10:15 - 11:45 AM Podium Session 2 Wildlife Biology, Plant Extracts, and Algae Sky Bank Room--BTSU 201.
Oak savanna and its associated species in the midwest United States are being depleted and degraded. Oak savanna, a globally rare ecosystem, is dwindling because of hardwood encroachment, agricultural conversion and fire suppression. Disturbance is critical in an oak savanna ecosystem to maintain proper habitat structures for native species. Land management practices like herbicide applications, mechanical vegetation removal, and prescribed fire are all utilized to restore and maintain these early successional habitats in northwest Ohio by subduing tree encroachment. It is critical to understand the relationship between management intensity and wildlife diversity and abundance in such a highly managed and diverse ecosystem. To examine these relationships, 15 sites were established in two parks in Lucas County, in northwest Ohio. Point counts were conducted to detect and count avian and mammalian species day and night, May to October. Camera traps were used to assess wildlife within sites. Management data, provided by land managers, was aggregated per site via GIS and compared to diversity and abundance measures. Analysis included using a pair-wise correlation test, found that increasing management instances per site yielded a significantly higher avian abundance per site (p = 0.0417). We also found, using non-parametric Spearman's test, that sites with more instances of prescribed fires had a greater abundance of snags (p = 0.025). These snags provide a resource for many wildlife species including woodpeckers, which were significantly and positively related to snag density (non-parametric Spearman's test, p = 0.0475). Adaptive and properly mimicked management practices are critical to sustaining the structure of these globally rare oak savanna ecosystems.
10:30 - A POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS OF GREEN ASH TREES WITH EMERALD ASH BORER IMPACTS. Rachel H. Kappler (1), firstname.lastname@example.org. Bowling Green State University, Kathleen S. Knight, email@example.com, USDA Forest Service, Rachel L. Bienemann, firstname.lastname@example.org, Karen V. Root, email@example.com, (1) 13240 Silver St., Weston OH 43569.
The introduction of the invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) to North America has caused significant ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and cascading forest dynamic changes. Northwest Ohio has had almost complete adult ash mortality in natural areas, leaving a remnant cohort of younger ash seedlings/saplings. Ash trees are an important part of the floodplain forest, serving as soil stabilizers, and to sustain these populations we need information on their probability of persistence. Utilizing a population viability analysis, stochastic stage-based population models were developed for a natural green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) population at Oak Openings Preserve, Swanton, Ohio. The population abundance and probability of decline over 50 years was examined using the current conditions (2008 to 2017) versus the addition of future EAB catastrophes and evaluating the effect of fecundity (low = 260 or high = 2665) on both. The baseline risk of extinction was 6.6% with high fecundity, which increased to 26% with lower fecundity. Changes in extinction risk were greater with additional EAB catastrophes than with lower fecundity, but lower fecundity exacerbated the risk of population decline. Scenarios where future EAB catastrophes occur increased the probability of extinction by 46% for the high fecundity model and by 73% for the low fecundity model. These results highlight that ash populations need protection from EAB to improve the future outcome. This approach can be valuable in developing effective conservation strategies for the recovery of native species in the face of invasive species.
10:45 - SCRATCHING THE SURFACE OF UNDERSTANDING HOW CERTAIN PLANT EXTRACTS CAN PREVENT POISON IVY INDUCED CONTACT DERMATITIS RASH. Kristina Myers, firstname.lastname@example.org, (Stephen Deyrup, Siena, David Kinder, Raabe College of Pharmacy, Ohio Northern University, Linda Young and Vicki Motz, ONU, Department of Biology and Allied Health Sciences), Ohio Northern University, Department of Biology, 402 W. College Ave. Unit 1532, Ada OH 45810, Alyson Milks, email@example.com, Karolyn Bedore, firstname.lastname@example.org, Siena College, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Loudonville NY.
