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1990 teacher viewpoint survey: the results and comparisons.

Has art education changed in the last ten years? We can't say yes or no with any certainty. However, we do think you will be interested in the results of our 1990 survey and some comparisons with our survey published in the May 1979 issue of SchoolArts.

Our report concentrates on replies from art teachers. Although teaching experience and different grade levels were well represented, the sample is not necessarily representative of all art teachers. Also, notice that the totals for each question may not equal the number of respondents (checks are often made in more than one category). Refer to Figures 1, 2 and 3 for specific information.

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
Figure 1
Art Teachers Who Responded

 Years of Teaching Experience

 Totals

Total Number of
Survey
Participants 789 203 147 377

ART TEACHERS 739 * Years Years Years
or SUPERVISORS 0-5 6-10 11 or more

Elementary
School 326 (103) 32% (78) 24% (145) 45%

Junior High/
Middle School 120 (28) 23% (23) 19% (69) 57%

Senior High
School 167 (34) 20% (31) 18% (102) 61%

K-12 or Art
Supervisor 90 (23) 26% (14) 16% (53) 59%
Figure 2
Students Who Were Served

 Total
 Number
 of Average
 Students Teaching
Total Number of Survey Participants 789 Served Load
ART TEACHERS or SUPERVISORS 739 * 231,161 329
Elementary School 326 161,133 494
Junior High/Middle School 120 29,257 244
Senior High School 167 19,163 115
K-12 or Art Supervisor 90 21,608 240


Fourteen of the questions on the initial survey were repeated in 1990 in order to compare teacher viewpoints in 1990 with viewpoints from a decade ago. Seven new questions were added in 1990 to reflect more recent trends in art education. Also, our 1990 report includes responses at three levels of teaching experience. Differences between surveys, levels and teaching experience are discussed when they are at 10% or more.

Who Responded? We received 789 replies to the 1990 Teacher Viewpoint Survey. Out of the 789 replies, this report will highlight the responses from 326 elementary art teachers, 120 junior high art teachers, 167 senior high art teachers, and 90 K-12 art teachers and supervisors (see Figure 1). The remaining responses were from elementary classroom teachers, college students, museum educators and others. Thirty-six art teachers gave no grade levels.

Comparisons of the 1979 and 1990 surveys. In the 1979 survey, 710 teachers responded and the report concentrated on the 600 replies from art teachers. We are pleased that more teachers responded to the second survey. We think the numbers of replies to both surveys allow for comparisons of the results.

Students Served. As you can see in Figure 2, the 739 art teachers serve approximately 231,161 students. Teaching loads, based on numbers of students served at each grade level, are also shown.

Comparisons of the 1979 and 1990 surveys. The average teaching load for elementary teachers was 76 students lower than the 1979 survey. Likewise, junior high teachers had 20 fewer students, senior high teachers had 12 fewer students, and K-12 had over 1,000 fewer students. With more teachers serving fewer students in 1990, class sizes are smaller at all levels.

What is Taught? More than 75% of all respondents include basic design, drawing, painting, collage, sculpture, printmaking and mixed media in their programs. Elementary teachers included sculpture, ceramics, weaving and architecture more often and lettering less often than secondary teachers. Use of computers in art was checked by 28% of teachers.

Comparisons of the 1979 and 1990 surveys. The results were surprisingly similar. In 1979 we noted that relatively few teachers were introducing students to design in everyday life. Batik, for example, is still being taught by far more teachers than interior design, environmental design or industrial design. Nearly half of the elementary art teachers are now dealing with architecture, compared with 32% a decade ago.

Program Enrichment. Over 50% of teachers have art exhibits and take field trips to museums. New teachers arc more inclined to sponsor art clubs. Senior high teachers are more apt to have local artists visit, take field trips to museums and sponsor art clubs. Elementary teachers arc more involved in team teaching and having parents serve as volunteers.

Comparisons of the 1979 and 1990 surveys. More teachers are taking their students on field trips to museums!

