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1885: Business and industry; science; education; philosophy and religion.

One of the most dreaded diseases of the time was tuberculosis, for which there was no specific remedy. Edward Livingston Trudeau, a New York physician, contracted the disease while taking care of his tubercular brother and went to live in the Adirondack Mts. in New York State. There, spending much time in the open air, he regained his health. He believed the cold dry air of the mountains and his way of life, which included much rest, were the cause of his cure. As a result, he opened the Adirondack Cottage Sanatorium in 1885 at Saranac Lake, N.Y. This first institution of its kind in the U.S. was initially a one-room cottage with simple furnishings and facilities. The sanatorium functioned until 1954, when it closed for lack of patients, modern methods of diagnosis and treatment having by then reduced deaths from tuberculosis in the U.S. by 95%.

The American Economic Association (AEA) was founded at Saratoga Springs, N.Y. It was formed principally by young German-trained economists in revolt against determinist economics. The members of the AEA, 186 at the start, were philosophical moderates. They were impressed by the scientific climate of the latter part of the century and declared that laissez-faire principles of the previous generation were "unsafe in politics and unsound in morals." They argued that the state must contribute "positive aid" as "an indispensable condition of human progress," but their program was a middle course between laissez-faire and the German political philosophy and tolerated a wide spectrum of political opinion. Among its early members were Henry C. Adams, John B. Clark, Richard R. Fly, Woodrow Wilson, Carrol Wright, and Andrew Carnegie.

Furnaces for garbage disposal began to be introduced in many cities, particularly in the landlocked Middle West, as a health measure. It had been discovered that swine fed with garbage from the cities contracted trichinosis, which could be transmitted to consumers of the infected meat.

The life and writings of Josiah Strong, Protestant minister and reformer, marked the beginning of the so-called social gospel in the U.S. His Our Country, published this year for the Congregational Home Missionary Society, aroused the social and spiritual idealism latent within Protestantism. The book exposed the dangers of accumulated wealth and the concentration of capitalism, and challenged the church to concern itself with social problems. This book and The New Era (1893) made Strong a national figure in religious and intellectual circles. His work was translated into several European languages, Chinese, and Japanese.

Stanford University was founded at Palo Alto, Calif., by Leland and Jane Stanford. Officially named Leland Stanford Junior University after their only child, Stanford today operates branch campuses in England, France, Germany, Austria, and Italy.

The University of Arizona was established at Tucson by the Arizona territorial legislature. It opened in 1891. Also established in 1885 was Arizona Territorial Normal School, since 1958 named Arizona State University.

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Author:Carruth, Gorton
Publication:Encyclopedia of American Facts & Dates, 9th ed.
Article Type:Reference Source
Date:Jan 1, 1993
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