Printer Friendly

[beta]-Lapachone: a naphthoquinone with promising antischistosomal properties in mice.

ABSTRACT

The activity of p-lapachone (3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1,2-b]pyran-5,6-dione, [beta]-lap) against different stages of Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in mice. Mice infected with 50 cercariae (BH strain) were intraperitoneally treated at a dose of 50 mg/kg for 5 consecutive days, starting on the 1st, 14th, 28th and 45th days after infection, to evaluate the effect of [beta]-lap on skin schistosomula, lung schistosomula, young worms (before oviposition) and adult worms (after oviposition), respectively. All animals were euthanized 60 days after infection. [beta]-Lap significantly reduced (p < 0.001) the number of worms in 29.78%, 37.2%, 24.2% and 40.22% when administered during the phases of skin schistosomula, lung schistosomula, young worms and adult worms, respectively. Significant reduction was also achieved in terms of female burden. In all groups, there was significant reduction in the number of eggs and granulomas in the hepatic tissue. When the intervention was performed during the phase of adult worms, [beta]-lap reduced the size of hepatic granulomas and changed the oogram pattern, lowering the percentage of immature eggs and increasing the percentage of mature and dead eggs. Our data indicate that [beta]-lap has moderate antischistosoma] properties. Its molecule may also be used as a prototype for synthesis of new naphthoquinone derivatives with potential schistosomicidal properties. Further studies with different formulations containing [beta]-lap are needed to clearly establish the best dose and route of administration and its mechanism of action against schistosomes.

Keywords:

[beta]-Lapachone

Schistosomicidal

Schistosoma mansoni

In vivo

Granuloma

Introduction

Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease caused by worms of the genus Schistosoma. The infection is potentially life-threatening with severe pathological manifestations in the hepato-splenic system and gastrointestinal tract (Neghina et al., 2009). It is included on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s list of neglected diseases and has a significant economic and social impact. It is estimated that 779 million people are at constant risk of infection and 207 million are infected, of whom 120 million are symptomatic, 20 million develop the chronic form and more than 500,000 die each year (Steinmann et al., 2006).

Chemotherapy is the only immediate measure for reducing the incidence and prevalence of schistosomiasis in endemic areas, since, to date, there is no satisfactory vaccine against the parasite. At present, praziquantel (PZQ) is the only drug recommended for the treatment and control of schistosomiasis, although it is not active against schistosomula and young worms and does not prevent reinfection (Sabah et al., 1986; Doenhoff et al., 2000). More than 100 million people are currently being treated with PZQ. The huge demand for its use is confirmed not only by the high prevalence of schistosomiasis, but by countless cases of reinfection which are portrayed in an annual or semiannual basis. This leads to the development of resistant parasites and consequently to a collapse in the treatment of the disease. This has encouraged us to contribute with new studies to preserve PZQ in the treatment of schistosomiasis.

[beta]-Lapachone [beta],4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1,2-b]pyran-5,6-dione, P-lap, Fig. 1) is a bioactive quinone, originally isolated from the heartwood of trees of the Bignoniaceae family (Tabebuia sp.). It can also be found in other families such as Verbenaceae, Proteaceae, Leguminosae, Sapotaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Malvaceae. The great interest in its study, including the elucidation of mechanisms of action of compounds with quinoidal structure is due to their multiple biological targets and their widespread presence in nature (Hussain et al., 2007).

[beta]-Lap is active against bacteria (Lourenfo et al., 2011; Kenneth et al., 2012; Silva et al., 2009), viruses (Schuerch and Wehrli, 1978; Li et al., 1993), fungus (Medeiros et al., 2010) and the protozoa Plasmodium (Andrade-Neto et al., 2004; Perez-Sacau et al., 2005) and Trypanosoma (Menna-Barreto et al., 2007; Salas et al., 2008; Ferreira et al., 2011). In addition to these effects, other bioactivities of [beta]-lap have been reported, such as the anti-inflammatory activity (Sitonio et al., 2012) and especially the powerful anticancer activity, displaying selective activity against various human cancers (Bey et al., 2007; Moon et al., 2010).

The aim of this study was to describe the effect of P-lap in the developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni, based on parasitological and histopathological criteria in a model using mice. In a bibliographical survey, we found no studies on in vivo antischistosomal activities of [beta]-lap, these activities being described here for the first time.

Materials and methods

Animals

Female Swiss albino mice, 30-day old, weight ~30g, were obtained and kept in the Laboratory of Immunopathology Keizo Asami pound, in a controlled environment (temperature between 20[+ or -] 2[degrees]C, 12 h daylight cycle), having free access to food (Labina[R]/Purina, Sao Paulo, SP) and water ad libitum. All animal experiments were conducted after the approval from the Animal Experiments Ethics Committee of the UFPE Protocol number 23076.020127/2010-47.

Infection of mice

The mice were infected with the BH strain of S. mansoni maintained at the Laboratory of Immunopathology Keizo Asami of the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE - Recife, PE, Brazil), through successive passages in Biomphalaria glabrata and Swiss mice. Cercariae from at least 80 shedding B. glabrata snails were used to infect the mice. Each mouse was percutaneously infected with 50 cercariae (Olivier and Stirewalt 1952).

