toronto Blue Jays, who signed a two-year contract Dec. 18 for $10,850,000. In all, six players were now being paid more than $5,000,000 a year.
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Author:Carruth, Gorton
Publication:Encyclopedia of American Facts & Dates, 9th ed.
Article Type:Reference Source
Date:Jan 1, 1993
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