'My book of Manx Ballads at last published': A. W. Moore's Manx Ballads and Music (1896).
In the 1890s, a circle of folk song collectors appeared in the Isle of Man, split into two camps: the first consisting of Dr John Clague and the Gill brothers, Deemster J. F. Gill and W. H. Gill; the second comprising just A. W. Moore. Clague collected on his own, (1) and the Gills as a pair, (2) although they all pooled the material they found. Moore collected nothing himself but was aided by a circle of helpers. What resulted was a pair of books which both appeared in 1896: W. H. Gills Manx National Songs, published by Boosey of London; (3) and Moore's Manx Ballads and Music, printed on the Isle of Man by the Johnson brothers. (4)
W. H. Gill was later to describe this situation as 'literally a neck to neck race', although in fact it was not, for Moore had intended to go to press in 1894 and was delayed by the laxness of his printers. Gill assumed a rivalry that did not exist, and remained unaware of how early on Moore had started on what was to become Manx Ballads and Music.(5) They were two different books in intent, as Gill himself pointed out: 'one was purely antiquarian [Manx Ballads and Music], the other a quasi modern arrangement of the old airs [Manx National Songs]; one a book for the learned few, the other for the unsophisticated many; one for the student in his library, the other for the recreation of the general public'. (6)
The Rev. T. E. Brown (1830-97), Manx-born and returning to the island to retire in 1893, was treated to a literal 'sing-along' preview of Manx National Songs in June 1896. (7) He wrote: 'We spent the whole of Friday "from morn to dewy eve", over his Songbook, and a most enjoyable time we had.' (8) Brown continued: 'It will have advantages beyond those likely to be possible in the case of Mr A. Moore's work. Gill is a real Musical enthusiast, and a learned Musician. He treats the Song freely, and puts into them a lot of himself, and his self is very charming. Mr Moore will have to entrench himself within his antiquarian position, which is a true one and teneable [sic], but hardly popular.' And he added: 'But there will, of course, be the obvious objection - 'Why two?'
The present focus on Manx Ballads and Music is prompted by Brown's comment about Moore's 'antiquarian position, which is a true one and teneable'. Manx Ballads and Music has never been the subject of analysis before and the intention here is to examine this 'antiquarian position' and to see if it is indeed 'a true one and teneable'. Among other issues that will be considered are its lengthy progress through the press, the role of Brown himself in shaping the book, the field-collecting that lay behind it, Moore's helpers and the singers they found as well as the use made of the orally gathered material, and the Edward Gawne manuscript collection which Moore had in his hands. The way in which Manx Ballads and Music came about may well prove to be of more interest than the book itself.
The Manx Collectors of the 1890s
As mentioned above, four principal collectors were active in the 1890s. The larger camp consisted of Dr John Clague, a medical practitioner living at Castletown in the south of the island; W. H. Gill, a civil servant employed at the headquarters of the General Post Office in London; and Deemster J. F. Gill, a high-court judge who resided in Douglas, the Isle of Man capital. (9) These three all knew each other from their schooldays, Moore, on the other hand, was educated away from the island. He inherited his family's business, the Tromode Sail and Rope Works; was a member of the House of Keys, the lower (elected) chamber of Tynwald (the Isle of Mans parliament); and lived at Woodbourne House in Douglas.