Drugs

[beta]-lap was synthesized in the Department of Antibiotics of the UFPE from lapachol extracted from the sawdust Tabebuia avellanedae, according to the methodology described by Lima et al. (1962). [beta]-lap was solubilized in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 1% Tween 80 in saline solution. Praziquantel (PZQ) (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, MO, USA) was suspended in 2% Cremophor EL in saline solution.

Treatment protocol

While planning the experimental design two criteria were taken into account: (1) the onset of [beta]-lap administration and (2) the dose. The time of administration was used to take into account the schistosome life cycle stages, because the time of exposure of schistosomes to a drug may often be of greater importance than the dose applied (Gonnert and Andrews, 1977). The mice were randomly allocated into four experiment groups (ten mice each) according to initiation of treatment. Treatment was started on the 1st, 14th, 28th and 45th day after infection to evaluate the following stages of development: skin schistosomula, lung schistosomula, young worms (stages before oviposition) and adult worms (stage after oviposition) (Fig. 2).

[beta]-lap was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight/day. The injections were administered during five consecutive days and freshly prepared before administration. The dose used was based on experiments that describe the activities of [beta]-lap against other parasites (Andrade-Neto et al., 2004).

Each experimental group treated with the [beta]-lap was accompanied by an untreated infected control group (ten mice each) that received the drug vehicle only. A positive control group was established to receive the reference drug PZQ, administered in the dose of 50 mg/kg/day, orally through gavage, from the 45th until the 49th day after infection. This guideline ensures high parasitological cure rate within the period in which the infection presents adult worms, but there is no indication in periods in which the infection presents immature worms. For these stages, there is no drug available to treat schistosomiasis (Sabah et al., 1986; Doenhoff et al., 2000).

All animals were euthanized by cervical dislocation 60 days after infection.

Parasitological parameters

Recovery of worms

The worms were recovered from the hepatic portal system and mesenteric vessels through the technique described by Smithers and Terry (1965). The percentage reduction in the number of worms after treatment was calculated as follows: % reduction = C - V/C x 100, where C=the mean number of parasites recovered from infected untreated animals and V=the mean number of parasites recovered from treated animals.

Oogram pattern

Fragments from different sites in the small intestine were removed and used to evaluate the development and maturation of the S. mansoni eggs, as described by Pellegrino et al. (1962).

Ova count in hepatic tissue

To estimate the number of eggs per gram of hepatic tissue, a sample of the liver with about 0.3 g was removed from the central remaining part of the right lobe of each animal and processed separately using the potassium hydroxide (KOH) digestion technique (Cheever, 1968).

Hepatic histopathology and granuloma measurement

For each perfused mouse, a sample of the liver was removed from the central part of the left lateral lobe and fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin blocks to obtain thin histological sections (5 p,m) that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Ten random fields per histological sample were used to count the average number of granulomas which were evaluated histologically using light microscopy. Twenty granulomas of each animal containing a single central egg were randomly selected and used to determine the average diameter of granulomas by measuring two perpendicular diameters transmiracidial at the average level of the egg (Phillips et al., 1977). Images were obtained by using an optical microscope connected to a digital camera and a computer system (Motic Images Plus 2.0 ML[TM]). All analyses were performed by double-blind observers.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 3.02. Data were expressed as the mean [+ or -] SD. All variables were compared using Student's t-test. In all cases, results were considered significant at p < 0.05.

Results

Effect of [beta]-lap on different development stages of S. mansoni

Among the control groups used in the study, there were no significant differences in the total number of worms (overall average, 22.79 [+ or -] 2.93; p = 0.64) and female worms (overall average, 10.09; p = 0.91), showing uniformity on the infection.

The administration of [beta]-lap in mice harboring different development stages of S. mansoni--skin schistosomule (1 day after infection), lung schistosomula (14 days after infection), young worms (28 days after infection) and adult worms (45 days after infection), significantly reduced (p< 0.001) the overall worm burden by 29.78%, 37.2%, 24.2% and 40.22% respectively, when compared to the control group. A similar percentage reduction was also achieved in the recovery of female worms for the same schemes of therapeutic intervention. When analyzing the number of eggs per gram of hepatic tissue, [beta]-lap induced significant reductions (p< 0.001) of 32.71%, 42.07%, 34.64% and 48.01% were achieved when the drug was administered on the 1st, 14th, 28th and 45th day after infection, respectively. The PZQ dose used, in 45-day-infected mice, showed high percentage in reducing the overall rate of worm burden (94.66%) and worm burden females (93.66%) and a reduction of 65.78% in the hepatic tissue egg load (Table 1).

In all groups treated with 3-lap, intestinal tissue samples exhibited S. mansoni eggs at all development stages as was seen in the control groups (data not shown). However, during the adult worms stage, compared to control, [beta]-lap and PZQ significantly reduced the percentage of immature eggs in 20% and reaching zero percent, respectively. Even at this stage, both [beta]-lap as PZQ significantly increased the percentage of dead eggs, however this effect was more evident with PZQ. Regarding mature eggs [beta]-lap increased in 13.2% while PZQ reduced in 25.18% (Fig. 3).

