10:15 AM - Noon Podium Session 4 Ecology and Environmental Science Mylander Room--BTSU 207.
Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (cHABS) have been resurgent in Lake Erie during the past two decades; however, less is known about the occurrence and toxicity of cHABS in the Maumee River. Although, previous studies in the last decade have found abundant cyanobacteria in the river, none had found appreciable amounts of toxin-producing strains or toxins in the river. This changed in 2016 when a very toxic bloom of Planktothrix was discovered reaching from Defiance, Ohio, to Napoleon, Ohio. In 2017, approximate monthly samples were taken from late May to early September at 4 sites between Defiance, Ohio, and Waterville, Ohio, to further investigate the composition of Maumee River phytoplankton. Fluoroprobe was used to determine algal biomass at a coarse taxonomic resolution and used ELISA to test total microcystins of river water samples. It was found that diatoms dominated phytoplankton biomass at all times (typically 50% or more of total phytoplankton biomass) followed by green algae (20 to 30%), cyanobacteria (10 to 20%), and cryptophytes (<10%). None of these samples exceeded the State of Ohio Recreational Public Health Advisory level (6 [micro]g/L total microcystin). However, additional samples taken during the large late-September cHAB bloom in the Maumee River near downtown Toledo were toxic, with 9 out of 13 sites sampled exceeding the Recreational Public Health Advisory level and 6 of 13 sites sampled exceeding the Elevated Recreational Public Health Advisory (20 [micro]g/L total microcystin). It is planned to conduct more extensive temporal and spatial sampling in 2018, along with adding analyses for additional toxins.
10:30 - THE CONUNDRUM OF DAMS TO FRESHWATER MUSSELS IN SMALL RIVERS. Robert A. Krebs, email@example.com, Rachel E. Andrikanich, firstname.lastname@example.org, Cleveland State University, Dept. of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, 2121 Euclid Ave., Cleveland OH 44115.
The 90,580 registered dams in the United States are an average of 56 years old and provide drinking water, irrigation, hydropower, flood control, and recreation to our communities and economy. Each dam also creates areas of impoundment upstream that together compose about 17% of stream reaches, but downstream effects are less well known. The effect of dams on stream flow and freshwater mussel (Unionidae) assemblages was assessed in two river systems, the Cuyahoga River that famously led to the Clean Water Act, and the nearby Mahoning River, currently considered one of the most degraded systems in the nation. Timed searches throughout the length of both rivers were made to characterize differences in mussel richness above versus below dams. Dams and their impoundments isolated populations upstream, but also homogenized flow rates and reduced variation in habitat types downstream for long stretches of each river. Where headwater dams built as reservoirs for flood control limited habitat variation, species richness declined to 5 or less. Adult mussels appeared to persist over time, but little evidence of recruitment was found, especially for lotic species, and two species generalists, Lampsilis siliquoidea and Pyganodon grandis, have become dominant even where water quality improved. Moderate assemblage diversity, defined as a richness of about 10 species, was found only downstream where riffle-run habitat occurred. Throughout the nation, single stream studies continue to document enigmatic mussel loss, where removal of point source problems fail to lead to improvements in the fauna. Flow rate variation may be an important factor.
10:45-THERE'S NOTHING STANDARD ABOUT DATA STANDARDIZATION--ASKING THE RIGHT QUESTIONS WHEN ANALYZING ECOSYSTEM CHANGE. G. Matt Davies, email@example.com. The Ohio State University, School of Environment and Natural Resources, Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus OH 43210.
Analyzing changes in ecological communities relies on the use of complex multivariate statistical methods such as PERMANOVA or Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS). It is not unusual for ecologists to pre-treat their data prior to such analyses. This might include removing rare species that add "noise" or standardizing their data. Some statistical packages or functions may include standardization as a default setting. The uncritical selection of data standardization approaches is concerning, not because any particular method is necessarily incorrect, but rather because different methods ask different ecological questions. Standardization methods were compared using data from 15 experimental fires burnt on Scottish heathlands of different pre-fire ages. In these ecosystems differences in stand age are associated with variation in species-specific regeneration rates but little change in the suite of species present. The data were subjected to increasing levels of standardization: i) raw data, ii) standardization by species maximum cover, iii) standardization by species maximum then by plot total cover--so called "Wisconsin" double standardization, iv) conversion of cover data to presence/absence. Analysis via NMDS and PERMANOVA provided conflicting messages on the ecological and statistical significance of stand age. Analysis of raw data yielded significant differences in composition between stand ages, but effect sizes declined with increasing standardization. The results demonstrate the need for ecologists to define standardization when setting research objectives and to tie their analytical methods to specific ecological questions.
11:00 - USE OF PLANT FUNCTIONAL TYPES TO IMPROVE RESTORATION SUCCESS OF A PRAIRIE ON RECLAIMED MINE LAND IN SOUTHEASTERN OHIO. Rachael E. Glover (1), firstname.lastname@example.org, G. Matt Davies (1), email@example.com, Rebecca M. Swab (2), firstname.lastname@example.org, (1) The Ohio State University, School of Environment and Natural Resources, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus OH 43210, (2) The Wilds, Cumberland OH.
Strip mining for coal has left a legacy of environmental issues, including poor soil quality and loss of ecosystem function. The Wilds is conservation facility in southeastern Ohio that sits on 10,000 acres of reclaimed strip mine land. Prairie offers one option for restoration of highly degraded ecosystems where re-establishing pre-mining forest habitat is impractical. The goal of this research is to evaluate the species and functional composition of a prairie that has been left unmanaged for 8 years following its implementation in 2008. Originally, the 20-acre site was created to evaluate biomass production following differing land preparation treatments, fertilizer and deep ripping, and addition of 6 different seed mixes. After surveying community composition in 2016, each species was characterized according to key functional traits: including growth form, phenology and nitrogen fixation. Cluster analysis classified plots into 6 different community types and broadly identified 61 plots where the treatments resulted in well-established populations of prairie grasses and 180 plots where there was low abundance of prairie species. All plots lacked native forbs. Further analyses suggested that the functional makeup of the community is associated with the original seed mix (p<0.05), whether plots were fertilized (p<0.05), and location across the site (block; p<0.05). Lack of follow-up management and poor establishment of seeded species likely led to the current, depauperate community. Understanding the functional makeup of an ecosystem can be an important tool for selection of successful management, such as an effective seed mix, to restore diversity and ecosystem function.
11:15 - DATA ANALYTICS APPLICATION FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF OHIO'S INTERSTATE POLLUTION TRANSPORT. Muhammad M. Mereb, email@example.com, Columbus State Community College, Physical and Biological Sciences Department, Room NH 432, 550 E. Spring St., Columbus OH 43215.
The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) operates 153 air monitoring sites in the state of Ohio. The monitoring stations sample ambient air for 6 US EPA criteria pollutants: particulate matter ([PM.sub.10]), S[O.sub.2], CO, [O.sub.3], N[O.sub.2] and Pb. Ohio EPA also monitors fine particulates ([PM.sub.2,5]) and various meteorological parameters. Samples are collected on an hourly basis for all of the criteria pollutants except particulate matter and lead, which are monitored on a 24-hour basis. Other states are required to have their own monitoring sites for criteria pollutants. Big data sets have been collected by these monitoring sites nationwide. Data analytics is an emerging field that applies fundamental scientific principles to analyze large, complex data sets. The Clean Air Act (CAA) section 110(a)(2)(D)(i)(I) "Good Neighbor provision" requires each state, in its state implementation plan (SIP), to address how interstate transport of air pollution affects downwind states' ability to attain and maintain the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). In this study, analysis of the air quality data and national emissions inventory data, that were provided by US EPA, has been used to evaluate Ohio's contribution to nonattainment or interference of maintenance of the 2012 annual [PM.sub.2.5], NAAQS in other states. A special focus is placed on Allegheny County in Pennsylvania as a nonattainment area.
11:30 - USING MATCH STICK ARRAYS TO ANALYZE FOREST FIRE PROPAGATION ALONG A SLOPE. Abigail E. Ambrose (1), firstname.lastname@example.org, Niklas Manz, email@example.com. The College of Wooster, (1) C-1038 1189 Beall Avenue, Wooster OH 44691.
The effect of a forest floor slope [theta] on the propagation speed v of forest fires was experimentally analyzed using physical, 3D-printed models with match stick arrays (7 matches x 9 matches) to represent the trees. Various models (5[degrees] to 45[degrees], 5[degrees] increments) for 3 specific distance conditions between neighboring match heads were created. In each model type the distance between the match heads [DELTA]d was kept constant along the horizontal (x-model with [DELTA]d = 10.0 mm), along the vertical (z-model with [DELTA]d=1.0 mm), and along the slope (r-model with [DELTA]d=2.8 mm). For all three models, the slope-speed relationship v([theta]) along the incline for both, the upward and downward propagation of the fire fronts was determined by measuring the time the front needed to propagate through the length of the model. Each model was best fit with a different mathematical function: the x-model with an exponential curve, v= 13.0-[1.4.sup.0.05[theta]], the z-model with a quadratic curve, v=9 + 0.01[theta]+0.003[[theta].sup.2], and the r-model with a straight line, v=5.4 + 0.032[theta].
11:45-USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF WATER LEVEL FLUCTUATIONS ON NUTRIENT CONCENTRATION AT OLD WOMAN CREEK ESTUARY. Patrick A. Reil (1), firstname.lastname@example.org, Anita Simic Milas (1), email@example.com, Kristen Arend (2), firstname.lastname@example.org, Tharindu Abeysinghe (1), email@example.com, Katerina Konstantinidis (1), firstname.lastname@example.org, Ross Combs (1), email@example.com, (1) Bowling Green State University, Dept. of Geology, Bowling Green OH 43402, (2) Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Wildlife, Huron OH.
The fluctuating barrier beach at the mouth of Old Woman Creek (OWC) estuary impacts the water level within the estuary, and it is a driving mechanism behind the algal and nutrient distribution. The barrier beach separates Lake Erie from OWC. During storm events, the barrier beach recedes allowing the water bodies to intermix. Our primary goal is to evaluate the impact of storm events and surface water levels on nutrient composition and to develop a statistical research framework based on hyperspectral remote sensing data and algorithms, developed in this study, that will be applicable to other tributaries of Lake Erie. Surface reflectance measurements and water samples were collected at 26 sites within OWC. Water samples were collected at 2 different depths, and processed for total phosphorus. Concurrent with data collection, the NASA Glenn Research Center provided overhead flights with the hyperspectral HSI3 sensor. Results from the Mann-Whitney test indicate that there are differences in water quality properties when the mouth of the barrier beach is open vs. closed. Examination of slope components from iterative linear models indicate that wavelengths in the red, green and infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum will be suitable for this study. Using a simple band ratio derived from hyperspectral wavelengths we have success in predicting levels of total phosphorus with adjusted [r.sup.2] values of 0.68. These results support our hypothesis that the barrier beach impacts nutrient concentrations, and that time series remote sensing measurement is an effective tool to quantify water quality properties.
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|Publication:||The Ohio Journal of Science|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2018|
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