Dr John Clague (1842-1908)
Dr John Clague was born in 1842, the son of Henry Clague, a tenant farmer of Ballanorris, Arbory. (10) Educated at King William's College, he later studied medicine at Guy's Hospital in London, and returned home in 1873. 'I am medical practitioner in Castletown, and have extensive practice both in that town and the neighbouring parishes', he declared in 1879; '[m]y practice carries me through the parishes of Santon, Rushen, Arbory, and Malew.' (11) It was in these parishes that he was to collect folk songs and other items of folklore. He also held a number of other appointments, becoming the medical officer at his old school, surgeon to the Castle Rushen jail in Castletown, medical officer to the Castletown garrison, surgeon to the Royal Naval Reserve, and, eventually, Surgeon to the Household (that is, the Lieutenant Governor and his family). He was also doctor to a number of friendly societies and a consulting physician, with patients coming to him from all over the island. Unlike the other collectors here, Clague had a command of spoken Manx Gaelic. (12)
William Henry Gill (1839-1923)
William Henry Gill was born in 1839 in Palermo, Sicily, in the Bourbon Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. (13) Both his parents were Manx-born, his father working in the Marsala wine trade as an agent for Joseph Woodhouse, whose father had developed that particular trade. He was educated at King William's College, entering in January 1850 and leaving, as a Leaving Exhibitioner, in March 1858, after which he joined the civil service in London, working at the General Post Office and ending his days in the Chief Secretary's office. He had an established musical reputation before embarking on folk song collecting, publishing Easy Anthems for Village Choirs (1888) and five titles in a series titled A Set of Twenty Easy Voluntaries [...] Arranged for Small Organ, Harmonium or Pianoforte by W. H Gill (1889-91). (14) The Gill family lived in the Home Counties and eventually moved to The White House in Angmering, Sussex, in 1907. Gill was to die in a nursing home in nearby Worthing in 1923. (15)
Deemster J. F. Gill (1842-99)
John Frederick Gill, known to his family as Fred, (16) was born in 1842, again in Sicily, and followed his brother to King William's College in August 1853, leaving in the same year as his brother. (17) He, however, remained on the island, pursuing a legal career at the Manx bar, which eventually led to his being appointed to the judiciary as Northern or Second Deemster (judge) in 1884, a post he held until his death in 1899. With this came a seat in the Legislative Council, the upper house of Tynwald. In his youth he was a crack shot, serving as a volunteer in the Castletown Rifle Corps where he held the rank of lieutenant. He also played the flute with some skill and was involved with a number of amateur orchestras in the 1860s. According to A. W. Moore, 'In the social life of the island Deemster Gill, who was a man of handsome features, courtly presence, and genial, courteous, and dignified manner, took a leading part.' (18) He also had an enthusiasm for opening bazaars at local fetes.
A. W. Moore (1853-1909)
Arthur William Moore, educated at Rugby and Cambridge, was a polymath scholar of the kind that the Victorian age seemed so effortlessly to produce from the playing fields of its public schools and universities (Figure I). (19) In 1891, the year in which he started on what was to become Manx Ballads and Music, he published The Folk-lore of the Isle of Man, (20) and Carvalyn Gailckagh. (21) The previous year, Manx Names, or the Surnames and Place-Names of the Isle of Man had appeared. (22) Such was his industry that while putting together what was to become Manx Ballads and Music he also edited The Book of Common Prayer in Manx Gaelic, which appeared in two volumes between 1893 and 1894. (23) All this was in addition to his overseeing of the family business, the Tromode Sail and Rope Works, with its model village at Cronkbourne, albeit the development of steam power meant that the business was in decline, and his political life as member of the House of Keys for Middle Sheading, a position to which he was first elected in 1881. From 1898 until his death he was to lead the House of Keys as Speaker; and he belonged to numerous other insular bodies and organizations.
W. H. Gill: 'a project formed many years ago'
The Preface to Manx National Songs (1896) begins: 'The following Songs are the first practical outcome of a project formed many years ago, and since often discussed by The Deemster Gill and his friend Dr Clague, to collect and preserve from the oblivion into which it was rapidly passing all that remained of the National Music of the Isle of Man.' (24) While the project had been formulated many years ago', the practical meeting had taken place in October 1894: 'In the autumn of last year I was invited by some gentlemen in the Isle of Man, including my brother, the Northern Deemster, to go there with the special object of collecting what material could be found with a view to the publication of a more accurate record of our national airs than any that already existed.' (25)
The purpose behind this statement was to lay down a marker to show that Moore was the newcomer to the idea of collecting and publishing Manx traditional songs. It is known that Clague had a collection of some size by 1891 (see below). W. H. Gill was brought on board because he composed music and would be able to harmonize the tunes collected by Clague. At this stage it does not appear to have been the intention that Gill should conduct any field-collecting of his own, despite what he reported in his 1895 lecture to the Royal Musical Association:
I had, at the outset, gone to the island in the hope of being able to gather for myself material at first-hand; but, alas, I was doomed to disappointment. Everybody said it was too late [...] I still cherished a hope that by a carefully arranged plan of campaign we might yet discover [...] some of the earlier tunes hitherto unrecorded. Nor were my hopes in vain. (26)
That it was Deemster Gill's suggestion that the brothers should go collecting for themselves in 1895 is shown by W. H. Gill's response in a letter of 24 February of that year: 'Your last proposal ab[ou]t music hunting sounds charming. We must think it over.' (27) They were to collect at Easter, between 12 and 19 April, and again that summer, from 27 July to 6 August. Some years later, there was to be a third tour, lasting from 21 September to 13 October 1898.