Effect of [beta]-lap on hepatic schistosomotic granuloma

The hepatic lobular architecture was found to be preserved in both control and treated mice. Histopathological examination of the hepatic tissue sections in control groups exhibited typical inflammatory granulomatous reaction in the hepatic parenchyma and portal tract with an infiltration of eosinophils, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, in addition to a few macrophages and lymphocytes surrounding the egg (Fig. 4A and D). This profile of inflammatory reaction was also seen in the groups treated with [beta]-lap during immature stages of the worm. When animals were treated with PZQ or [beta]-lap, 45 days after infection, the exudative granulomatous reaction showed less eosinophilic infiltration, granuloma circumscription and eggs degeneration more evidently than in untreated infected controls (Fig. 4C and E).

There was significant reduction (p < 0.0001) in the average number of hepatic granulomas in all the groups treated with [beta]-lap or PZQ (Table 1). Fig. 4A and B shows the difference in the numerical density of periovular granuloma distributed in the hepatic tissue of untreated-infected mice and mice treated with 3-lap 45 days after infection, respectively.

Only the group treated with the [beta]-lap 45 days after infection showed significant reduction of 25.8% in the average diameter of the granuloma when compared to the untreated-infected control groups, which was an average of 580.8 [+ or -] 64.57 p,m (Fig. 4D-F). The group treated with PZQ presented a slight reduction in the granuloma diameter, but not a significant one (Fig. 4C and F).

Discussion

We have found that [beta]-lap interferes in the life cycles of the S. mansoni acting against: skin schistosomula, lung schistosomula, young worms and adult worms. In the therapeutic regimen adopted, [beta]-lap caused significant reductions in loads of worms and hepatic tissue eggs, number and size of granulomas and changed the pattern of oogram. For this evaluation we used the BH strain, which is native from Minas Gerais and predominates in endemic regions in Brazil (Zuim et al., 2012), a country with about six million people infected and another 25 million at permanent risk of contracting schistosomiasis (Lambertucci, 2010).

When a drug is used to suppress egg-laying, the oogram should demonstrate a higher percentage of mature eggs, as a result of previous ovipositions (Pellegrino et al., 1962). This occurred in our study when mice harboring adult worms were treated with [beta]-lap. In this group there was an exchange of percentages between immature and mature eggs, and a significant increase in dead eggs. In the other experimental groups, [beta]-lap did not changed the oogram, since the intervention period occurred during the stages of schistosomula and immature females. In addition, the ovicidal action of PZQ caused inviability of eggs by retraction of miracidia, mostly of mature eggs. The oogram exhibited a greater burden of dead eggs and a lower burden of mature eggs, corroborating with the results of Mantawy et al. (2011).

The [beta]-lap-induced reduction in the burden of eggs and granulomas in hepatic tissue could be attributed to its schistosomicidal activity on female worms at different stages (Table 1). This effect results in a smaller number of granulomatous reactions and liver fibrosis in the course of infection.

Our results indicate that [beta]-lap offers protection against liver injury induced by eggs. The histopathological examination revealed less inflammation of parenchyma and reduction in the size of granulomas when the intervention occurred concomitantly with full maturation of females, when oviposition had already started and eggs had begun to accumulate in liver tissue. At this stage of infection, the granuloma is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction mediated by [TCD.sub.4.sup.+] cells (Pearce and Macdonald, 2002). These cells trigger the Thl response, with macrophage activation and subsequent synthesis of 1L-2,1L-6, TNF-[alpha] and IFN-[gamma], nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline, determining the extent of inflammation (Modolell et al., 1995; Wynn and Cheever, 1995). In the present study, the reduction in the size of the granuloma can be attributed to the anti-inflammatory activity of [beta]-lap, which inhibits the migration of neutrophils and reduces the synthesis of TNF-[alpha], IL-6, NO and NO-sintetase (Liu et al., 1999; Tzeng et al., 2003; Sitonio et al., 2012). This suggests that [beta]-lap favorably modulate the granulomatous immune response and that therapeutic intervention for a longer period could result in an early resolution of the granuloma. In contrast to PZQ that although decreasing the number of eggs and granulomas in the liver tissue, during the acute phase of infection, did not decrease the size of granulomas, these findings corroborating with the results of Aires et al. (2012).