Problems. The most common problem is inadequate space, equipment and storage. Elementary teachers are most concerned with short class periods and inadequate planning time. Senior high teachers are most concerned with inadequate budgets. Junior high teachers are most concerned with large class sizes (see question 3). Other problems bothering most teachers are not enough time for their personal artwork and unruly apathetic students (see question 6). Very few teachers at any level were uncertain about wanting to teach.

Comparisons of the 1979 and 1990 surveys. Elementary and junior high teachers are slightly less concerned about inadequate space, and senior high teachers are more concerned about unruly students in 1990.

The Artist-Teacher Role. Over 50% of the teachers indicate that it is valuable for art teachers to also be practicing artists. Over one-third, particularly those with 0-5 years of experience, say it is absolutely essential (sec question 5). Teachers were asked about their own exhibition records (see question 6). Approximately 45% state that they have created but not exhibited their work. Over one third have exhibited in juried or invitational shows.

Comparisons of the 1979 and 1990 surveys. Overall, the results are similar. In 1990, fewer elementary art teachers and K-12 or supervisors say that it is absolutely essential for teachers to be practicing artists. Also, fewer elementary and junior high teachers report they have exhibited in juried shows.

Other Professional Participation. Teachers were asked how often they personally visited museums or galleries during a year. Almost 50% say they attend from 1-5 times, and over 20% attend 6-10 times (see question 7). Participation in professional associations is low. Only 13% state that they are very active, and over 45% say they rarely participate (see question 8). Teachers with over 10 years of experience are more inclined to be very active. Approximately 40% of the teachers who have students eligible for the Scholastic Art Exhibit indicate that their students would enter this year (see question 9).

Comparisons of the 1979 and 1990 surveys. Overall, art teachers attend art museums at about the same rate as in 1979. Elementary art teachers and K-12 or supervisors in 1990 appear to be slightly more involved in professional organizations. More secondary teachers (40%) in 1990 say that their students would enter the Scholastic Art Exhibit (25% in 1979).

Curriculum Concerns: Integration. Elementary and junior high teachers are more inclined to integrate art with academic subjects than high school teachers. While many teachers (4-6%) occasionally teach relationships among the arts (see question 20), most also say they don't know enough about the other arts to relate them.

Art History. The majority of respondents (48%) teach art history on a regular basis, and 45% teach it informally in connection with creative art activities (see question 17). Only 2% indicated that they rarely taught art history. The most frequently checked approaches are "famous artist and artworks" (32%) and "historical de signs and techniques related to creative art activity" (25%) (see question 18).

Programs. When asked to describe their art program 30% checked "develops openness to new ideas, originality and imagination," and 25% checked "builds perceptual skills and ability to use media" (see question 21). Teachers with more than eleven years of experience checked "demonstrates that art is more important and not a frill" more often.

Comparisons of the 1979 and 1990 surveys. In regard to curriculum integration, more junior high teachers shifted from the "occasional" to "regularly as part of their philosophy." At all levels, art history is being taught more often on a regular basis (48% in 1990 from 30% in 1979). Fewer teachers approach it informally (45% in 1990 from 57% in 1979). Also there was a gradual shift away from perceptual skills and media in 1990.

Additional Questions for 1990 Seven questions were added to the survey in 1990. These questions center around trends in education and society, multicultural education, discipline-based art education and resources.

Trends in education and society. The four most frequently checked to pies, in order, are curriculum development (69%), creative thinking skills (61%), mainstreaming (49%), and safety in the artroom (35%). Less than one fourth mention showing achievements of women and minority groups, multicultural education, formal assessment/tests, and non-English speaking students (see question 11). Senior high teachers check assessment and safety more often, while elementary and junior high art teachers check mainstreaming and behavioral objectives more often. Teachers with 0-5 years of experience are more concerned about behavioral objectives and "at-risk" students, and teachers with more than 11 years of experience are more concerned about safety.

Multicultural education. Only 7% indicate that this is a major emphasis (see question 12). More than half of the teachers indicate that they have few multicultural activities.