While Moore's interest in Manx traditional song seemingly had an element of'box-ticking' about it, the motives of Clague and Deemster Gill remain unclear; one can only posit a widespread sense of the decline of'Manxness' as the countryside underwent depopulation due to emigration to America and Australia, the collapse of the mining and fishing industries, the decline of the Manx language, and the development of the island as a mass tourist destination for the 'cottonballs' of Lancashire. For all of the collectors we know nothing about their awareness, or otherwise, of folk song collecting in Britain or elsewhere. Their interests appear to be have been 'insular' in both senses of the word.
A, W. Moore: 'My book of Manx ballads at last published'
So wrote A. W. Moore in his personal diary on 20 December 1896, (28) referring to his own Manx Ballads and Music (Figure 2). 'What a delightful book! Exceeding many thanks' was the verdict of the Rev. T. E. Brown on receipt of a copy of the book. (29)
A review in the Isle of Man Examiner in January 1897 declared: 'The hook has been a long time in the Press, but it is a volume decidedly worth the waiting for.' (30) The book itself is dated 1896. (31) However, the Isle of Man Examiner Almanac gave 5 January 1897 as the publication date; (32) while a reference in The Manxman of 2 January 1897 noted that it was still to appear:
A new volume of Manx songs and music [Manx National Songs] has been compiled and published by Deemster Gill, W. H. Gill, and Dr Clague, and is a bright feature in the literature of the year, which should not go unrecorded. Another volume, similar in character, but which will be considerably amplified, and intended as a standard work, is to be published by Mr Moore, MHK. (33)
A review was to appear the following week. (34) The first advertisement for the book appeared only on 30 January 1897, in the Manx Sun, where the title was given, confusingly, as Manx Ballads & Songs. (35) That this was the title originally intended is shown by the prospectus issued back in 1894. (36)
The reason why Moore wrote 'at last' was because the book had been delayed at the printers - for some time, as he recounted in a letter to the Manx bibliophile G. W. Wood:
As to the book of ballads I am in despair. It ought to have been issued months ago, but up to the present Johnson has only succeeded in printing 30 pages of it! He has quite surpassed himself in dilatoriness & I have really given the whole thing up. I have told him that I do not expect to live to see it through! This does not result from any want of pushing on my part. I send for proofs every day! (37)
Moore's printers, the Johnsons, were simple jobbing printers in Douglas, more used to printing stationery than suited to setting a book. They also had to deal with the engraving (and revision) of the music plates, work that had to be sent off the island. Such was his despair that Moore had approached another publisher, Curwen of London, but was turned down. (38)
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
'I intend publishing the Manx ballads shortly'
What was to become Manx Ballads and Music is first mentioned by Moore in a letter to G.W.Wood of June 1891:
Mr Fargher tells me chat you have a copy of Barrows Mona Melodies published in 1825 [sic]. This is a book I have tried to get hold of in vain - I am especially anxious to get it because I intend publishing the manx [sic] ballads shortly &C I understand that Barrow's book contains some tunes that I have not been able to get hold of. Would it be too much to ask you to lend it to me? I will take the greatest possible care of it & return it within 10 days. (39)
Mona Melodies, appearing in 1820, was sought out by all the collectors of this period, but such was its rarity that even a bibliophile such as Moore had to turn to yet another bibliophile in order to locate a copy. W. H. Gill found a copy in the British Museum but quickly discovered that it was incomplete and had to initiate a similar hunt for the missing pages. (40)
By 1892, Moore's material had grown. The Rev. T. E. Brown wrote on 2 December 1892: 'I am going to Douglas to stay with Arthur Moore (connection of 1st Mrs Wilson), who has collected upwards of (I believe) of 60 Manx songs. We are to go over and evaluate them. This will be a grand spree.' (41) He mentioned this meeting again in a letter to one of his daughters on 11 December 1892: 'M. is deeply interested in Manx history and antiquities. So we got on splendidly together. Part of my mission there was to advise him upon a book he is bringing out of Manx songs.' (42)
Moore had originally hoped to gain access to the collection of Manx traditional song gathered by Dr John Clague, as he wrote to G. W. Wood in September 1891: 'I shall be anxious to hear if Mrs Wood succeeded in extracting the songs from Dr Clague.' (43) Wood's wife was Manx-born and related to Clague's wife; the exact degree of relationship has not been established but it is likely that they were cousins. She was, however, not successful: 'Please also thank Mrs Wood for her gallant efforts on my behalf. If she has failed with Dr Clague I fear there is no hope. It certainly seems a dog in the manger policy in his part, as he will never publish anything. (44)
Clague's own collection had been collected very early. (45) A. P. Graves was appointed assistant Schools Inspector in Manchester in 1875 and found that for the purposes of inspection the Isle of Man was attached to that district, rather than to Liverpool as might have been expected. He visited the Island twice, in June 1875 and then in 1878. (46) In 1875, 'At Cronk y Voddy I first heard Manx songs sung in Manx by the school children, and that set me upon an inquiry into Manx Folk Music.' (47) As part of his enquiry, 'I was informed that Dr Clague of Castletown had made a collection of [Manx folk music] and to him I went, but without much satisfaction.' (48) Apparently, Clague had earlier lent part of his collection to Thomas ap Thomas (1829-1913), a Welsh harper, who had subsequently lost it, 'much to Dr Clague's disgust, and the Doctor politely declined to venture another consignment of his country's airs into the hands of a foreigner' (49) So Clague evidently had a collection of some sort, although its size at this date is unknown. He was to gain something of a second wind with Deemster J. F Gill's proposal in October 1894 that he work together with him and his brother on what was to become Manx National Songs (1896).
