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1925: Business and industry; science; education; philosophy and religion.

Labor unions did not benefit from the prosperity of the 1920s. In 1921 the American Federation of Labor had almost 4,000,000 members, but by 1929 it was down to 2,961,096. The recession of 1921-1922 hurt, and employers' associations offered strong opposition to organized labor. In addition, there were unfavorable court decisions, such as the 1923 Supreme Court ruling declaring unconstitutional a minimum wage law in the District of Columbia. The decision challenged the legality of similar laws in several states.

A survey of businesses showed that only 89 firms in the whole country had been owned by the same families for 100 years or more.

Of the many automobile manufacturing companies that were founded before 1905, only 15 were still in existence: Apperson (1901); Buick (1903); Cadillac (1902); Ford (1903); Franklin (1900); Haynes (1896); Locomobile (1899); Maxwell (1904); Olds (1897); Overland (1902); Packard (1902); Peerless (1900); Pierce-Arrow (1901); Stearns (1900); and Studebaker (1898). More than 1000 had failed.

William Green was elected president of the American Federation of Labor, succeeding Samuel Gompers, who died in 1924.

The first dry ice manufactured commercially was made by the Prest-Air Devices Company, Long Island City, N.Y.

An antitoxin for scarlet fever was developed by George Frederick and Gladys Henry Dick of Chicago.

Jan. 24

A total solar eclipse was seen in New York City for the first time in three centuries.

Apr. 1

In the largest cash transaction in U.S. industrial history to date, Dillon, Read & Company, a New York banking house, purchased the Dodge Brothers automobile company for $146,000,000.

May 13

A bill requiring daily Bible readings in all public schools was passed by the Florida legislature.

July 10-21

The celebrated Scopes monkey trial was held in Dayton, Tenn. John T. Scopes had been arrested on May 5 for teaching the theory of evolution to his students in violation of state law. Scopes was defended by Clarence Darrow and Dudley Field Malone. William Jennings Bryan was one of the prosecuting attorneys. Darrow questioned Bryan on his fundamentalist beliefs during the trial (July 20). The trial was thought to have been too severe a strain on Bryan, who died on July 26. Scopes was convicted and fined $100.

Sept. 3

In an airship disaster, the U.S. Army dirigible Shenandoah was wrecked in a storm near Ava, Ohio, killing 14 persons. In spite of this and similar disasters, advocates of lighter-than-air machines continued to espouse their craft.

Oct.

The Florida land boom reached a peak about this time. Speculation in Florida properties was said to surpass any other business stampede in U.S. history.

Oct. 16

Evolutionary theory was prohibited by the Texas State Text Book Board in any of its school textbooks.

Dec. 29

The name Duke University was adopted by the Board of Trustees of Trinity College in North Carolina to meet the terms of a $40,000,000 trust fund established by James B. Duke, the tobacco millionaire.

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Author:Carruth, Gorton
Publication:Encyclopedia of American Facts & Dates, 9th ed.
Article Type:Reference Source
Date:Jan 1, 1993
Words:496
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