Discipline-based art education. Most teachers are "very familiar" with DBAE (45%) or "acquainted" with it (39%). The majority of art teachers (50%) indicate that they support and practice most features of DBAE, 16% indicate that they strongly support it, and 20% say that they are not enthusiastic and have many concerns. Senior high art teachers are slightly less inclined to strongly support DBAE.

The majority of teachers (55%) define/introduce the term aesthetics as "perceptual awareness or sensitivity to beauty." Only 6% state that they define aesthetics as "learning about theories and philosophies of art." Elementary and junior high art teachers are less inclined to introduce or use the term.

More than half of the teachers (52%) view criticism as "a means of talking about art." Most (41%) use the term regularly, "as a process of inquiry in looking at art." Many (39%) use criticism during classroom critiques. Elementary art teachers are less inclined to use this term during classroom critiques.

Resources. Teachers were asked to check three resources that they use most often. Large reproductions were checked most often (77%), followed by art textbooks (54%), slides (53%), filmstrips (24%), small postcard reproductions (22%), films and videos (both at 16%), and art games (6%). More than other groups, senior high art teachers tend to use slides. They also use filmstrips and reproductions less than other groups. The use of art textbooks appears to increase from elementary to high school.

Commentary. It is difficult to briefly summarize all of the information in our two surveys. It is important to remember that the responses were voluntary and these percentages do not necessarily represent all art teachers.

One of the most striking observations in comparing the two surveys is the large number of similarities. Not much has changed regarding the art-forms that are taught, the problems identified by teachers, the enrichment offered, and teachers' personal and professional development. One major difference is the greater number of teachers who are teaching art history on a regular basis.

Our new questions suggest that many teachers (84%) are either very familiar or acquainted with discipline-based art education. While most are enthusiastic, some (20%) have many concerns about it. Responses to the questions on art history, art criticism aesthetics, and studio suggest that teachers may interpret DBAE in very different ways.

Finally, we want to thank our readers who took the time and effort to respond to the survey, and credit the statistician, Michael Thombs, who processed the replies, for providing this opportunity to portray "what's happening in art education today."
1. Teachers are selective
 in what they teach.
 Which of these art Middle
 forms will you Class- Elemen- or Jr.
 introduce this year? room tary High

A. Basic design 78.0% 87.1% 91.7%
B. Drawing 85.4 95.1 96.7
C. Painting 85.4 95.7 96.7
D. Collage 75.6 91.1 70.8
E. Mixed media, 2-D 70.7 82.8 74.2
F. Printmaking 75.6 89.6 85.0
G. Lettering, commercial-art 48.8 43.6 61.7
H. Photography still 14.6 7.1 6.7
I. Moviemaking or TV 7.3 6.1 2.5
J. Sculpture 80.5 85.6 74.2
K. Ceramics 68.3 72.7 74.2
L. Weaving, stitchery 51.2 81.3 47.5
M. Jewelry 24.4 25.5 15.0
N. Enameling 26.8 5.2 8.3
0. Batik 24.4 23.6 22.5
P. Fashion design 2.4 7.1 5.8
O. Architecture 39.0 49.7 38.3
R. Interior design 4.9 12.6 10.0
S. Urban or environmental design 14.6 13.8 9.2
T. Industrial design 7.3 2.5 4.2
U. Use of computer for art 29.3 18.1 22.5
V. Other 36.6 37.1 35.8

2. Teachers enrich their
 program in many ways.
 Which of these will you use
 this year?

A. Local artists will visit or
 exhibit at school 36.6% 36.8% 31.7%
B. Field trips to studios of local
 artists 9.8 5.8 11.7
C. Participate in the Artist-in-
 Education Program 24.4 16.6 10.0
D. Field trips to museums or
 galleries 63.4 50.9 52.5
E. Hold a major art festival or
 art exhibit 78.0 74.5 69.2
F. Have fund-raising event for
 art program 12.2 8.0 10.0
G. Workshops or classes for
 parents, administrators or
 teachers 26.8 16.0 19.2
H. Have parents serve as art
 program volunteers 14.6 27.6 16.7
I. Obtain TV or news
 coverage of art program 26.8 25.5 24.2
J. Sponsor art club 24.4 16.9 29.2
K. Have open classroom with
 activity center 17.1 16.6 12.5
L. Team teaching, art with
 academic subjects 34.1 48.5 37.5
M. Team teaching, visual arts
 with other arts 17.1 27.0 16.7
N. Other 14.6 24.2 14.2