'About translating the Ballads I have my doubts'
As noted above, the Rev. T. E. Brown was off to meet Moore in December 1892 to look over his material. The invitation had come much earlier, in November, but it came with an agenda, as is evident from Brown's reply to Moore:
Thank you very much for your kind invitation, and, more particularly, for your generous offer as regards the 'collections'. About translating the Ballads I have my doubts. I might succeed in producing imitations more or less agreeable, but these verse translations merely cross the scent. They may have merit of their own, but that is not the point. An extremely close prose translation is what is wanted. (50)
The letter also alludes to an earlier meeting:
I think you said the other night that some of the poems could hardly he called ballads. But what then is the parallel to be, what the type to be conformed to? Probably the type is not Ballad: then we ought not to give it Ballad form, I could not do so without forcing it, and, I should say, distorting it, and gives a wrong notion of its style and method. But prose leaves all this open, exposing the native ore, and not compelling it to take the shape of any goods in chattels familiar to us, not even as men do with pigs of iron.
It is apparent, though, that Moore had not then shown Brown what he had in his hands: 'I can judge better about this, however, when I come, and go over the poems with you. It is enough for the present to say "Hands off!" to all bards and versifiers.'
Brown wrote to H. G. Dakyns on 2 December about the planned meeting with Moore, and by 8 December it had taken place. Brown wrote to him:
With regard to your collection of Manx Songs, I am very decidedly of opinion that you should translate them as closely as possible into [unreadable]prose [...] Translation into verse would be excessively difficult. The attempt, in such translations, to discriminate the relative values of the compositions, would be simply impossible. The essence would absolutely evaporate, and the form would be most inadequately represented. If it will answer any good purpose to [...] preface them with a short Introduction, it would give me great pleasure to undertake char friendly office, friendly I would say, rather than critical. (51)
This letter shows what Moore was seeking: that Brown, a poet with an established reputation both in the island and beyond, should produce worked translations written in the Anglo-Manx dialect to accompany the tunes that Moore had to hand. (52)
However, while Brown refused Moore in 1892, he reconsidered in January 1894:
Please send me the Songs, with the music, the Manx, and the Prose Transl.
I cannot definitely promise to make a Iransl. in verse until I have seen the compositions. 1 think that it would be very advisable, with a view to the general public, to have such Translations, and, in all probability, I shall see my way to executing them. You showed me the originals with prose Transl. before, but I must now clearly make up my mind whether they will bear rendering into English verse. Also, I shall have to consider whether, in some cases, entirely new words may not be necessary, not even imitations, however distant. (53)
In the end, Brown did not produce anything for Moore. However, as he wrote later that month to S. T. Irwin, he did nevertheless attempt something along his own lines:
My Manx Songs, words and music by T.E.B., have now advanced to their fifth number. What fun it will be some day to send them to Crossley! Perfect barbarism, of course. I can't defend them as relics of Keltic music. The tunes are of my own invention, wholly lewd and desparate, though distantly imitating the native measures, only, I fear, by the concoction of analogous barbarism. (54)
He was still in correspondence with Moore about Manx Ballads and Music in April 1894:
Will I frecken [fighten] ye? This dreadful Illiam Dhoan [Brown William] has completely put my pipe out. It is inconceivable that any one in his senses should ever want to sing such rubbish. Fancy the quantity alone! I really can't attempt it; and this reopens the general question. Is it possible to give these songs a modern press? Can they be dressed up for the drawing-room? That they should ever get beyond that circle is wholly desparate. I am willing to look at a few of the shorter songs. Crammed and choked as I am just now with the Illiam Dhoan saw-dust, I doubt whether I can make much of the more fragmentary compositions. Oh dear! oh dear! We are a dreadfully prosaic race, we 'Little Manx Nation'! (55)
While correspondence between Brown and Moore is extant beyond this date, this is the last mention of Brown's possible role in Manx Ballads and Music. The same year saw the publication of Brown's The Gel of Ballasallaw: A Song of the Souse Side (otherwise The Girl of Ballasalla); (56) followed in 1895 by three songs in the Ramsey Courier, 'The Brothers (A Ramsey Song)', 'Kuchandhriss' (otherwise 'Kirk Andreas'), and 'The Manx Sailor's Farewell.' (57) These were his own compositions and not based on traditional song texts.
