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10:15 AM - 12:15 PM Podium Session 5 STEM Education, Genetics, Taboo Words, and Whiskey Family Room--BTSU 208.

10:15 - INCREASING MINORITY STEM PARTICIPATION THROUGH THE CREATION OF A SCIENCE FAIR PROGRAM FOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS. Rickey C. Terrell (1), terrelrc@mail.uc.edu, (Greg Hollon, hollone@ucmail.uc.edu), University of Cincinnati, (1) 3553 Carmelle Woods Dr., Mason OH 45040.

Minorities comprise only a small fraction of the national STEM workforce. To ensure the growth of minority representation in STEM, it is imperative to expose these populations to these career opportunities early in their educational career. A program that offers a pathway to achieve this goal is a science fair. Hughes High School, located in Cincinnati, Ohio, was chosen as the location to develop a science fair program for the 2016-2017 academic year. During the inaugural year of the program, the following data were measured: student participation, student retention, and financial support. Analysis of this data led to various improvements that are currently being applied to the program during the 2017-2018 school year. A majority of the students in the program are in their final year and it is expected that participation will increase the number of students pursuing a STEM major in college. To evaluate the level of success of the program's first year, an exit survey will be given to the students to inquire about their college plans, their level of interest in STEM fields, and any new information they learned throughout the duration of the program. Results of this study will help in planning the future of this program and increase the overall interest and participation of minority students in STEM fields.

10:30 - HOST MICROBIOME REGULATION OF HYPERTHERMIA MEDIATED BY 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXY-METHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA, MOLLY). Emily A. Ridge, eridge@bgsu.edu, Jon E. Sprague, jesprag@bgsu.edu, Bowling Green State University, 325 Life Science Building, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Hyperthermia is one of the most acute and life-threatening consequences of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use. The hyperthermia induced by MDMA involves a complex interaction between heat generation and loss of heat dissipation. Recent studies have demonstrated a role for gut microbiome in the regulation of body weight and temperature. Here, we investigated the potential role of the gut microbiome in MDMA-mediated hyperthermia. For 14 days prior to treatment with MDMA (20 mg/kg, sc) male, Sprague-Dawley rats were provided regular drinking water or drinking water laced with the non-absorbable antibiotics, bacitracin (0.5 mg/mL), neomycin (2 mg/mL), and vancomycin (0.2 mg/mL). Antibiotic (ABX) treatment reduced gut bacteria and increased cecal size. MDMA-induced a hyperthermic response that resulted in a maximal temperature change ([DELTA][T.sub.max]) of 4.6 [+ or -]0.1 [degrees]C and only a 50% survival rate 60 minutes after treatment. Conversely, ABX treatment prior to MDMA attenuated the hyperthermic response with a [DELTA][T.sub.max] of 3.4 [+ or -] 0.6 [degrees]C and a 100% survival rate 60 minutes after treatment. An acute intraperitoneal injection of ABX 30 minutes before MDMA had no effect on the hyperthermic response, eliminating the possibility of a pharmacodynamics interaction between ABX and MDMA. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the gut microbiome contributes to the hyperthermia mediated by MDMA.

10:45 - EFFECT OF NANO-DYSFERLIN ON MEMBRANE REPAIR IN A/J MOUSE MUSCLE. Bhageerathi Ganesan, bhageerathi.ganesan@osumc.edu, Sayak Bhattacharya, sayak.bhattacharya@osumc.edu, Eric X. Beck, eric.beck@osumc.edu, Roger B. Sutton, Roger.B.Sutton@ttuhsc.edu, Matthew Hirsch, mhirsch@email.unc.edu, Noah Weisleder, noah.weisleder@osumc.edu. The Ohio State University, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, 473 W. 12th Ave., Columbus OH 43210.

Dysferlin is a skeletal muscle enriched gene whose protein product is well-known to play a critical role in the regulation of plasma membrane repair. Mutations in the dysferlin gene can lead to the pathologies associated with several different types of myopathies, particularly limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Miyoshi Myopathies. Previous studies have also indicated that, in adult skeletal muscle cells, the dysferlin protein concentrates at transverse tubules to mediate membrane repair. As there is currently no treatment for dysferlin deficiency, there is interest in using gene therapy to replace mutant dysferlin genes; this is complicated, however, by the large size of the dysferlin gene. Here it was tested the efficacy of nano-dysferlins (engineered shortened dysferlin cDNAs) in replacing full-length dysferlin and rescuing plasma membrane repair by electroporating 3 dysferlin variants into the muscles of A/J mice that do not normally express dysferlin. Membrane repair capacity was assessed by dye influx analysis following laser injury induction. Additionally, co-immunoprecipitation following overexpression in HEK cell lines was used to evaluate the extent of the interaction of different mutated forms of dysferlin variants with another membrane repair protein MG53/TRIM72. We report that 2 dysferlin constructs can rescue membrane repair to levels comparable to that seen in wildtype cells. Additionally, we report that dysferlin variants formed from deletion constructs mimicking loss-of-function point mutations demonstrated markedly less association with MG53/TRIM72, suggesting that the interaction of dysferlin with MG53/TRIM72 is critical to maintaining membrane repair capacity.