[beta]-Lap is triggering huge interest for its powerful therapeutic properties against various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease (Dong et al., 2009; Hwang et al., 2009; Kim et al., 2009). Moreover, [beta]-lap has shown, both in vitro and in vivo, to have antimalarial properties against strains that are both sensitive and resistant to chloroquine (Andrade-Neto et al., 2004; Perez-Sacau et al., 2005), and also to be active against Trypanosoma cruzi (Menna-Barreto et al., 2007; Salas et al., 2008; Ferreira et al., 2011), fungi (Medeiros et al., 2010), both gram positive and gram negative bacteria (Loureno et al., 2011; Kenneth et al., 2012; Silva et al., 2009) and to inhibit the replication of the HIV-1 virus (Li et al., 1993). It is suggested that these biological activities of [beta]-lap derive from the inhibition of DNA topoisomerase activity or the impairment of DNA repair through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation via NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (Krishnan and Bastow, 2000; Reinicke et al., 2005; Bey et al., 2007; Siew et al., 2012). However, information on the schistosomicidal activity mechanism is still not understood. Remarkably, it is well known that ROS generation can induce cytotoxicity and tissue injuries. The increase in ROS and [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] subsequently depletes the glutathione reserve by oxidizing reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG), which could alter the activity of vital enzymes or proteins in S. mansoni, resulting in lipid peroxidation and protein disorganization, thereby affecting the parasites' ability to protect themselves from free radicals, resulting in their death (Azza et al., 2005; Kuntz et al., 2007; Seif el-Din et al., 2011). Therefore, the worms' antioxidant defense mechanisms may constitute a good target for chemotherapy (Azza et al., 2005). The most obvious effect of host ROS on the schistosome is on the parasite surface (Mei et al., 1996). The schistosome tegument contains numerous mitochondria, which could be the main target of [beta]-lap. [beta]-lap affects the mitochondrial functioning by redox cycling-mediated oxidation (Witte et al., 2004), inducing internucleosomal fragmentation of DNA, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-3 (Li et al., 1999a, 1999b; Menna-Barreto et al., 2007; Salas et al., 2008). Recently, Lorsuwannarat et al. (2013) have suggested these mechanisms work as an action route of 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, known as plumbagin, against S. mansoni adult worms. According to Zhai et al. (2002), mature adult worms have a higher anti-oxygen free-radical effect and other biochemical kinds of toxicity than the juvenile worms, leading to a higher mortality rate in juvenile worms than in the mature adult worms of S. mansoni. However, [beta]-lap acted similarly in all the development stages evaluated here.

In contrast to PZQ, which causes an increase in the permeability of the membranes of schistosome cells leading to calcium-producing sustained muscular contraction, spastic paralysis and tegument damage (Doenhoff et al., 2008, 2009), [beta]-lap, in tumor cells and in the ileum, promotes the efflux of this ion, suggesting that the increase in plasma [Ca.sup.2+] is responsible for its apoptotic effect (Tagliarino et al., 2001; Bentle et al., 2006). This antagonistic effect is, therefore, an important target for future [beta]-lap research regarding the calcium channels of S. mansoni.

Naphthoquinones, which include [beta]-lap, have been shown to be active against other phases in the development of S. mansoni. Pinto et al. (1997) evaluated naphthoquinone derivatives that might topically inhibit the penetration of S. mansoni cercariae. From the derivatives studied, 15 naphthoquinones blocked penetration by cercariae when applied to the tails of mice 24 h prior to infection through the tail. In the group exposed to [beta]-lap, blocking was 100%. In the present study administration of [beta]-lap 24 h after exposure to cercariae reduced the worm burden. Studies conclude that topical formulations that block cercarial penetration may be used as prophylactic drugs in endemic regions (Pinto et al., 1997; Kasny et al., 2007; Haas et al., 2008). Furthermore, naphthoquinones derivatives are also active against the intermediate host of S. mansoni. These compounds kill adult snails and the spawn of B. glabrata (Lima et al., 2002a,b; Ribeiro et al., 2009).

In view of the limited aqueous solubility of [[beta]-lap (Lindenberg et al., 2004), formulations have been developed to ensure greater bioavailability and biological activity, the use of lower doses and a convenient administration route, as well as to control minor side effects (Li et al., 2006; Khong et al., 2007; Yang et al., 2008). In view of the moderate activity of [beta]-lap against S. mansoni, the use of new formulations provides the prospect of studies aiming to increase activity and shed light on the action mechanism, and to use this drug as a prototype for the synthesis of new naphthoquinones derivatives with potential schistosomicidal properties.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed,2013.08.012

ARTICLE INFO

Article history:

Received 24 May 2013

Received in revised form 28 June 2013

Accepted 9 August 2013

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared that there is no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgement

This work received financial support from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Fundafao de Amparo a Pesquisa de Pernambuco (FACEPE) and Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE).

References

Aires, A.L., Albuquerque, M.C.P.A., Silva, R.A.R., Schirato, G.V., Filho, N.T.P., Araujo, S.B.. Souza, V.M.O., Costa, V.M.A., Malaguefio, E., 2012. Immunohistopathological changes in murine Schistosomiasis mansoni under the influence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine. Parasitology Research 4, 1569-1578.

Andrade-Neto, V.F., Goulart, M.O.F., Silva-Filho, J.F., Silva, M.J., Pinto, M.C.F.R., Pinto, A.V., Zalis, M.G., Carvalho, L.H., Krettli, A.U., 2004. Antimalarial activity of phenazines from lapachol, p-lapachone and its derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei in vivo. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 14, 1145-1149.

Azza, M.M., Nadia, M.M., Sohair, S.M., 2005. Sativa seeds against Schistosoma mansoni different stages. Memorias do Institute) Oswaldo Cruz 100, 205-211.

Bentle, M.S., Reinicke, K.E., Bey, E.A., Spitz, D.R., Boothman, D.A., 2006. Calcium-dependent modulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 alters cellular metabolism and DNA repair. Journal of Biological Chemistry 281, 33684-33696.