3. Few teachers work in an
 ideal situation. On the
 reply card, mark the two
 problems that MOST
 concern you.

A. Class periods are too
 short 17.1% 36.8% 25.0%
B. Classes are too large 24.4 28.2 57.5
C. Too many classes to
 teach 9.8 30.7 13.3
D. Not enough planning,
 preparation time 34.1 36.5 23.3
E. Inadequate space,
 equipment, storage 56.1 41.7 34.2
F. Inadequate budgets,
 supplies, resources 43.9 24.5 35.8
G. Other 12.2 10.7 13.3

4. Here are some additional
 problems teachers may
 face. Mark the TWO
 problems that MOST
 concern you.

A. Lack of administrative
 interest, support 24.4% 30.1% 31.7%
B. Lack of parental,
 community interest or
 support 22.0 22.1 28.3
C. Unruly or apathetic
 students 41.5 38.7 59.2
D. Not enough ideas for art
 activities 7.3 6.7 4.2
E. Not enough time for my
 own artwork 48.8 55.2 47.5
F. Uncertainty about
 wanting to teach at all 19.5 12.0 10.0
G. Other 17.1 20.9 8.3

5. How important is it for
 art teachers ALSO to be
 practicing artists or
 craftspeople? Mark ONE
 answer.

A. Absolutely essential 36.6% 27.0% 39.2%
B. Valuable, not essential 43.9 54.3 43.3
C. Depends on the
 teaching level 9.8 11.3 7.5
D. Not essential 9.8 7.7 10.8
E. Don't know 0.0 1.8 0.8

6. Have you exhibited your
 own fine art or craftwork
 in the last three years?

A. No, do not create art 9.8% 7.1% 6.7%
B. Have created, not
 exhibited 48.8 53.1 42.5
C. Exhibited, juried or
 invitational show 31.7 26.7 37.5
D. Exhibited, one-person
 show 7.3 7.4 10.8
E. Have received
 commissions and/or
 sold works 29.3 30.1 33.3
F. Other 2.4 7.1 3.3

7. About how often do you
 personally visit museums
 or galleries during a
 year?

A. Rarely, not available
 where I live 9.8% 6.1% 8.3%
B. 1-5 times 68.3 52.1 47.5
C. 6-10 times 22.0 26.7 28.3
D. 11-15 times 7.3 8.6 9.2
E. 15 times or more 12.2 7.4 7.5

8. How active are you in art
 education professional
 associations?

A. Rarely participative 43.9% 44.2% 53.3%
B. Moderately active 36.6 42.3 35.8
C. Very active 17.1 12.9 10.0

9. Will your students enter
 the Scholastic Art Exhibit
 this year?

A. Yes 29.3% 9.2% 20.0%
B. No 68.3 87.7 79.2

10. How often do you
 integrate art into
 academic subjects such
 as social studies,
 science, language arts,
 etc?

A. Rarely 34.1% 10.7% 15.8%
B. Occasionally, when the
 "ART" doesn't get lost 9.8 28.8 22.5
C. Frequently, to stimulate
 creative thinking 19.5 23.9 25.8
D. Regularly, part of my
 basic philosophy of
 teaching 36.6 32.8 28.3
E. Other 2.4 3.4 6.7

11. Art teachers are often
 affected by trends in
 education and society.
 Mark up to FOUR items
 that you are now dealing
 with.