11:00 - MACROPHAGE-INDUCED CHEMOKINE PRODUCTION FOLLOWING TREATMENT WITH HEAT-KILLED STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS IS NOT ALTERED BY TLR3 ACTIVATION. Sarah K. Grossman, sgrossman15@students.ndc.edu, Angela C. Johnson, acjohnson@ndc.edu, Notre Dame College, 4545 College Road, South Euclid OH 44121.

Staphylococcus aureus is commonly found on the surface of the body; however, it is of significant medical concern with the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Macrophage-derived Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are necessary for the recognition and response to pathogens such as S. aureus; therefore, to understand the innate immune response against S. aureus, heat-killed S. aureus was utilized to treat macrophages. Furthermore, as previous data indicates crosstalk amongst the TLR signaling pathways, the study evaluated the role that TLR3-TRIF signaling may play during the innate immune response to S. aureus. Briefly, the macrophage cell line J774 was treated with the following ligands: the synthetic lipopeptide Pam2Cys-Ser or P2C (TLR2 ligand), the synthetic lipopeptide Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 or P3C (TLR2 ligand), the synthetic dsRNA polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or Poly(I:C) (TLR3), heat-killed S. aureus HKSA (primarily TLR2). After 24 hours of treatment, supernatants were collected and subjected to ELISA to test for the presence of CXCL2/MIP-2, CXCL1/KC, and CCL5/RANTES. Preliminary experiments indicate that crosstalk between TLR2 and TLR3 is not occurring, as there was essentially no difference between macrophages treated with S. aureus only and macrophages treated with S. aureus and Poly(LC) in combination. Therefore, it is thought that HKSA-induced inflammatory responses in the macrophage are unaffected by TLR3-induced signaling.

11:15 - EXAMINING RESPONSES TO TABOO WORDS AND WORDS VARYING IN VALENCE AND AROUSAL. Samantha E. Tuft (1), s.tuft@vikes.csuohio.edu, Rachel B. Fernandes (1), r.fernandes@vikes.csuohio.edu, Sara Incera (2), sara.incera@eku.edu, Conor T. M (c)Lennan (1), c.mclennan@csuohio.edu, (1) Cleveland State University, Language Research Laboratory, Department of Psychology, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland OH 44115, (2) Eastern Kentucky University, Multilingual Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Richmond KY.

Attentional biases to emotional words have frequently been investigated using an emotional Stroop task. Researchers are interested in examining when the affective dimension of the word, although irrelevant to the task, interferes with the color-naming task (e.g., longer reaction times to emotional words relative to neutral words). This interference is referred to as an emotional Stroop effect. Previous research has primarily focused on negative and/or taboo words, not positive words or arousal. Furthermore, previous investigations have resulted in mixed findings due to presentation (e.g., blocked vs. mixed), or a lack of sensitivity in traditional measures (e.g., reaction time & accuracy). In the present study, we used computer mouse tracking to investigate whether taboo Stroop effects (Experiment 1) were similar to emotional Stroop effects (Experiment 2). In Experiments 1 and 2, we used a mixed presentation and participants were instructed to respond to the font color of each word by clicking on response options on the screen. In Experiment 2, we examined the effects across all levels of valence (negative, neutral, positive) and arousal (low, medium, high). In Experiment 1, we found that taboo words were responded to less efficiently than neutral words. In Experiment 2, we found that negative words were responded to less efficiently than neutral words, but only for low arousal words. Interestingly, for high arousing words, there was a trend that positive words were responded to less efficiently than neutral words. The results of the current study have important theoretical implications for theories of emotional language processing.

11:30-DETERMINATION OF THE ROLETHAT CBX AND CG72744 PLAY DURING DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER CRYSTAL CELL DEVELOPMENT. Hannah M. Schwab (1,2), hschwab@students.ndc.edu, Joseph Rose (1), jrose16@students.ndc.edu, M. Logan Johnson (1), mjohnson@ndc.edu, and Angela C. Johnson (1), acjohnson@ndc.edu, (1) Notre Dame College, South Euclid OH, (2) 4545 College Road, South Euclid OH 44121.

