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1899 National League strikeouts.

This article details my research and summation of 1899 National League batter strikeouts. Batter strikeouts from this period are not documented and summarized in any common source by individual batters. The team totals of batter strikeouts do exist in season totals as well as in the era's box scores.

I was able to document individual batter strikeouts in 87 percent of the 1899 games. As a result, I feel comfortable in giving a basic projection of what the individual batter strikeout totals would be. The leaders on both the most and least sides are included in this research. The entire 1899 National League roster with batter strikeouts is available at SABR.org. The purpose of the research is to fill in the gaps in the baseball records as much as possible but also to give a good idea of which players were more or less "strikeout-prone."

WHY NO BATTER STRIKEOUTS IN 1899?

From 1897 through 1909, there are no individual batter strikeouts officially documented. The Boston Globe had been documenting individual strikeouts for some years prior to 1897, but discontinued this practice prior to the 1897 season. To give some perspective about strikeouts during this period, Table A shows the strikeouts per game by year from 1893 through 1903. This 10-year period is somewhat arbitrarily picked, but it covers the era leading up to the adoption of the foul strike rule by both leagues. It also starts with the changed pitching distance that we have today.

Table B covers the same period and lists the rules that impacted, the nature of the strikeout. Of course, there are other rules dealing with the ball and the plate that affected the nature of the strikeout (e.g., 1900--the introduction of the five-sided plate), but these rules directly deal with the nature of the strikeout. This adds additional perspective about the nature of the strikeout. One key change was the foul strike rule of 1901, which was adopted by the American League in 1903. This altered the strategy of some players (e.g., Willie Keeler) and, as can be seen below, dramatically affected the leagues. Further research of individual batter strikeouts during these transitional years will tell the true individual impact of that rule change.

WHY 1899? WHY BATTER STRIKEOUTS?

This research actually started as an analysis of the lineups and substitutions that the 1899 Cleveland Spiders used during their fateful season. I became interested in the Spiders many years ago and started documenting their lineup and those of the other 11 National League teams, as well as various team pitching statistics. In the course of this research, I noticed in Sporting Life that for Philadelphia home games, the individual batter strikeouts were documented. This led me to further research this then undocumented stat (in this era). Of course, my research of 1899 opened me up to many other interesting happenings of the season--John McGraw's magical .391 season with 73 stolen bases and 140 walks, tragically interrupted by the sudden death of his first wife, Minnie, at age 22; Buck Freeman's 25 homers; the 27 triples of rookie Jimmy Williams; and other highlights.

RESEARCH

I asked fellow SABR members for sources where I might find batter strikeouts. One person directed me to the New York Evening Telegram, since it had play-by-play documented for most of the Giant and Brooklyn games of the era. This turned out to be a great source. I started researching other cities' local coverage through ProQuest Historical Newspapers and interlibrary loans of the other local newspapers' microfilms. In addition, through Greg Rhodes and Chris Eckes of the Reds Hall of Fame Museum, I was able to review a Cincinnati scorebook which contained about the first month's worth of Reds games.

From my initial lineup research, I already had the total number of batter strikeouts for each team in each game; I just needed to identify who made those strikeouts. I discovered that 11 of the 12 teams had documented individual batter strikeouts for at least their home games. Brooklyn, New York, Chicago, and St. Louis, to varying degrees, had away-game batter strikeouts as well. Cincinnati and Louisville had no local papers which identified individual batter strikeouts, though I was able to extract a few from the aforementioned Reds scorebook. With the exception of the New York Evening Telegram and the Reds score book, which had play-by-play coverage, I gathered the individual batter strikeouts from the box scores. I have included all newspapers that had individual batter strikeouts documented for both the home and visiting teams in Appendix D. In addition, all missing (or "no batter strikeout") games are documented in Appendix B and account for 13% of all of the games played.

In the New York Evening Telegram, being an evening paper, the game accounts were of that day's game(s). As a result, there were cases where the play-by-play of the second game was not complete. There are also instances where the first game does not have play-byplay at all. Incomplete play-by-play also occurred in games that were played in the West (St. Louis, Chicago, Louisville, and Cincinnati). Incomplete games are documented in Appendix A. Of note, the Pittsburg Post had an end-of-year summary of individual batter strikeouts.