A. Creative thinkinc skills 61.0% 63.2% 56.7%
B. Formal assessment/
 tests 17.1 20.2 24.2
C. Safe in artroom 29.3 29.4 34.2
D. Showing achievements
 of women, minority
 groups 14.6 18.7 18.3
E. Multicultural education 26.8 32.5 19.2
F. Mainstreaming 43.9 53.4 59.2
G. Non-English speaking
 students 12.2 16.3 20.0
H. Behavioral objectives 29.3 33.4 35.0
I. Curriculum
 development 65.9 66.9 55.0
J. "At risk," potential
 dropouts 24.4 16.6 36.7

12. Some schools are
 emphasizing multi-cultural
 education. Mark
 ONE answer to describe
 your art-related involvement
 in this area

A. Very much, a major
 emphasis 9.8% 9.2% 5.0%
B. Some activities, but not
 a major emphasis 31.7 40.5 37.5
C. Few activities, not a
 major emphasis 58.5 49.4 56.7

13. Some art educators
 advocate DBAE
 (discipline-based art
 education) that includes
 creative, aesthetics, art
 criticism, and art history.
 Mark ONE.

A. Very familiar with DBAE 46.3% 44.5% 43.3%
B. Acquainted with DBAE 39.0 35.6 38.3
C. Never learned about
 DBAE 14.6 19.3 18.3

14. If your answered A or B
 to question 13 (above),
 describe your
 enthusiasm for DBAE.

A. Strongly support and
 practice DBAE 19.5% 17.8% 15.0%
B. Support, practice most
 features 51.2 49.1 48.3
C. Have many concerns,
 not enthusiastic 17.1 17.8 21.7

15. The word aesthetics is
 often used in art. How
 do you define/introduce
 this term to your
 students? Mark ONE.

A. Don't introduce/use this
 term in teaching 9.8% 26.7% 20.0%
B. Being creative,
 imaginative 7.3 5.2 6.7
C. Understanding design
 elements, principles 17.1 10.4 15.0
D. Learning about theories,
 philosophies of art 7.3 5.2 5.8
E. Perceptual awareness,
 sensitivity to beauty 56.1 45.7 46.7
F. Appreciating great
 works of art 4.9 8.9 8.3

16. The phrase art criticism
 is often used these
 days. How do you
 define/introduce art
 criticism to your
 students? Mark TWO.

A. Don't introduce/use this
 term in teaching 9.8% 12.0% 13.3%
B. Regularly, as an
 integrated part of studio
 activity 12.2 12.6 16.7
C. Regularly, as a process
 of inquiry in looking at
 art 43.9 44.5 38.3
D. As a means of talking
 about art 51.2 55.5 50.8
E. During classroom
 critiques 39.0 27.6 40.8
F. Other 2.4 4.6 4.2

17. Some teachers
 introduce art history.
 Check ONE answer
 that describes what you
 do.

A. Rarely 2.4% 1.8% 3.3%
B. Informally, in connection
 with creative art
 activities 46.3 50.9 45.8
C. Regularly, as context for
 creative activity or
 during special class
 periods set aside for
 this. 48.8 45.1 49.2
D. Regularly, as a separate
 course 2.4 1.8 0.0
E. Other 2.4 0.6 0.8

18. Check the ONE
 approach to teaching art
 history that you employ
 MOST FREQUENTLY.

A. Chronological, earliest
 times to present 7.3% 6.7% 8.3%
B. Visual arts in a selected
 culture or period, not
 chronological 17.1 15.3 13.3
C. Comparisons and
 contrasts among very
 different cultures/
 periods. 0.0 7.4 7.5
D. Similarities in ALL the
 arts of a selected culture
 or period 2.4 0.6 2.5
E. Historical designs and
 techniques related to
 creative art activity 36.6 19.6 27.5
F. One broad theme as
 interpreted across many
 cultures (e.g., animals,
 war, seasons 4.9 8.3 4.2
G. Famous artists, artworks 29.3 38.3 35.0

19. Which THREE
 resources do you most
 often use to introduce
 students to works of art?

A. Art textbooks 53.7% 44.5% 51.7%
B. Slides 46.3 43.9 44.2
C. Films 19.5 10.4 18.3
D. Videos 34.1 18.4 28.3
E. Large reproductions 68.3 88.0 87.5
F. Filmstrips 36.6 28.8 30.8
G. Small postcard
 reproductions 24.4 36.5 17.5
H. Art games 4.9 10.7 4.2