Bey, E.A., Bentle, M.S., Reinicke, K.E., Dong, Y., Yang, C.R., Girard. L., Minna, J.D., Bornmann, W.G., Gao, J., Boothman, D.A., 2007. An NQOl- and PARP-l-mediated cell death pathway induced in non-small-cell lung cancer cells by beta-lapachone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 28, 11832-11837.

Cheever, A.W., 1968. Conditions affecting the accuracy of potassium hydroxide digestion techniques for counting Schistosoma mansoni eggs in tissues. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 39, 328-331.

Doenhoff, M.J., Cioli, D., Utzinger. J., 2008. Praziquantel: mechanisms of action, resistance and new derivatives for schistosomiasis. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 21, 659-667.

Doenhoff, M.J., Hagan, P., Cioli, D., Southgate, V., Pica-Mattoccia, L, Botros, S., Coles, G., Tchuem, T.L.A., Mbaye, A., Engels, D., 2009. Praziquantel: its use in control of schistosomiasis in sub Saharan Africa and current research needs. Parasitology 136, 1825-1835.

Doenhoff, M.J., Kimani, G., Cioli, D., 2000. Praziquantel and the control of schistosomiasis. Journal Parasitology Today 16, 364-366.

Dong, Y., Chin, S.F., Blanco, E., Bey, E.A., Kabbani, W., Xie, X.J., Bornmann, W.G., Boothman, D.A., Gao, J., 2009. Intratumoral delivery of beta-lapachone via polymer implants for prostate cancer therapy. Clinical Cancer Research 15, 131-139.

Ferreira, S.B., Salomao, K., Silva, F.C., Pinto, A.V., Kaiser, C.R., Pinto, A.C., Ferreira, V.F., Castro, S.I., 2011. Synthesis and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of [beta]-lapachone analogues. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 46, 3071-3077.

Gonnert, R., Andrews, P., 1977. Praziquantel, a new board-spectrum antischistosomal agent. Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde 52, 129-150.

Haas, W., Haeberlein, S., Behring, S., Schonamsgruber, E., Zopelli, E., 2008. Schistosoma mansoni: human skin ceramides are a chemical cue for host recognition of cercariae. Experimental Parasitology 120, 94-97.

Hussain, H., Krohn, K., Ahmad, V.U., Miana, G.A., Green, I.R., 2007. Lapachol: an overview. ARK1VOC 2, 145-171.

Hwang, J.H., Kim, D.W., Jo, E.J., Kim, Y.K., Jo, Y.S., Park, J.H., Yoo, S.K., Park, M.K., Kwak, T.H., Kho, Y.L., et al., 2009. Pharmacological stimulation of NADH oxidation ameliorates obesity and related phenotypes in mice. Diabetes 58, 965-974.

Kasny, M., Mikes, L., Dalton, J.P., Mountford, A.P., Horak, P., 2007. Comparison of cysteine peptidase activities in Trichobilharzia regenti and Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Parasitology 134, 1599-1609.

Kenneth, O.E., Senthil, P.K., Victor, K., Gabriel, N.F., Henrietta, L., Marion, J.J.M., Namrita, L., Sundarababu, B., 2012. Cobalt mediated ring contraction reaction of lapachol and initial antibacterial evaluation of naphthoquinones derived from lapachol. Medicinal Chemistry Research 21, 2117-2122.

Khong, H.T., Dreisbach, L., Kindler, H.L., Trent, D.F., Jeziorski, K.G., Bonderenko, I., et al., 2007. A phase 2 study of ARQ 501 in combination with gemcitabine in adult patients with treatment naive, unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Journal of Clinical Oncology 25, 15017.

Kim, S.Y., Jeoung, N.H., Oh, C.J., Choi, Y.K., Lee, H.J., Kim, H.J., Kim. J.Y., Hwang, J.H., Tadi, S., Yim, Y.H., et al., 2009. Activation of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 prevents arterial restenosis by suppressing vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. Circulation Research 104, 842-850.

Krishnan, P., Bastow, K.B., 2000. Novel mechanisms of DNA topoisomerase II inhibition by pyranonaphthoquinone derivatives--eleutherin, a lapachone and [beta] lapachone. Biochemical Pharmacology 60, 1367-1379.

Kuntz, A.N., Davioud-Charvet, E., Sayed, A.A., Califf, L.L, Dessolin, J., et al., 2007. Thioredoxin glutathione reductase from Schistosoma mansoni: an essential parasite enzyme and a key drug target. PLoS Medicine 4 (6), e206, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0040206.

Lambertucci, J.R., 2010. Acute schistosomiasis mansoni: revisited and reconsidered. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 105, 422-435.

Li, C., Nemunaitis, J., Senzer, N., Edelman, G., Glasner, S., Dombal, G., Douvholuk, A., Cunningham, C., 2006. A phase lb trial of ARQ 501, a selective checkpoint activator, in combination with docetaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. Journal of Clinical Oncology 24, 13053.

Li, C.J., Li, Y.Z., Pinto, A.V., Pardee, A.B., 1999a. Potent inhibition of tumor survival in vivo by b-lapachone plus taxol: combining drugs imposes different artificial checkpoints. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 23, 13369-13374.