There were a few variances in the number of strikeouts documented in Sporting Life (as team totals) and the total number of individual strikeout totals. There were cases when back-to-back games between two teams varied by +1 in the first game and -1 in the second of the series--thus "correcting" each other. The number of variation occurrences only accounts for 6.3% of all documented games and are documented in Appendix C.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Regarding the discrepancy, a fair question is which should be considered more "accurate" as to what actually occurred, the summary team game total or the individual summation? In the case of this research and analysis, I deferred to the local coverage and individual strikeout totals. [Of course, there were multiple newspapers that may differ from the source I selected, but in many cases these papers were using the same summary source. However, in reading game summaries, I did find some strikeouts not documented in the detailed box scores.]

DATA SUMMARY APPROACH

Since only Chicago had complete home and away individual batter strikeouts, I was unable to get a complete picture of the totals. For the other teams I was able to piece together their home game coverage with the other teams' home coverage to tabulate a great deal of the individual strikeouts. I then projected the batter strikeouts for each player, based on the number of games that I had individual batter strikeouts for (including partial game stats) over the total number of games played. Projections are based on documented batter strikeouts per game (not at-bat).

A potential additional step to getting "more accurate" numbers would be to assess each of the remaining missing 13 percent of the games' box scores and their listed team strikeout totals. I would then have to assign (ala integer programming) strikeouts to the team's players based on the most probable strikeout victims (based on their frequency from the documented games). This would get us closer, but is still not exact.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

The controversial Ducky Holmes of the Baltimore Orioles (see Freedman vs. Holmes, 1898), who had 51 documented strikeouts in 123 of his 138 games (89.1%), led the NL with a projected total of 57. There is a four-way tie in second place between the veteran shortstop Monte Cross, of Philadelphia; youngster and stolen base champ, Jimmy Sheckard; the leading rookie of the year candidate and triples leader, Jimmy Williams of the Pittsburgh Pirates; and second-year player Danny Green of the Chicago Orphans, all with projected totals of 50. Cross had 45 strikeouts documented in 138 of his 154 games (89.6%), Sheckard had 46 strikeouts documented in 135 of his 147 games (91.8%), Williams had 46 strikeouts documented in 142 of his 153 games (92.8%), and Green had 50 strikeouts in his completely documented 117 games.

At the other end, Willie Keeler showed that he lived up to his documented reputation of making contact by having only two documented strikeouts in 134 of his 140 games (95.7%)--with a projected total of two strikeouts. Lave Cross, who started the season with the Spiders and once he showed he was useful, was moved over to Robison's parent club, the St. Louis Perfectos, had three documented strikeouts in 134 of his 141 games (95%), projecting out to only three strikeouts.

Keeler's two strikeouts occurred on April 17 (Brooklyn's second game of the season) at the hands of Boston's rookie sensation, Vic Willis (in his major league debut) and May 6 (Brooklyn's 19th game) against Boston's Kid Nichols. After that, he did not strike out again for the remainder of the season. By contrast, Cross's three strikeouts all occurred at the end of the season. His first strikeout occurred in the second game of a doubleheader on September 13 at the hands of Boston's rookie Harvey Bailey, making his seventh major league appearance. His second strikeout was on September 17 by Bill Carrick at Weehawken, NJ, and his final punchout was on October 4 by Pittsburgh's Bill Hoffer.

Ironically, another player who had a reputation for getting on base and great bat control, rookie Roy Thomas, had a projected 47 strikeouts (42 documented, 134/150 games) to go with his 115 walks. Interestingly, three of the top seven in the "least" category were members of the Cleveland Spiders, with the aforementioned Cross, a partial fourth, and a fifth, in eighth place, "Schreck," playing 40% of his season with them.

Not surprisingly, all players with the highest percentage of strikeouts per game were pitchers, with the exception of Frank Scheibeck, a late-season infield addition to Washington. The Spiders are again well represented with three of the top five. The highest everyday player was Chicago's Danny Green with a percentage of 42.74.

OTHER STRIKEOUTS STATS

Bill Carrick, a pitcher for New York, and Danny Green of Chicago had the most games with two or more strikeouts with 10. Ducky Holmes of Baltimore with nine and Jack Powell of the St. Louis Perfectos were right behind with nine and eight respectively. Bid McPhee should be given special mention with his six multi-strikeout games, since only 63% of his games are documented.

In game one of a doubleheader on September 14, Jimmy Williams, who would lead the league with 27 triples, had four strikeouts against Doc McJames of the Brooklyn Superbas, the most in the National League. There were 24 occurrences of games with three strikeouts, with Chicago's Danny Green and Washington's Roy Evans having two such games--Evans, on September 12 against Cincinnati's Jack Taylor * and Heinie Peitz in Evans' first game of the season, and later, on October 3, against Brooklyn's Jay Hughes. Green's three-strikeout games were against Cleveland's Willie Sudhoff on May 8 and Pittsburgh's Sam Leever and Jesse Tannehill on May 15. Interestingly, 16 of the 25 three or more strikeout games occurred after Labor Day, with recently signed players from the minor leagues (these leagues had finished their schedules) such as Roy Evans (from Providence), Sam Crawford (from Grand Rapids), Rube Waddell (from Grand Rapids), and Pop Dillon (from Buffalo) having joined the circuit.

One last note of interest deals with Washington's slugger Buck Freeman. Freeman appears to have achieved the rare feat in 1899 of having more homers (25) than projected strikeouts (24), plus he also had more triples (25) too. He just missed having more stolen bases (21) as well. As Mel Allen might have said, "How about that!"

SUMMARY

With 87% of the 1899 National League games having individual batter strikeouts documented, I was able to get a very good vision of who the players were who were the most and least strikeout prone during the campaign. Though there was a little variance in documented totals and the individual counts as well as few partial games, I was able to get a good picture of the season. I recently have completed most of 1898 and have started work on 1900 with plans to continue to complete the missing seasons.
APPENDIX A. Partial Batter Strikeout Games
(28 of 923 games--3%) Partial BK Games--New
York Evening Telegram

Date         Team   H or A   Home   DSEQ   Note

04/22/1899   BLN      A      NYl     0     5 K's thru 6 inn. in
                                             local box, 7 in SL
05/13/1899   WSN      A      BRO     2     2 BK thru 5 in NYET; 3 in SL
05/20/1899   BRO      A      CIN     0     1 BK thru 7 in NYET; 2 in SL
05/27/1899   NY1      A      LS3     0     1 BK in NYET thru 6; 3 in SL
05/27/1899   LS3      H      LS3     0     1 BK thru 6 in NYET; 2 in SL
05/30/1899   CIN      A      NY1     2     1 BK in NYET thru 6; 5 in SL
06/03/1899   CL4      A      BRO     0     1 BK in NYET thru 5; 2 in SL
06/03/1899   LS3      A      NY1     0     7 BK thru 6 in NYET; 9 in SL
06/03/1899   NY1      H      NYl     0     3 BK thru 6 in NYET; 4 in SL
07/15/1899   NY1      H      NY1     0     0 BK thru 4 in NYET; 1 in SL
07/31/1899   CIN      H      CIN     0     2 BK in NYET thru 8; 3 in SL
07/31/1899   NYl      A      LS3     0     2 BK thru 5 in NYET; 6 in SL
08/07/1899   NY1      A      BRO     0     0 BK thru 8 in NYET; 1 in
                                             SL--batting order mixup
                                             by ny (NYET)
08/14/1899   LS3      A      BRO     0     1 BK thru 6 in NYET; 4 in SL
08/14/1899   CL4      A      NY1     0     2 BK in NYET thru 6; 3 in SL
08/14/1899   NY1      H      NY1     0     2 BK thru 6 in NYET, 3 in
                                             SL--Parke Wilson -ump
08/15/1899   LS3      A      NY1     0     2 BK thru 6 in NYET; 3 in SL
08/15/1899   NY1      H      NY1     0     2 BK thru 6 in NYET; 4 in SL
08/16/1899   CL4      A      BRO     0     3 BK in NYET thru 4; 4 in SL
08/16/1899   NY1      H      NYl     0     3 BK thru 6 in NYET; 5 in SL
08/19/1899   PHI      A      NY1     0     1 BK in NYET thru 5; 3 in SL
08/19/1899   NY1      H      NY1     0     1 BK thru 5 in NYET; 2 in SL
09/09/1899   BSN      A      BRO     0     2 BK thru 5 NYET; 5 SL;
                                             McJ 1 hitr (2 out, 9,
                                             Duffy)
09/09/1899   BLN      A      NYl     2     1 BK thru 5 NYET; 3 in SL
09/16/1899   NY1      H      NY1     0     2 BK thru 6 in NYET; 3 in SL
09/23/1899   WSN      A      BRO     0     2 BK thru 5 in NYET; 4 in SL
09/23/1899   BSN      A      NY1     0     4 in NYET thru 6; 6 in SL
09/23/1899   NY1      H      NY1     0     1 BK in NYET thru 6; 4 in SL

DSEQ = Game # for the day (0--only game, l--game 1 of DH,
2--game 2 of DH) BK= Individual batter strikeouts in play-by-play
NYET = New York Evening Telegram SL = Sporting Life

APPENDIX B. No Individual Batter Strikeout
Games (123 of 923 games-13%)

Date         Visitor/Nome   G #

04/15/1899     NY1@BLN
04/16/1899     CL4@SLN
04/20/1899     CL4@LS3
04/20/1899     PIT@SLN
04/21/1899     CL4@LS3
04/21/1899     PIT@SLN
04/22/1899     CL4@LS3       1
04/22/1899     CL4@LS3       2
04/25/1899     PIT@LS3
04/26/1899     PIT@LS3
04/27/1899     BSN@PHI
05/13/1899     WSN@BRO       1
05/18/1899     BSN@LS3
05/19/1899     BSN@LS3
05/21/1899     BRO@CIN
05/21/1899     CL4@LS3
05/23/1899     WSN@CL4
05/25/1899     BSN@CIN
05/26/1899     BSN@CIN
05/27/1899     BSN@CIN
05/28/1899     BLN@CIN
05/28/1899     NY1@LS3
05/30/1899     WSN@PIT       1
05/30/1899     WSN@PIT       2
06/04/1899     LS3@NY1
06/05/1899     PIT@PHI
06/11/1899     LS3@CIN       1
06/11/1899     CL4@CIN       2
06/18/1899     BRO@CIN
06/18/1899     BLN@LS3
06/19/1899     PHI@CIN
06/19/1899     BLN@LS3
06/20/1899     PHI@CIN
06/20/1899     BLN@LS3
06/21/1899     PHI@CIN
06/21/1899     BLN@LS3
06/22/1899     PHI@CIN
06/23/1899     BLN@CIN
06/23/1899     WSN@LS3
06/25/1899     BLN@CIN       1
06/25/1899     BLN@CIN       2
06/25/1899     WSN@LS3       2
06/26/1899     WSN@LS3
06/28/1899     WSN@CIN
06/28/1899     PHI@LS3
06/29/1899     PH1@LS3
06/30/1899     PHI@LS3
07/01/1899     WSN@CIN
07/01/1899     PHI@LS3
07/02/1899     WSN@CIN       1
07/02/1899     WSN@CIN       2
07/03/1899     CL4@PIT
07/04/1899     LS3@CIN       1
07/05/1899     CIN@LS3
07/06/1899     CIN@LS3
07/07/1899     CIN@LS3
07/08/1899     CIN@LS3
07/16/1899     SLN@NY1
07/22/1899     BSN@CIN
07/22/1899     BRO@LS3
07/23/1899     BRO@LS3
07/23/1899     WSN@CIN       2
07/24/1899     BSN@CIN
07/26/1899     BSN@CIN       1
07/26/1899     BSN@CIN       2
07/27/1899     BSN@LS3       1
07/27/1899     BSN@LS3       2
07/28/1899     BSN@LS3
07/30/1899     NY1@CIN
07/30/1899     CL4@LS3       1
07/30/1899     CL4@LS3       2
08/02/1899     NY1@LS3
08/12/1899     LS3@BRO       1
08/13/1899     LS3@NY1
08/17/1899     CIN@NY1       1
08/19/1899     CL4@PIT       2
08/21/1899     PIT@CIN
08/21/1899     PHI@NY1       1
08/22/1899     CL4@LS3
08/22/1899     PIT@CIN       1
08/22/1899     PIT@CIN       2
08/23/1899     CL4@LS3
08/23/1899     PIT@CIN       1
08/23/1899     PIT@CIN       2
08/24/1899     BLN@LS3
08/26/1899     WSN@CIN
08/26/1899     BLN@LS3
08/27/1899     NY1@CIN
08/27/1899     BLN@LS3       1
08/27/1899     BLN@LS3       2
08/28/1899     BLN@CIN
08/28/1899     PHI@LS3
08/29/1899     BLN@CIN
08/29/1899     PHI@LS3
08/30/1899     BLN@CIN
08/30/1899     PHI@LS3
08/31/1899     WSN@LS3
09/01/1899     PHI@CIN
09/01/1899     WSN@LS3
09/02/1899     PHI@CIN
09/02/1899     WSN@LS3
09/03/1899     LS3@CIN       2
09/03/1899     CL4@CIN       2
09/04/1899     CL4@CIN       1
09/04/1899     CL4@CIN       2
09/04/1899     WSN@PHI       1
09/05/1899     CL4@CIN       1
09/05/1899     CL4@CIN       2
09/10/1899     CL4@CIN       1
09/12/1899     CHN@NY1       1
09/15/1899     CL4@WSN
09/18/1899     CIN@BLN
09/22/1899     PIT@NY1       1
09/28/1899     WSN@BSN
09/30/1899     CIN@PIT
10/05/1899     LS3@CIN
10/06/1899     LS3@CIN
10/07/1899     LS3@CIN
10/12/1899     CL4@CIN
10/14/1899     CL4@CIN
10/14/1899     LS3@PIT
10/15/1899     CL4@CIN       1
10/15/1899     CL4@CIN       2

APPENDIX C. Batter Strikeout Discrepencies (100 of
1588 team occurrences - 6.3%)

Date         Team   H/A   Home   G   Note

04/19/1899   PIT    A     CIN        7 in CCT; 6 in
                                       reds scorebook
04/21/1899   SLN    H     SLN        2 BK in STLGD descr;
                                       4 in STLGD bc
04/26/1899   PHI    H     PHI        4 BK in PI; 5 in SL
04/28/1899   PHI    H     PHI        1 BK in PI; 2 in SL
04/29/1899   NY1    H     NY1        1 BK in PI; 3 in SL
04/29/1899   PIT    H     PIT        2 BK in SLgd; 3 in SL
04/29/1899   BRO    A     WSN        3 BK in WP; 2 in SL
05/01/1899   LS3    A     CL4    1   2 BK in cpl; 3 in SL
05/01/1899   LS3    A     CL4    2   5 BK in cpl; 4 in SL
05/03/1899   LS3    A     PIT        3 BK in PP; 4 in SL
05/04/1899   PHI    A     BLN        4 BK in BS; 3 in SL
05/05/1899   PHI    A     BLN        1 BK in BS; 0 in SL
05/05/1899   BSN    H     BSN        5 BK in NYET; 6 SL
05/05/1899   CL4    H     CL4        3 BK in CT; 2 in SL
05/08/1899   LS3    A     PIT        2 BK in PP; 1 in SL
05/13/1899   BRO    H     BRO    1   2 BK in WP; 3 in SL
05/23/1899   PHI    A     CHN        4 BK in CT; 3 in SL
05/24/1899   CO     H     CL4        2 BK in CPD; 3 in SL
05/26/1899   CL4    H     CL4        4 BK in CPD; 3 in SL
05/28/1899   BLN    A     CIN        no BK info, 2 in SL
05/29/1899   PHI    H     PHI        5 BK in PI; 4 in SL
05/30/1899   LS3    A     BRO        2 1 BK in BE descript;
                                       2 in SL
06/01/1899   NYl    H     NY1        0 BK in NYET; 1 in SL
06/06/1899   LS3    A     BSN        1 BK in BG, 2 in SL
06/15/1899   CL4    H     CL4       3 BK in CPD; 2 in SL
06/16/1899   BLN    A     WSN        2 BK in WP; 3 in SL
06/23/1899   NYl    A     CL4        1 BK in NYET; 3 in SL
06/23/1899   PHI    A     SLN        0 BK in STPD; 1 in SL
06/26/1899   CHN    H     CHN        2 BK in CT; 1 in SL
06/28/1899   BRO    A     PIT        2 BK in NYET; 1 in SL
06/29/1899   NYl    A     CHN        3 BK in NYET & CT; 6 in SL
06/29/1899   BRO    A     PIT        3 BK in NYET; 4 in SL
07/01/1899   CHN    H     CHN        3 BK in CT, 2 in SL
07/01/1899   BRO    A     PIT        2 BK in 6 inn, NYET; 4 in SL
07/04/1899   BSN    A     BLN    2   4 BK in BSUN; 3 in SL
07/04/1899   CL4    A     PIT    2   2 BK in PP; 1 in SL
07/08/1899   CL4    A     SLN    1   5 BK in STPD; 6 in SL
07/14/1899   BSN    H     BSN        2 BK in BG; 4 in SL
07/14/1899   PHI    H     PHI        3 BK in PI; 2 in SL
07/15/1899   PIT    A     BSN        4 BK in BG; 5 in SL
07/15/1899   BLN    H     BLN    2   1 BK in SL; 0 k in BSUN
07/18/1899   BSN    H     BSN        2 BK in BG; 3 in SL
07/18/1899   CL4    A     WSN    1   1 BK in WP; 2 in SL
07/19/1899   BSN    H     BSN        0 BK in BG;1 in SL
07/21/1899   CL4    A     WSN    2   1 BK in WP; 2 in SL
07/21/1899   WSN    H     WSN    2   1 BK in WP; 2 in SL
08/07/1899   BSN    H     BSN        5 BK in BG; 3 in SL
08/08/1899   LS3    A     NY1        3 BK in NYET; 4 in SL
08/09/1899   BRO    H     BRO        2 BK in NYET (partial); 3 in SL
08/10/1899   CHN    A     WSN        2 BK in CT, 1 in SL
08/12/1899   BRO    H     BRO    2   0 BK in NYET (partial 7);
                                       1 in SL
08/15/1899   WSN    H     WSN        5 BK in WP; 6 in SL
08/17/1899   PIT    A     WSN        2 BK in WP; 1 in SL
08/17/1899   LS3    A     BSN    1   4 BK in BG; 2 in SL
08/18/1899   PIT    A     WSN        3 BK in WP; 2 in SL
08/18/1899   BLN    H     BLN    2   6 BK in CTRIB; 3 in SL
08/18/1899   LS3    A     BSN    1   3 BK in BG; 2 in SL
08/19/1899   BLN    H     BLN        2 BK in BSUN; 5 in SL
08/20/1899   CL4    A     CHN    A   4 BK in CT; 3 in SL
08/24/1899   PIT    H     PIT        0 BK in PP & BG; 3 in SL
08/25/1899   NYl    A     CL4        3 BK in NYET
                                       (identifiable); 4 in SL
08/26/1899   CHN    H     CHN        5 BK in CT; 4 in SL
08/27/1899   BRO    A     CHN        2 BK in CT; 1 in SL
08/29/1899   WSN    A     SLN        4 BK in STLGD; 3 in SL
08/30/1899   CL4    H     CL4        4 BK in CPD; 1 in SL
09/01/1899   CL4    A     BRO    2   3 BK in NYET; 2 in SL
09/02/1899   CHN    H     CHN        3 BK in CT, 4 in SL
09/04/1899   BRO    A     NYl    2   10 BK in NYET; 9 in SL
09/05/1899   BRO    H     BRO        3 BK in NYET; 4 in SL;
                                     7 inn-darkness
09/08/1899   SLN    H     SLN        1 BK in STLGD; 0 in SL
09/09/1899   SLN    H     SLN        4 BK in STLGD; 5 in SL
09/13/1899   CIN    A     WSN    1   2 BK in WP; 3 in SL
09/13/1899   CIN    A     WSN    2   2 BK in WP; 1 in SL
09/14/1899   PIT    A     BRO    1   7 BK in NYET; 8 in BE & SL
09/14/1899   BRO    H     BRO    2   4 BK in NYET; 3 in SL
09/15/1899   BLN    H     BLN        3 BK in BSUN; 4 in SL
09/15/1899   BRO    H     BRO        3 BK in NYET; 5 in SL
09/16/1899   BSN    H     BSN        5 BK in BG; 4 SL
09/16/1899   CHN    A     BRO        3 BK in CT; 4 in SL
09/18/1899   PIT    A     BSN    2   3 BK in BG; 4 in SL
09/18/1899   CL4    A     WSN    1   2 BK in WP; 3 in SL
09/19/1899   PIT    A     BSN        4 BK in BG; 5 in SL
09/20/1899   LS3    A     WSN    1   5 BK in WP; 6 in SL
09/21/1899   BLN    H     BLN    2   3 BK in BSUN; 4 in SL
09/24/1899   CHN    A     CIN    2   2 BK in CT; 3 in SL
09/28/1899   WSN    A     BSN        no BK in BG; 4 in SL
09/30/1899   BSN    H     BSN        6 BK in BG; 7 in SL
09/30/1899   CHN    H     CHN        2 BK in CT; 1 in SL
10/03/1899   BLN    H     BLN        2 BK in BS; 4 in SL
10/03/1899   CHN    H     CHN        2 BK in CT; 5 in SL
10/04/1899   LS3    A     CHN        4 BK in CT; 5 in SL
10/05/1899   BSN    H     BSN        6 BK in BG; 7 in SL
10/08/1899   CIN    A     SLN    2   0 BK in STPD; 2 in SL
10/08/1899   CHN    H     CHN    A   6 BK in CT, 5 in SL
10/08/1899   CHN    H     CHN    B   4 BK in CT, 3 in SL
10/09/1899   CIN    A     SLN    2   6 BK in STPD; 2 in SL
10/10/1899   BLN    H     BLN        6 inn game; 1 BK in BS; 0 in SL
10/11/1899   BRO    A     NY1        0 BK in NYET; 1 in SL
10/11/1899   NYl    H     NY1        2 BK in NYET; 1 in SL
10/12/1899   NYl    A     WSN    1   1 BK in NYET; 2 in SL

A (in G column) = first game of 3-team doubleheader
BK= Individual batter strikeouts
NYET = New York Evening Telegram
BG = Boston Globe
STPD = St. Louis Post Dispatch
STLGD = St. Louis Globe-Democrat
CT, CTRIB = Chicago Tribune
BSUN, BS = Baltimore Sun
WP = Washington Post
CPD=Cleveland Plain Dealer
PI = Philadelphia Inquirer
PP = Pittsburg Press/Post
BE = Brooklyn Eagle
CCT = Cincinnati Commercial Tribune


Appendix D. Newspapers used (individual strikeout game coverage)

Baltimore = Baltimore Sun (home)

Brooklyn & New York = New York Evening Telegram (Most home, most away, play-by-play accounts)

Boston = Boston Globe (home)

Chicago = Chicago Tribune (home and away)

Cincinnati = Reds scorebook (through May 7); no individual batter strikeouts documented in Cincinnati newspapers.

Louisville = no individual batter strikeouts documented

Cleveland = Cleveland Plain Dealer (home)

Philadelphia = Philadelphia Inquirer (home), Sporting Life (some home)

Pittsburgh = Pittsburg Press and Pittsburg Post (home)

St. Louis = St. Louis Globe Democrat (home, most away)

Washington = Washington Post (home)

Acknowledgments

I wish to acknowledge the following people for their assistance and referrals in this project--the interlibrary loan staff at the Plymouth (MI) District Library, John Zajc, Paul Wendt, Greg Rhodes, Chris Eckes, Fred Schuld, Mike Grahek, Pete Palmer, Pete Mancuso, and Denis Repp.

Notes

Individual batters' totals are available from the author upon request.

JONATHAN FRANKEL is Senior Transportation Analyst and he and his family live outside of Detroit. He has been a member of SABR since 1979 with a break during the early 90's.
TABLE A. Strikeouts per Game per Team 1893-1903

1893     2.13
1894     2.09
1895     2.27
1896     2.23
1897     2.30
1898     2.31
1899     2.09
1900     2.37
1901     3.78 (NL), 2.49 (AL)
1902     3.47 (NL), 2.48 (AL)
1903     3.36 (NL), 3.79 (AL)

Source: Total Baseball, 7th Edition

TABLE B. Rule Changes Directly Impacting Strikeouts (1893-1903)

1894   The batter is charged with a strike for hitting
       a foul bunt.
1895   A strike is charged to a batter for a foul tip.

1901   The first two fouls are termed strikes
       (in the National League).

       The catcher is no longer allowed to catch
       two strikes on a bounce.

1903   The American League agrees that any foul ball
       not caught on the fly is a strike unless the batter
       has two strikes on him.

Source: Baseballlibrary.com

TABLE C. Most Projected Batter Strikeouts (Top 10,100 + games)

                           Total
Actual                    Actual      Total      Total
Player                     BK's         G          G

Ducky Holmes, Balt          51         123        138
Jimmy Sheckard, Balt        46         135        147
Danny Green, Chi            50         117        117
Jimmy Williams, Pitt        46         142        153
Monte Cross, Phil           45         138        154
Roy Thomas, Phil            42         134        150
Bill Carrick, NY            41          43         44
Dick Harley, Clev           34         121        142
Tom McCreery, Pitt          34         108        119
Candy LaChance, Balt        35         117        125

                           % of
Actual                    Actual                 Proj
Player                       G         BK/G       BK

Ducky Holmes, Balt         89.13%     41.46%      57
Jimmy Sheckard, Balt       91.84%     34.07%      50
Danny Green, Chi          100.00%     42.74%      50
Jimmy Williams, Pitt       92.81%     32.39%      50
Monte Cross, Phil          89.61%     32.61%      50
Roy Thomas, Phil           89.33%     31.34%      47
Bill Carrick, NY           95.56%     95.35%      43
Dick Harley, Clev          85.21%     28.10%      40
Tom McCreery, Pitt         92.31%     31.48%      37
Candy LaChance, Balt       93.60%     29.91%      37

G = Games, BK/G = Batter Strikeouts per Game

TABLE D. Least Projected Batter Strikeouts (Top 10,100 + games)

                           Total
                          Actual      Actual     Total
Player                     BK's         G          G

Willie Keeler, Brook         2         134        140
Lave Cross, Clev/St.L        3         134        141
Tommy Dowd, Clev             7         127        147
Bill Lange, Chi              8         106        107
Joe Quinn, Clev              7         123        147
Deacon McGuire,
  Wash/Brk                   9          94        105
Suter Sullivan, Clev         8         101        115
Chick Stahl, Bos            10         136        148
Harry Steinfeldt, Cin        7          72        108
Ossee Schreckengost,
  Cl./StL.                  11         112        116
Fred Clarke, Lou             8         104        149

                           % of
                          Actual                 Proj
Player                       G         BK/G       BK

Willie Keeler, Brook      95.71%      1.49%        2
Lave Cross, Clev/St.L     95.03%      2.24%        3
Tommy Dowd, Clev          86.39%      5.51%        8
Bill Lange, Chi           99.07%      7.55%        8
Joe Quinn, Clev           83.11%      5.69%        8
Deacon McGuire,
  Wash/Brk                92.16%      9.57%       10
Suter Sullivan, Clev      80.80%      7.92%       10
Chick Stahl, Bos          91.89%      7.35%       11
Harry Steinfeldt, Cin     66.06%      9.72%       11
Ossee Schreckengost,
  Cl./StL.                96.55%      9.82%       11
Fred Clarke, Lou          69.80%      7.69%       11

G = Games, BK/G = Batter Strikeouts per Game

TABLE E. Highest % of Strikeouts per flame
(20+ documented games)

                        Total
                        Actual   Actual
Player                   BK's      G       BK/G

Charlie Knepper, Clev     23       23     100.00%
Bill Carrick, NY          41       43     95.35%
Crazy Schmit, Clev        19       21     90.48%
Harry Howell, Balt        20       26     76.92%
Frank Bates, StL/Clev     16       21     76.19%
Tully Sparks, Pitt        19       26     73.08%
Frank Scheibeck, Wash     17       26     65.38%
Gus Weyhing, Wash         25       39     64.10%
Ned Garvin, Chi           15       24     62.50%
Red Donahue, Phil         18       30     60.00%

G = Games, BK/G = Batter Strikeouts per Game

TABLE F. Most Times with Two or More Strikeouts

Player                  G

Bill Carrick, NY        10
Danny Green, Chi        10
Ducky Holmes, Balt       9
Jack Powell, StL         8
Jimmy Williams, Pitt     8
Michael Donlin, StL      7
Jimmy Sheckard, Balt     7
Charlie Knepper, Clev    7
Monte Cross. Phil        6
Bid McPhee, Cin          6
Harry Howell, Bait       6
Gus Weyhing, Wash        6

G = Games

TABLE G. Most Strikeouts in Game, 1899

Player                      Date      G #   Strikeouts

Jimmy Williams, Pitt     1899-09-14    1             4
Red Donahue, Phil        1899-05-01                  3
Danny Green, Chi         1899-05-08                  3
Frank Kitson, Balt       1899-05-13                  3
Danny Green, Chi         1899-05-15                  3
Gus Weyhing, Wash        1899-06-07                  3
Pete McBride, St.L       1899-08-02    1             3
Wilbert Robinson, Balt   1899-08-09                  3
Doc McJames, Brook       1899-08-15                  3
Crazy Schmit, Clev       1899-08-20    1             3
Hughie Jennings, Brook   1899-09-04    2             3
Jimmy Slagle, Wash       1899-09-04    1             3
Bert Cunningham, Lou     1899-09-09    2             3
Sam Crawford, Cin        1899-09-12    1             3
Roy Evans, Wash          1899-09-12    1             3
Harry Howell, Balt       1899-09-12                  3
Pop Foster, NY           1899-09-13                  3
Pop Dillon, Pitt         1899-09-15                  3
Rube Waddell, Lou        1899-09-15                  3
Jimmy Sheckard, Balt     1899-09-16                  3
Noodles Hahn, Cin        1899-09-21                  3
Sam Mertes, Chi          1899-09-26    1             3
Jack O'Brien, Wash       1899-09-27                  3
Nixey Callahan, Chi      1899-10-02                  3
Roy Evans, Wash          1899-10-03    1             3

G # = Game number

* This would be Brewery Jack Taylor's last game in the majors,
as an injury sidelined him the rest of the season and he died
during the off-season.
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Author:Frankel, Jonathan
Publication:The Baseball Research Journal
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Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2007
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