Hematopoiesis or differentiation of the repertoire of immune cells is an essential and well conserved process between mammalian and Drosophila lineages. While Drosophila hematopoiesis results in the development of 3 unique cell types, crystal cells that specifically express PPO1, the protein responsible for melanization, have demonstrated a protective effect against infection. Interestingly, previous studies have assigned cbx and/or CG12744 as significant factors in crystal cell development. However, recent changes in the annotation of the genomic region of 46B4 and 46C1, which contain cbx, CG12744, and 2 other protein coding genes, have created uncertainty in regards to the function of each gene. This study utilized complementation assays to assign the proper gene identity of several alleles within this genomic region and demonstrated that a null of CG12744 is both viable and fertile. In order to assess the immune response of mutants of cbx and CG12744, an infection model was developed, in which D. melanogaster hind legs were pricked with a Staphylococcus aureus inoculated needles. Future research will combine the use of the identified alleles within the genomic region with the [PPO1.sup.bc] (black cell) allele to assess the development of the crystal cells and determine their role during S. aureus infection. Taken together, it is anticipated that these studies will further elucidate the process of hematopoiesis in D. melanogaster and potentially in mammalian systems.

11:45 - UNPRECEDENTED WHISKEY FLAVORS PART 1: GC-MS ANALYSIS OF UNPRECEDENTED WHISKEY FLAVORS CREATED BY A NOVEL AGING PROCESS. Clayton Mastorovich, mastorovichc@gmail.com, Regan Silvestri, rsilvestri@lorainccc.edu, Lorain County Community College, Dept. of Chemistry, 1005 N. Abbe Rd., Elyria OH 44035.

Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) can be readily utilized to generate an analytical profile of flavor compounds in whiskey such as esters. This method has been successfully applied to bourbon whiskeys produced by a novel accelerated aging process which employs pressure, as opposed to conventional time, to mature the spirit. Using this innovative technology of accelerated pressure aging, spirits have been matured not only with traditional oak but also with alternative woods. As such, new experimental and completely original flavors of whiskey including black cherry, apple, hickory, sugar maple and honey locust have been created where the spirits are naturally flavored with these woods. The distinct flavor compounds in each of these unprecedented wood flavored bourbons were identified and profiled using routine straight injection GC-MS. Black cherry bourbon contains more ethyl octanoate, a compound known to impart a sweet fruity flavor, than traditional oak flavored bourbon. Further, cherry bourbon contains less phenethyl alcohol, a compound known to impart a floral and bready flavor, than traditional oak bourbon. Bourbons flavored with apple, hickory, sugar maple and honey locust woods showed analogous results for various flavor compounds. Ultimately, analytical profiles of the flavors of these unprecedented whiskeys were generated, which aids in product development.

12:00 - UNPRECEDENTED WHISKEY FLAVORS PART 2: GC-MS ANALYSIS OF CHINESE BAIJIU SPIRIT FLAVORED AS AMERICAN WHISKEY. Daniel McKeighen, d.mckeighen1@gmail.com, Regan Silvestri, rsilvestri@lorainccc.edu, Lorain County Community College, Dept. of Chemistry, 1005 N. Abbe Rd., Elyria OH 44035.

Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) is routinely used to profile the flavor compounds in alcoholic beverages such as esters. This method has been applied to unique experimental samples of Chinese Baijiu liquor, flavored to taste more similar to American bourbon whiskey. Chinese Baijiu is a clear spirit, usually considered by the Western palate as strong-in-exotic-Eastern-flavors. In an effort to modify this liquor into something more familiar to the Western palate, experimental samples of Chinese Baijiu liquors, flavored to taste similar to American bourbon, were produced by aging the liquors with wood. This has been accomplished by subjecting Chinese Baijiu spirit to a novel accelerated aging process which employs pressure, as opposed to conventional time, to mature the spirit quickly and impart wooden barrel flavors. By processing the Baijiu using accelerated pressure aging, the clear spirit becomes colored and wood flavored within a few days. The distinct flavor compounds in these experimental liquors have been identified and profiled using routine straight injection GC-MS. The flavor of Chinese Baijiu aged with American oak is dominated by a series of unbranched ethyl ester compounds. Foremost, oak aged Baijiu flavor is characterized by an increase in ethyl hexanoate, which imparts a sweet and fruity nuance to the liquor. Ultimately, analytical profiles of the flavors of these unprecedented spirits were generated, which aids in product development.
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Title Annotation:science, technology, engineering and mathematics
Publication:The Ohio Journal of Science
Article Type:Abstract
Date:Apr 1, 2018
Words:2215
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