Li, Y.Z., Li, C.J., Pinto, A.V., Pardee, A.B., 1999b. Release of mitochondrial cytochrome C in both apoptosis and necrosis induced by beta-lapachone in human carcinoma cells. Molecular Medicine 5, 232-239.

Li, C.J., Zhang, L.J., Dezube, B.J., Crumpacker, C.S., Pardee, A.B., 1993. Three inhibitors of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat-directed gene expression and virus replication. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 90, 1839-1842.

Lima, N.M.F., Correia, C.S., Ferraz, P.A.L., Pinto, A.V., Pinto, M.C.R.F., Sant'Ana, A.E.G., Goulart, M.O.F., 2002a. Molluscicidal hydroxynaphthoquinones and derivatives. Correlation between their redox potentials and activity against Biomphalaria glabrata. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 13, 822-829.

Lima, N.M.F., Santos, A.F., Porfirio, Z., Goulart, M.O.F., Santana, A.E.G., 2002b. Toxicity of lapachol and isolapachol and their potassium salts against Biomphalaria glabrata, Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Anemia salina and Tilapia nilotic. Acta Tropica 83, 43-47.

Lima, O.G., D'Albuquerque, I.C., Lima, C.G., Maia, M.H.D., 1962. Substancias antimicrobianas de plantas superiores. Revista do Instituto de Antibioticos 4, 3-17.

Lindenberg, M., Koop, S., Dressman, J.B., 2004. Classification of orally administered drugs on the World Health Organization Model list of Essential Medicines according to the biopharmaceutics classification system. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 58, 265-278.

Liu, S.H., Tzeng, H.P., Kuo, M.L., Lin-Shiau, S.Y., 1999. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase by [beta]-lapachone in rat alveolar macrophages and aorta. British Journal of Pharmacology 126, 746-750.

Lorsuwannarat, N., Saowakon, N., Ramasoota, P., Wanichanon, C., Sobhon, P., 2013. The anthelmintic effect of plumbagin on Schistosoma mansoni. Experimental Parasitology 133, 18-27.

Lourenqo, A.L., Abreu, P.A., Leal, B., Silva, J.E.N., Pinto, A.V., Pinto, M.C., Souza, A.M., Novais, J.S., Paiva, M.B., Cabral, L.M., Rodrigues, C.R., Ferreira, V.F., Castro, H.C., 2011. Identification of nor-[beta]-lapachone derivatives as potential antibacterial compounds against Enterococcus faecalis clinical strain. Current Microbiology 62, 684-689.

Mantawy, M.M., Ali, H.F., Rizk, M.Z., 2011. Therapeutic effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection. Revista do instituto de Medicina Tropical deSao Paulo 53, 155-163.

Medeiros, C.S., Pontes-Filho, N.T., Camara, C.A., Lima-Filho, J.V., Oliveira, P.C., Lemos, A.S., Leal, A.F.G., Brandao, J.O.C., Neves, R.P., 2010. Antifungal activity of the naphthoquinone beta-lapachone against disseminated infection with Cryptococcus neoformansvar. neoformans in dexamethasone-immunosuppressed Swiss mice. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 43, 345-349.

Mei, H., Thakur, A., Schwartz, J., LoVerde, P.T., 1996. Expression and characterization of glutathione peroxidase activity in the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni. Infection and Immunity 64, 4299-4306.

Menna-Barreto, R.F.S., Correa, J.R., Pinto, A.V., Soares, M.J., Castro, S.L., 2007. Mitochondrial disruption and DNA fragmentation in Trypanosoma cruzi induced by naphthoimidazoles synthesized from [beta]-lapachone. Parasitology Research 101, 895-905.

Modolell, M., Corraliza, I.M., Link, F., Soler, G., Eichmann, K., 1995. Reciprocal regulation of the nitric oxide synthase/arginase balance in mouse bonemarrow-derived macrophages by TH1 and TH2 cytokines. European Journal of Immunology 25, 1101-1104.

Moon, D.O., Kang, C.H., Kim, M.O., Jeon, Y.J., Lee, J.D., Choi, Y.H., Kim, G.Y., 2010. [beta]-Lapachone (LAPA) decreases cell viability and telomerase activity in leukemia cells: suppression of telomerase activity by LAPA. Journal Medicinal Food 13, 481-488.

Neghina, R., Neghina, A.M., Merkler, C., Marincu, I., Moldovan, R., lacobiciu, I., 2009. Intestinal schistosomiasis, importation of a neglected tropical disease in Romania: case report of a traveler to endemic regions. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 7, 49-51.

Olivier, L., Stirewalt, M.A., 1952. An efficient method for exposure of mice to cercariae Of S. mansoni. Journal of Parasitology 38, 19-23.

Pearce, E.J., Macdonald, A.S., 2002. The immunobiology of Schistosomiasis. Nature Reviews Immunology 7, 499-511.

Pellegrino, J., Oliveira, C.A., Faria, J., Cunah, A.S., 1962. New approach to the screening of drugs in experimental Schistosomiasis mansoni in mice. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 11, 201-215.

Perez-Sacau, E., Estevez-braun, A., Ravelo, A.G., Gutierrz, Y.D., Gimenez, T.A., 2005. Antiplasmodial activity of naphthoquinones related to lapachol and betalapachone. Chemistry and Biodiversity 2, 264-274.