20. How often do you teach
 relationships among the
 several art forms (Music,
 dance, drama, etc.)
 Check ONE.

A. Rarely, not that essential
 or valuable (usually) 17.1% 4.9% 10.0%
B. Rarely, not appropriate
 at my grade level 4.9 7.7 5.0
C. Rarely, not
 knowledgeable enough 17.1 22.4 24.2
D. Occasionally, for
 perceptual awareness
 or art motivation and
 learning. 51.2 48.2 49.2
E. Frequently, for
 perceptual awareness
 or art motivation and
 learning 7.3 6.1 7.5
F. Regularly, as a special
 course or as part of my
 basic philosophy 2.4 5.8 1.7
G. Other 0.0 5.5 10.8

21. Check the ONE
 statement that best
 applies to your art
 program.

A. Builds perceptual skills
 and ability to use media 36.6% 23.9% 24.2%
B. Develops openness to
 new ideas, originality,
 imagination 14.6 31.6 28.3
C. Nurtures awareness of
 the uses of art in
 everyday life 4.9 6.1 10.0
D. Presents a good
 foundation in design
 elements and principles 17.1 11.3 15.0
E. Develops an
 understanding of a
 variety of works of art 12.2 7.7 11.7
F. Demonstrates that art is
 important, not a frill but a
 solid subject 17.1 19.6 14.2

1. Teachers are selective
 in what they teach.
 Which of these art K-12 or
 forms will you Senior Super-
 introduce this year? High visor

A. Basic design 86.2% 86.7%
B. Drawing 91.0 93.3
C. Painting 89.8 88.9
D. Collage 69.5 81.1
E. Mixed media, 2-D 75.4 75.6
F. Printmaking 73.1 72.2
G. Lettering, commercial-art 64.7 46.7
H. Photography still 15.0 20.0
I. Moviemaking or TV 7.8 10.0
J. Sculpture 72.5 80.0
K. Ceramics 65.3 73.3
L. Weaving, stitchery 37.1 54.4
M. Jewelry 29.3 30.0
N. Enameling 19.2 18.9
0. Batik 35.3 34.4
P. Fashion design 14.4 11.1
O. Architecture 29.9 38.9
R. Interior design 16.2 15.6
S. Urban or environmental design 9.6 13.3
T. Industrial design 5.4 5.6
U. Use of computer for art 28.7 40.0
V. Other 38.3 36.0

2. Teachers enrich their
 program in many ways.
 Which of these will you use
 this year?

A. Local artists will visit or
 exhibit at school 48.5% 52.2%
B. Field trips to studios of local
 artists 19.8 21.1
C. Participate in the Artist-in-
 Education Program 10.8 17.8
D. Field trips to museums or
 galleries 69.5 73.3
E. Hold a major art festival or
 art exhibit 77.8 80.0
F. Have fund-raising event for
 art program 22.8 20.0
G. Workshops or classes for
 parents, administrators or
 teachers 15.0 21.1
H. Have parents serve as art
 program volunteers 10.2 21.1
I. Obtain TV or news
 coverage of art program 32.9 32.2
J. Sponsor art club 53.3 28.9
K. Have open classroom with
 activity center 15.6 18.9
L. Team teaching, art with
 academic subjects 26.9 38.9
M. Team teaching, visual arts
 with other arts 15.0 18.9
N. Other 17.4 17.8

3. Few teachers work in an
 ideal situation. On the
 reply card, mark the two
 problems that MOST
 concern you.

A. Class periods are too
 short 23.4% 24.4%
B. Classes are too large 29.9 20.0
C. Too many classes to
 teach 12.0 27.8
D. Not enough planning,
 preparation time 24.6 34.4
E. Inadequate space,
 equipment, storage 50.9 56.7
F. Inadequate budgets,
 supplies, resources 47.9 32.2
G. Other 13.2 15.6