Jewelweed, Impatiens capensis, reduces rash development following poison ivy (PI) exposure, Toxicodendron radicans. Soaps also minimizes poison ivy rash; in particular, Saponins are natural soaps. Saponins in I. capensis were identified as active components in preventing PI dermatitis. The Sienna group isolated 1,2,4-trihydroxynaphthalene- 1-O-glucoside (TUNG), a presumptive precursor of the active component from I. capensis. ONU researchers activated THNG with [beta]-glucosidase, yielding 1,2,4-trihydroxynaphthalene (THN). In this IRB-approved study, PI was brushed onto forearms of 25 volunteers in 6 locations. PI exposed areas were treated with: distilled water, 10% Dawn[R] dish soap, THN from jewelweed at 1x and 2x the natural concentration, and saponin-containing, MeOH extract from leaves of Verbascum thapsus, and common mullein which has reported anti-inflammatory activity. Rash development was tracked for 14 days and scored on a scale of 0 to 14. After 1 week, 5 people (20%) had no dermatitis and 4 people had severe rash in all areas. Week 1 mean scores of remaining participants indicated no difference between water wash (5.1[+ or -]3.9) and 10% dawn (5.9[+ or -]3.6) ([t.sub.11]=-0.86; p = 0.20). Neither mullein nor jewelweed extracts exhibited dose dependent responses. Mullein (5.9[+ or -]3.8) was not significantly different from water or soap [([t.sub.11]=-1.60; p = 0.068); [t.sub.11] = -0.05; p = 0.48, respectively]; which is expected as the saponins act as natural soaps. Thus, mullein saponins are not potential candidates for treating PI rash at natural concentrations. However, worsening of the rash with (6.6[+ or -]4.4) THN was observed [jewelweed vs water ([t.sub.11]= -1.86; p = 0.044)] and developed earlier than PI alone indicating either a sensitivity to the THN itself or synergistic exacerbation of the rash. Sensitivity to jewelweed has been previously noted.
11:00 - MULLEIN OVER ETHNOBOTANICAL USE OF VERBASCUM THAPSUS. Cole Pelger, email@example.com, Ohio Northern University, 402 W. College Ave., Unit 2798, Ada OH 45810, Sara Landis, firstname.lastname@example.org, Dustin Rieman, email@example.com, Rand Abdullatef, firstname.lastname@example.org, Alyson Milks, email@example.com, (David Kinder, firstname.lastname@example.org, Linda Young, email@example.com, Kelly Hall, firstname.lastname@example.org, Chris Bowers, email@example.com and Vicki Motz, firstname.lastname@example.org).
Common mullein, Verbascum thapsus, has been used for thousands of years as an antibiotic and anti-inflammatory. Anecdotal evidence supports these uses, but few scientific studies provide validation. Previous work in this lab demonstrated antibiosis against bacteria, with greatest efficacy against respiratory pathogens. This inhibition of cell division does not extend to HT29 cancer cells. The current research focus is threefold: ascertain the antibiotic and anti-inflammatory active component(s); determine the contribution of factors affecting plant growth on efficacy; and compare the two main methods of ethnobotanic use of mullein leaves (tea infusions and smoking). Leaf samples were collected across the US, June to August 2017, in different developmental stages. Extracts prepared in 50 mM pH 4 phosphate buffer were fractionated and the active constituents evaluated by NMR. Antibiotic efficacy was ascertained by Kirby-Bauer analysis against S. pneumoniae, and anti-inflammatory action was assessed against HT29 colon cancer cells irritated with carageenan. Mullein "cigarette" smoke was collected via vacuum filtration, then assessed for antibiotic efficacy. To date, all smoke samples exhibited antibiosis against S. pneumoniae (zones of inhibition--10 mm dots: 29.7[+ or -]2.9mm) comparable to extracts (zones of inhibition--6 mm dots: 16.8[+ or -] 1.3 mm). Antibiosis by the extract was equally effective when tested against a capsule-free mutant S. pneumoniae([t.sub.16] - 2.119, p = 0.123; no significant difference); however, it did not inhibit growth of the gram negative respiratory pathogen, K. pneumoniae. The study of anti-inflammatory assays is in progress.