Phillips, S.M., DiConza, J.J., Gold, J.A., Reid, W.A., 1977. Schistosomiasis in the congenitally athymic (nude) mouse. I. Thymic dependency of eosinophilia, granuloma formation, and host morbidity. Journal of Immunology 118, 594-599.

Pinto, A.V., Pinto, M.C.R., Gilbert, B., Pellegrino, J., Mello, R.T., 1997. Schistosoma mansoni blockage of cercarial skin penetration by chemical agents: I. Naphthoquinones and derivatives. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 71, 133-135.

Reinicke, K.E., Bey, E.A., Bentle, M.S., Pink, J.J., Ingalls, S.T., Hoppel, C.L, Misico, R.I., Arzac, G.M., Burton, G., Bornmann, W.G., et al., 2005. Development of beta-lapachone prodrugs for therapy against human cancer cells with elevated NAD(P)H:quinine oxidoreductase 1 levels. Clinical Cancer Research 11, 3055-3064.

Ribeiro, K.A.L., Carvalho, C.M., Molina, M.T., Lima, E.P., Lopezmontero, E., Reys, J.R.M., Oliveira, M.B.F., Pinto, A.V., Sant'ana, A.E.G., Goulart, M.O.F., 2009. Activities of naphthoquinones against Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) (Diptera: Culicidae), vector of dengue and Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. Acta Tropica 111, 44-50.

Sabah, A., Fletcher, C., Webbe, C., Doenhoff, M.J., 1986. Schistosoma mansoni: chemotherapy of infections of different ages. Experimental Parasitology 61, 294-303.

Salas, C., Tapia, R.A., Ciudad, K., Armstrong, V., Orellana, M., Kemmerling, U., Ferreira, J., Maya, J.D., Morello, A., 2008. Trypanosoma cruzi: activities of lapachol and alpha and beta-lapachone derivatives against epimastigote and trypomastigote forms. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 16, 668-674.

Schuerch, A.R., Wehrli, W., 1978. p-Lapachone, an inhibitor of oncornavirus reverse transcriptase and eukaryotic DNA polymerase-a. European Journal of Biochemistry 84, 197-205.

Seif el-Din, S.H., Al-Hroob, A.M., Ebeid, F.A., 2011. Schistosoma mansoni: N-acetylcysteine downregulates oxidative stress and enhances the antischistosomal activity of artemether in mice. Experimental Parasitology 128, 230-235.

Siew, E.L., Chan, K.M., Williams, G.T., Ross, D., Inayat-Hussain, S.H., 2012. Protection of hydroquinone-induced apoptosis by downregulation of FAU is mediated by NQOl. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 8, 1616-1624.

Silva, J.L., Mesquita, A.R.C., Ximenes, E.A., 2009. In vitro synergic effect of plapachone and isoniazid on the growth of Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 104, 580-582.

Sitonio, M.M., Junior, C.H.R.C., Campos, LA., Silva, J.B.N.F., Lima, M.C.A., Goes, A.J.S., Maia, M.B.S., Rolim, P.J.N., Silva, T.G., 2012. Anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activities of 3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-naphthol[1,2-b]pyran-5,6-dione(blapachone). Inflammation Research 62, 107-113.

Smithers, S.R., Terry, R.J., 1965. The infection of laboratory hosts with cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and the recovery of adult worms. Parasitology 55, 695-700.

Steinmann, P., Keiser, J., Bos, R., Tanner, M., Utzinger, J., 2006. Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infectious Diseases 6, 411-425.

Tagliarino, C., Pink, J.J., Dubyak, G.R., Nieminen, A.L., Boothman, D.A., 2001. Calcium is a key molecule in p-lapachone-mediated cell death. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276, 19150-19159.

Tzeng, H.P., Ho, F.M., Chao, K.F., Kuo, M.L., Lin-Shiau, S., Liu, Y.S.H., 2003. Betalapachone reduces endotoxin-induced macrophage activation and lung edema and mortality. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 168, 85-91.

Witte, N.V., Stoppani, A.O., Dubin, M., 2004. 2-Phenyl-beta-lapachone can affect mitochondrial function by redox cycling mediated oxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 15, 129-135.

Wynn, T.A., Cheever, A.W., 1995. Cytokine regulation of granuloma formation in schistosomiasis. Current Opinion in immunology, Philadelphia 7, 505-511.

Yang, R.Y., Kizer, D.K., Wu, H., Volckova, A.E., Miao, X.S., Ali, S.M., 2008. Synthetic methods for the preparation of ARQ. 501 (P-Lapachone) humsn blood metabolites. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 16, 5635-5643.

Zhai, Z.L. Jiao, P.Y., Mei, J.Y., Xiao, S.H., 2002. Glutathione inhibits the antischistosomal activity of artemether. Chinese Journal of Parasitology & Parasitic Diseases 20, 212-215.

