1963: Business and industry; science; education; philosophy and religion.
Relay 1, a communications satellite launched Dec. 13, 1962, but silent since Dec. 15 owing to malfunction, was reactivated by radio signals from the ground. It began transmission between North and South America and Europe.
The longshoremen's strike was ended. It had tied up shipping at East Coast and Gulf Coast ports since Dec. 23, 1962, and cost more than $800,000,000.
School desegregation in South Carolina, the last state to end segregation in its schools, was achieved when a student named Harvey B. Gantt was enrolled in Clemson College, Clemson, S.C.
Syncom 1, an experimental forerunner of a series of communications satellites, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. Although a near synchronous orbit was achieved, radio contact with Earth was lost the same day.
Elizabeth Ann Seton was beatified by Pope John XXIII. She was the first native-born American to be so honored. She was declared a saint by Pope Paul VI in 1974 and canonized on Sept. 14, 1975.
The costliest newspaper strike to date, the 114-day New York City newspaper strike, was ended. The shutdown, which began on Dec. 8, 1962, cost some $100,000,000 in lost revenues. The longest newspaper strike on record was a shutdown in Cleveland, Ohio, from Nov. 19, 1962, to Apr. 8, 1963, with an estimated loss of $25,000,000.
In a price-fixing investigation, a federal grand jury indicted United States Steel and six other steel manufacturers.
J. Robert Oppenheimer, the U.S. physicist declared a security risk in 1954, was named winner of the Atomic Energy Commission's 1963 Fermi Award.
Steel price increases averaging $6.00 a ton were announced by the Wheeling Steel Corporation. Within the next few days, other major steel companies announced price increases.
The Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr., was arrested in Birmingham, Ala., during a desegregation drive that had begun on Apr. 2.
Successful human nerve transplants were reported by Dr. James B. Campbell of the New York University Medical Center.
Telstar 2, the second communications satellite, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. It began relaying color and black-and- white television signals between the U.S. and Europe.
A secret military satellite was launched by the Air Force from Point Arguello, Calif. It released some 400,000,000 tiny copper hairs into a polar orbit, providing a cloud of reflective material for relaying radio signals from coast to coast within the U.S.
The fourth American in orbit, Maj. L. Gordon Cooper, Jr., completed 22 orbits around Earth aboard the Mercury capsule Faith 7, in the final flight of Project Mercury.
The agency shop labor contract, in which an employee is not required to join a union but must pay it the equivalent of dues and fees, was ruled constitutional by the Supreme Court where permitted by a state. The Court also ruled that a state could bar the agency shop.
A Federal Reserve bill changing the backing of $1.00 and $2.00 bills from silver to gold was signed by Pres. Kennedy.
A drive against cigarette smoking was opened by the American Heart Association, the first voluntary public agency to do so.
A bill requiring equal pay for equal work, regardless of sex, was signed by Pres. Kennedy.
The University of Alabama was desegregated. Gov. George C. Wallace, who had literally stood in the way of desegregation, stepped aside when confronted by federalized National Guard troops. Two black students were enrolled.
In a move to end racial discrimination in construction, the United Brotherhood of Carpenters, the largest U.S. building trade union, ordered its locals to end all such discrimination.
A plan for modification of railroad work rules submitted by Sec. of Labor W. Willard Wirtz was rejected by the railroad operating unions. The plan was one of several efforts by the government to resolve a labor-management deadlock in the industry.
Syncom 2 was successfully launched and on Aug. 15 placed over Brazil in a geostationary Earth orbit. It transmitted telephone and Teletype messages between the U.S. and Nigeria.
A nationwide railroad strike was averted when Congress passed legislation requiring compulsory arbitration of two key issues in the work-rules dispute and barring a strike for 18 days.
Krebiozen, a so-called miracle drug, was declared by the Food and Drug Administration to be creatine, a common amino acid, and ineffective against tumors.
Public school desegration in Huntsville, Ala., was effected after Pres. Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard, forcing Gov. Wallace to end his attempt to block school integration.
The deferred 1962 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Dr. Linus C. Pauling of the California Institute of Technology. The award committee did not specify Pauling's achievements, but his efforts to secure a ban on nuclear testing were well known.
In a Chicago school boycott, about 225,000 pupils were absent from public schools in a one-day action protesting de facto school segregation.
The Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded jointly to Eugene P. Wigner of Princeton, Maria G. Mayer of the University of California, and Hans Jensen of the University of Heidelberg, Germany, for their studies of atomic structure.
Losses in poultry exports to Common Market nations, in what came to be called the "chicken war," were placed at $26,000,000 by a special panel of experts. The U.S., in retaliation, increased its tariffs on imports from market members.
In the railroad work-rules arbitration, the federal arbitration board ruled that 90% of diesel locomotive firemen's jobs in freight and yard service were unnecessary. Railroads had sought to eliminate all of the 40,000 firemen's jobs.
In a major change in the Roman Catholic mass, the use of English in the U.S. in place of Latin for parts of the mass and for the sacraments was approved by the Roman Catholic Ecumenical Council.
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|Publication:||Encyclopedia of American Facts & Dates, 9th ed.|
|Article Type:||Reference Source|
|Date:||Jan 1, 1993|
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