11:15 - EFFECTS OF LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS ON THE ACTIVITY, DIVERSITY, AND DISTRIBUTION OF NATIVE BATS. Tyler N. Turner (1,2), email@example.com, Karen V. Root (1), firstname.lastname@example.org, (1) Bowling Green State University, (2) 338 Palmer Avenue Apt. 32, Bowling Green OH 43402.
Despite their ecological value, bats face nationwide population declines due to numerous threats, including habitat loss. A driving factor of this is agricultural expansion, which can fragment and degrade natural forests. These forests are heavily used by native bats for both foraging and roosting, so managing them properly can be critical to species survival. The Oak Openings Region, an area of incredible biodiversity in northwest Ohio and home to eight different bat species, is one of these regions facing pressure from agriculture and development. Sixteen sites were chosen within the Oak Openings Preserve to set up paired overnight monitoring stations in both core and edge habitats. Using Anabat SDII monitors, bats were recorded during foraging hours over 32 nights from June to September. Vegetation characteristics such as density, canopy cover, and distance to riparian systems were measured to determine what promotes foraging activity. All eight native species were identified within the park, though three species (Eptesicus fuscus, Lasiurus borealis, and Lasionycteris noctivagans) made up 95% of the 1283 recorded calls. Most (930 calls) were recorded between 8 PM and midnight. Most also demonstrated a strong preference for the forest habitat, though some species showed preferences for oak savanna (Nycticeius humeralis) and edge (L. noctivagans) habitats. There was not an even distribution of activity among sites of the same habitat type, suggesting that there are certain features at heavily used sites which promote activity and diversity. By understanding how the bats are using the landscape, we can improve management in order to protect and promote bats.
11:30 - TOLERANCE OF PLANKTOTHRIX AGARDHII TO NITROGEN DEPLETION: CYANOPHYCIN UTILIZATION. Michelle J. Neudeck, email@example.com, George S. Bullerjahn, PhD, firstname.lastname@example.org, R. Michael McKay, PhD, email@example.com, Bowling Green State University, 525 Life Sciences Building, Bowling Green OH 43403.
Sandusky Bay has been increasingly threatened by cyanobacterial algal blooms (cHABs). The 2015 bloom persisted from early summer to late fall despite nitrogen levels dropping to below detection in late summer. Planktothrix agardhii is the main bloom-forming organism present, but it is nondiazotrophic, does not fix atmospheric nitrogen. Water samples were taken every 2 weeks and RNA was prepared for metatranscriptomics. The metatranscriptomes were analyzed for gene expression using CLC Genomics Workbench 9.5.3. There are two systems by which Planktothrix spp. can mobilize internal nitrogen pools: by utilizing cyanophycin, a nitrogen storage molecule, and through degradation of the phycobilisome. Cyanophycin synthetase is encoded by cphA. Cyanophycinase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes is encoded by the cphB gene. These genes are cotranscribed as part of an operon. Planktothrix also has a monocistronic copy of cphA located elsewhere in the genome. Under severe N depletion, cyanobacteria can also degrade the N-rich phycobilisome light-harvesting complex to regenerate nitrogen. Representative phycocyanin apoproteins are encoded by cpcA and cpcB. cpcE and cpcF encode subunits of the phycocyanobilin lyase that incorporates bilin pigment into the complex. The monocistronic cphA was expressed from early to midsummer during N replete conditions, while the cphBA operon was only expressed following N depletion. These data suggest that under N replete conditions, the cells are storing excess N as cyanophycin (so-called 'luxury uptake'), and degrading cyanophycin when N becomes limiting. By contrast, genes encoding phycobilisome functions showed no obvious expression pattern, suggesting that the phycobilisome is not a major source of internal N under low nitrogen conditions.
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|Publication:||The Ohio Journal of Science|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2018|
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