Zuim, N.R.B., Allegretti, S.M., Linhares, A.X., Magalhaes, L.A., Zanotti-Magalhaes, E.M., 2012. A study of the granulomatous responses induced by different strains of Schistosoma mansoni. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases,

Andre de Lima Aires (a,b), Eulalia Camelo Pessoa Azevedo Ximenes (c), Vanessa Xavier Barbosa (c), Alexandre Jose da Silva Goes (c), Valdenia Maria Oliveira Souza (a), Monica Camelo Pessoa de Azevedo Albuquerque (a,b), *

(a) Laboratorio de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami (UKA), Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

(b) Centro de Ciencias da Saude - Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

(c) Centro de Ciencias Bioldgicas - Departamento de Antibioticos, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

* Corresponding author at: Departamento de Medicina Tropical and Laboratorio de Imunopatologia Keizo Asami (LIKA), Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, 1235, Cidade Universitaria, Recife 50670-901, Pernambuco, Brazil. Tel.: +55 81 2126 8484; fax: +55 81 2126 8485.

E-mail address: jcmonica@globo.com (M.C.P.d.A. Albuquerque).

Table 1
Effects of [beta]-lapachone and praziquante on worm burdens, eggs and
average number of the granulomas in mice harboring different
developmental stages of S. mansoni, euthanized 60 days after
infection.

Administration:        Groups           Average worm burden
days post-infection/
development stage
                                 Total                   Reduction (%)

[beta]-Lapachone (50 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days)

1[degrees]             Treated   15.63 [+ or -] 2.56 *
day/skin               Control   22.29 [+ or -] 2.29     29.78
schistosomula

14[degrees]            Treated   14.57 [+ or -] 1.62 *
day/lung               Control    23.2 [+ or -] 2.38     37.2
schistosomula

28[degrees]            Treated   18.17 [+ or -] 2.32 *
day/young worms        Control   24.14 [+ or -] 2.54     24.7

45[degrees]            Treated    13.0 [+ or -] 2.44 *
day/adult worms        Control   21.75 [+ or -] 3.95     40.22

Praziquantel (50 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days)

45[degrees]            Treated    1.22 [+ or -] 0.44 *
day/adult worms        Control   22.86 [+ or -] 3.08     94.66

Administration:                Average worm burden
days post-infection/
development stage
                       Female                  Reduction (%)

[beta]-Lapachone (50 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days)

1[degrees]             7.37 [+ or -] 1.18 **
day/skin               9.71 [+ or -] 1.11      24.09
schistosomula

14[degrees]             6.85 [+ or -] 0.89 *
day/lung                11.0 [+ or -] 1.0      37.7
schistosomula

28[degrees]             8.66 [+ or -] 1.21 *
day/young worms        11.14 [+ or -] 1.21     22.26

45[degrees]              6.0 [+ or -] 1.15 *
day/adult worms         9.87 [+ or -] 1.45      39.2

Praziquantel (50 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days)

45[degrees]             0.57 [+ or -] 0.53 *
day/adult worms          9.0 [+ or -] 1.41      93.66

Administration:            Number of eggs/g tissue
days post-infection/
development stage
                       Hepatic x [10.sup.3]   Reduction (%)

[beta]-Lapachone (50 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days)

1[degrees]             8.29 [+ or -] 1.23 *
day/skin               12.32 [+ or -] 2.42    32.71
schistosomula

14[degrees]            7.31 [+ or -] 1.19 *
day/lung               12.62 [+ or -] 1.67    42.07
schistosomula

28[degrees]            9.62 [+ or -] 1.27 *
day/young worms        14.72 [+ or -] 1.62    34.64

45[degrees]            6.81 [+ or -] 0.86 *
day/adult worms        13.1 [+ or -] 2.21     48.01

Praziquantel (50 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days)

45[degrees]            4.69 [+ or -] 0.73 *
day/adult worms        13.68 [+ or -] 2.11    65'78

Administration:        Granuloma schistosomotic hepatic
days post-infection/
development stage
                       Average number         Reduction (%)

[beta]-Lapachone (50 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days)

1[degrees]             8.87 [+ or -] 1.88 *
day/skin               17.6 [+ or -] 3.05     49.6
schistosomula

14[degrees]            9.85 [+ or -] 2.11 *
day/lung               20.40 [+ or -] 2.40    51.7
schistosomula

28[degrees]            12.0 [+ or -] 1.63 *
day/young worms        19.8 [+ or -] 1.92     39.39

45[degrees]            8.0 [+ or -] 1.41 *
day/adult worms        19.4 [+ or -] 2.4      58.76

Praziquantel (50 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days)

45[degrees]            6.14 [+ or -] 1.21 *
day/adult worms        19.80 [+ or -] 2.39    68.99

Values are expressed as mean of 10 mice t SD; groups were tested
against their respective control using Student's t-test.

* p < 0.001.

** p < 0.01.
COPYRIGHT 2014 Urban & Fischer Verlag
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2014 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 
Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Aires, Andre de Lima; Ximenes, Eulalia Camelo Pessoa Azevedo; Barbosa, Vanessa Xavier; Goes, Alexand
Publication:Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:3BRAZ
Date:Feb 15, 2014
Words:6484
Previous Article:Anti-fibrotic effect of thymoquinone on hepatic stellate cells.
Next Article:An overview on traditional uses and pharmacological profile of acorus calamus Linn. (Sweet flag) and other acorus species.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2018 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters