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1990 IAPWS annual meeting.

The International Association for the Properties of Steam or IAPSW (now Water and Steam) was founded in 1929 by a group of researchers and engineers, whose principal objective was to produce and update steam tables for the steam-power industry. Since its foundation, the association continues a tradition of providing a forum for presentation and discussion of research activities in thermophysical properties of water, steam and aqueous solutions. CNC/IAPWS Organization


The purpose of CNC/IAPWS (the Canadian National Committee for the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam) is to identify areas of research related to steam/ water systems of particular importance to the Canadian power industry and other industrial activities, to coordinate research activities across Canada, and to foster communications between researchers and users both in Canada and abroad. The members of the 1990 CNC/IAPWS are Alain Albagli, MCIC, P.V. Balakrishnan, MCIC, Jacques E. Desnoyers, FCIC, Roland Gilbert (secretary), FCIC, Phil. G. Hill, Donald E. Irish, FCIC, Preet P.S. Saluia, MCIC, Jan Stodola, Peter R. Tremaine, MCIC chairman), Edward Whalley, FCIC, and Peter Whitehouse. Albagli is the Director of International Affairs at NRC. Whalley is the representative of the Canadian Institute of Chemistry and Stodola and Whitehouse handle liaison and communications with the Canadian Electrical Association (CEA).

Annual Meeting Highlights

The last annual meeting of CNC/ IAPWS took place in Toronto in February, 1990. Members present reviewed ongoing water- and steam-related activities at their own laboratory or organization. Desnoyers commented that the properties of ionic and non-ionic surfactant solutions can be predicted reasonably well up to about 100 degrees C from measurements near room temperature by using a mass-action model combined with a suitable extension of the Debye-Huckel equation. Above 100'C, especially around the critical point of water where Serious effects of the thermod namic properties are observed, the problem of verifying the accuracy of predictions is related to the difficulty of obtaining precise laboratory data. Relatively little work is under way in Canada on predicting the thermodynamic properties as a function of temperature.

At the Hydro-Quebec research institute, IREQ, activities cover chemical conditioning of steam/water cycles, thermal stability of additives, and development of analytical techniques. Gilbert reported the emphasis is on analytical techniques for the detection of trace (parts per billion or trillion) inorganic and organic corrosive impurities in steam/water cycles, due to concentrating mechanisms that occur in some components, such as steam generators. Early warning of condenser leaks, steam generator primary/secondary leaks, and subtle changes in condensate-polishing-resin efficiency is another issue when using very sensitive techniques.

An account of the Prague meeting of the Executive Committee of IAPWS was given by Hill, past chairman of the CNC/IAPWS. The committee discussed whether it should consider offering to organize the 1994 International Conference on the Properties of Water and Steam in Canada, but decided against it because of unavailable manpower. A motion was approved to tell the International Association that the CNC does not favour the formation of the WGC because it believes that communication between researchers and utility representatives will suffer if working groups do not meet together.

At the Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Irish reported that the Raman spectra of acidified aqueous iron(III) chloride solutions have been measured over a temperature range from 25 to 300'C. These spectra allowed the dominant species to be identified as a function of the molar concentration of the ferric ion and the chloride/ferric ion ratio,

Stodola presented the activities at Ontario Hydro in the area of chemical dissolution of deposits and materials protection. The ongoing research programs at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Canadian Electrical Association were also reviewed. The low level of CEA activity in power-cycle chemistry was noted and the CNC/CEA liaison agents stressed the importance of presenting original proposals to solve generic problems affecting the power-cycle components.

At the Alberta Research Council, studies are under way on subjects such as the heat capacity functions for aqueous electrolytes, the iron-phosphate interactions under hydrothermal conditions, and the mechanisms for the corrosion of carbon steel by aqueous C02/02 mixtures at elevated temperatures. Special mention was given by Tremaine to a joint study with Ontario Hydro (the only ongoing CEA project in power cycle-chemistry) dealing with phosphate chemistry under high-pressure utility-drumboiler conditions.

Whalley reported that his paper PVT VII on the density of steam and the second and third viral coefficients (both H2O and D2O) has been published in Proc. Roy. Soc. A 425, 48-71 (1989). A short paper presented at the 1989 Prague meeting describes qualitatively the origin of the difference in the second virial coefficients of H2O and D2O steam, which is determined mainly by the change of the O-H or O-D stretching frequencies when the dimers are formed.

Whitehouse, representing industry, reported that the transport of iron to the boilers has been reduced at the plants of the Nova Scotia Power Corporation by passing the condensate through ion-exchange resins, and using a clarifier flocculant such as poly(aluminum chloride) and additional purification stages at new water-treatment plants. He also noted the interest of industry people in studies such as the thermal degradation of humic acids, the solubility of magnetite in ammonium-acetate solutions, and the partition coefficients of acetate between water and steam at 350 degrees C.

Every year, the committee members prepare a summary of activities under way in their own field together with a collective document entitled Canadian Priorities for Research Actions which identifies areas of industrial importance in order to stimulate interest and proposals by researchers in universities and governments.

Roland Gilbert, FCIC Institut de recherche d'HydroQudbec, Varennes, PQ and Edward Whalley, FCIC National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa
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Title Annotation:International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam
Author:Gilbert, Roland; Whalley, Edward
Publication:Canadian Chemical News
Date:Nov 1, 1990
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