4. Here are some additional
 problems teachers may
 face. Mark the TWO
 problems that MOST
 concern you.

A. Lack of administrative
 interest, support 30.5% 31.1%
B. Lack of parental,
 community interest or
 support 26.9 25.6
C. Unruly or apathetic
 students 54.5 41.1
D. Not enough ideas for art
 activities 6.0 4.4
E. Not enough time for my
 own artwork 52.7 58.9
F. Uncertainty about
 wanting to teach at all 10.8 6.7
G. Other 10.2 16.8

5. How important is it for
 art teachers ALSO to be
 practicing artists or
 craftspeople? Mark ONE
 answer.

A. Absolutely essential 34.7 38.9%
B. Valuable, not essential 52.7 48.9
C. Depends on the
 teaching level 7.2 5.6
D. Not essential 4.8 6.7
E. Don't know 1.8 0.0

6. Have you exhibited your
 own fine art or craftwork
 in the last three years?

A. No, do not create art 4.2% 3.3%
B. Have created, not
 exhibited 39.5 45.6
C. Exhibited, juried or
 invitational show 45.5 36.7
D. Exhibited, one-person
 show 7.8 10.0
E. Have received
 commissions and/or
 sold works 38.9 34.4
F. Other 6.6 4.5

7. About how often do you
 personally visit museums
 or galleries during a
 year?

A. Rarely, not available
 where I live 9.0% 6.7%
B. 1-5 times 58.1 38.9
C. 6-10 times 16.2 28.9
D. 11-15 times 9.0 10.0
E. 15 times or more 10.2 15.6

8. How active are you in art
 education professional
 associations?

A. Rarely participative 48.5% 40.0%
B. Moderately active 35.9 46.7
C. Very active 15.6 13.3

9. Will your students enter
 the Scholastic Art Exhibit
 this year?

A. Yes 40.1% 48.9%
B. No 59.3 48.9

10. How often do you
 integrate art into
 academic subjects such
 as social studies,
 science, language arts,
 etc?

A. Rarely 31.7% 13.3%
B. Occasionally, when the
 "ART" doesn't get lost 28.7 28.9
C. Frequently, to stimulate
 creative thinking 18.0 32.2
D. Regularly, part of my
 basic philosophy of
 teaching 16.2 22.2
E. Other 3.0 2.2

11. Art teachers are often
 affected by trends in
 education and society.
 Mark up to FOUR items
 that you are now dealing
 with.

A. Creative thinkinc skills 59.9% 63.3%
B. Formal assessment/
 tests 34.1 20.0
C. Safe in artroom 41.3 36.7
D. Showing achievements
 of women, minority
 groups 13.2 17.8
E. Multicultural education 20.4 25.6
F. Mainstreaming 44.3 37.8
G. Non-English speaking
 students 16.2 15.6
H. Behavioral objectives 24.6 23.3
I. Curriculum
 development 70.7 84.4
J. "At risk," potential
 dropouts 32.3 31.1

12. Some schools are
 emphasizing multi-cultural
 education. Mark
 ONE answer to describe
 your art-related involvement
 in this area

A. Very much, a major
 emphasis 3.6% 8.9%
B. Some activities, but not
 a major emphasis 31.1 35.6
C. Few activities, not a
 major emphasis 65.3 53.3

13. Some art educators
 advocate DBAE
 (discipline-based art
 education) that includes
 creative, aesthetics, art
 criticism, and art history.
 Mark ONE.

A. Very familiar with DBAE 41.3% 51.1%
B. Acquainted with DBAE 43.7 35.6
C. Never learned about
 DBAE 14.4 13.3

14. If your answered A or B
 to question 13 (above),
 describe your
 enthusiasm for DBAE.

A. Strongly support and
 practice DBAE 9.6% 18.9%
B. Support, practice most
 features 56.9 45.6
C. Have many concerns,
 not enthusiastic 20.4 18.9

15. The word aesthetics is
 often used in art. How
 do you define/introduce
 this term to your
 students? Mark ONE.

A. Don't introduce/use this
 term in teaching 7.2% 6.7%
B. Being creative,
 imaginative 7.2 5.6
C. Understanding design
 elements, principles 10.8 14.4
D. Learning about theories,
 philosophies of art 12.0 4.4
E. Perceptual awareness,
 sensitivity to beauty 59.3 65.6
F. Appreciating great
 works of art 7.2 5.6

16. The phrase art criticism
 is often used these
 days. How do you
 define/introduce art
 criticism to your
 students? Mark TWO.

A. Don't introduce/use this
 term in teaching 5.4% 6.7%
B. Regularly, as an
 integrated part of studio
 activity 22.8 22.2
C. Regularly, as a process
 of inquiry in looking at
 art 37.1 44.4
D. As a means of talking
 about art 52.1 48.9
E. During classroom
 critiques 50.3 36.7
F. Other 3.6 5.6

17. Some teachers
 introduce art history.
 Check ONE answer
 that describes what you
 do.

A. Rarely 1.2% 2.2%
B. Informally, in connection
 with creative art
 activities 42.5 35.6
C. Regularly, as context for
 creative activity or
 during special class
 periods set aside for
 this. 47.9 60.0
D. Regularly, as a separate
 course 7.8 4.4
E. Other 1.8 1.1

18. Check the ONE
 approach to teaching art
 history that you employ
 MOST FREQUENTLY.

A. Chronological, earliest
 times to present 17.4% 7.8%
B. Visual arts in a selected
 culture or period, not
 chronological 21.0 17.8
C. Comparisons and
 contrasts among very
 different cultures/
 periods. 7.8 10.0
D. Similarities in ALL the
 arts of a selected culture
 or period 4.2 4.4
E. Historical designs and
 techniques related to
 creative art activity 28.1 25.6
F. One broad theme as
 interpreted across many
 cultures (e.g., animals,
 war, seasons 2.4 6.7
G. Famous artists, artworks 26.3 30.0

19. Which THREE
 resources do you most
 often use to introduce
 students to works of art?

A. Art textbooks 59.9% 60.0%
B. Slides 63.5 57.8
C. Films 22.8 12.2
D. Videos 53.3 42.2
E. Large reproductions 53.3 76.7
F. Filmstrips 18.6 16.7
G. Small postcard
 reproductions 12.0 22.2
H. Art games 4.2 4.4

20. How often do you teach
 relationships among the
 several art forms (Music,
 dance, drama, etc.)
 Check ONE.

A. Rarely, not that essential
 or valuable (usually) 10.8% 6.7%
B. Rarely, not appropriate
 at my grade level 2.4 2.2
C. Rarely, not
 knowledgeable enough 30.5 25.6
D. Occasionally, for
 perceptual awareness
 or art motivation and
 learning. 35.9 50.0
E. Frequently, for
 perceptual awareness
 or art motivation and
 learning 11.4 8.9
F. Regularly, as a special
 course or as part of my
 basic philosophy 6.6 5.6
G. Other 2.4 2.2

21. Check the ONE
 statement that best
 applies to your art
 program.

A. Builds perceptual skills
 and ability to use media 28.1% 31.1%
B. Develops openness to
 new ideas, originality,
 imagination 27.5 30.0
C. Nurtures awareness of
 the uses of art in
 everyday life 6.0 7.8
D. Presents a good
 foundation in design
 elements and principles 18.0 11.1
E. Develops an
 understanding of a
 variety of works of art 7.8 5.6
F. Demonstrates that art is
 important, not a frill but a
 solid subject 14.4 4.4


* 36 of the 739 art teachers gave no grade levels. Averages are calculated using the base figure of 703.

Laura Chapman is an author and independent consultant of art education. Connie Newton is a professor of art education at North Texas State University, Denton, Texas.
COPYRIGHT 1990 Davis Publications, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1990, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Author:Newton, Connie
Publication:School Arts
Date:Sep 1, 1990
Words:5607
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