'When will you want my essay?'
Brown nevertheless offered to write a preface for Manx Ballads and Music. (58) Whether this was a sop to Moore is unknown, but his offer was accepted and its composition shows the slow pace at which the book moved through the press. It was only in 1894 that Moore followed up on his offer: 'I am delighted to hear of your progress. When will you want my Essay? A few hints dotted down by my Glasgow namesake would be very helpful to me, unless, indeed, he too is going to write something for the book.' (59) His 'Glasgow namesake' was Colin Brown, who was to assist Moore with the harmonization of the tunes. But T. E. Brown was not going to start writing without seeing just what was to appear in the book: 'Yes, by all means let me have the Ballads before me in type. I shall not begin my essay before that.' (60)
It is only in February 1896 that Brown was considering starting work on the preface:
I have your Introduction, also two fasciculi of the Ballads down to page 77 [...] But, most important, I have not a single Tune. I cannot but think you gave me the tunes. Still no where are they to be found. Without them I can make no progress [...] But the main thing is the 'Tunes' [...] And have I the Words (as above indicated) complete? Up a considerable tree, but not losing heart. (61)
By March of that year, it seems that Manx Ballads and Music had been entirely set in type: I think I have now the whole collection - words and music[...] For the Preface - you can, I dare say, give me a few months more. The fact is, I shall be a good deal occupied towards July.' (62) Even at this late date there were still problems: 'The Music [...] I take it for granted that these proofs have not been revised. They contain several mistakes which could not have escaped the eye, or the avenging pencil of Miss Wood'; and as a postscript: '"The Demon Lover" surely Scotch. TEB.' This last note shows the pressure all these collectors put themselves under in their desire to find material that was somehow 'truly Manx'.
A few days later Brown wrote: 'And you may expect, I hope, before Easter, the Preface, which will be short, but, I trust, carefully done.' (63) There was a further problem: 'The Preface will soon be ready. It is a hindrance that the music proofs are not paged. When I have occasion to refer to a tune, I should like to mention the page without giving either the Manx or English Title. Perhaps, you could fill them in, as they occur.' (64) The following day he wrote: "Hie Preface will be ready by Saturday next at latest.' (65)
In the same letter he alerted Moore to a Manx folk song published in the recently established Zeitschrift fur celtische Philologie:
Have you seen 1st number of 'The Zeitschrift fur Celtische Philologie'? It contains a Manx song. In pare it is your 'Marish ny Fiddleryn.' But whereas yours is a matter of 16 lines, and obviously, I think, a fragment, this extends to 52 lines, and seems complete. The article is signed J. Strachan, Marple, Cheshire, England. The Manx text is written in some bastard phonetic of Mr Strachan's own invention, and a Transl. is given into English. As it stands now, it is so fine a song that I am unwilling you should miss the chance of including it, without mutilation, in your collection.
It is surprising that Brown should know about the Zeitschrift fur celtische Philologie when Moore did not. John Strachan had visited Man in 1883 in the company of Fr Robert Henebry, when he came across Thomas Kermode of Bradda, near Port Erin, and took down 'Ec yn Fiddleryn' from him. (66) Strachan visited again in September 1895 and sought out Kermode, who recited the song for him a second time. Moore sent W. J. Cain to visit Kermode in order to check the accuracy of Strachan's text: 'Mr W. J. Cain has since then seen Kermode and has satisfied himself of the general accuracy of this version which he and I have translated.' (67)
Kermode was later to become known to Dr John Clague: 'I have discovered a new "mine" at Bradda. (68) An old blind man - Tom Kermode by name, has given me three splendid old songs, and I think I shall be able to get three more yet.' (69) Blinded by smallpox at birth, Kermode nevertheless earned a living as a fisherman. He was to provide some forty-seven tunes in total to Clague, the largest number collected from any singer on the island. (70) Thus Moore missed the opportunity to connect with a remarkable source of Manx folk songs.
By the end of April 1896 the preface was finished. Brown wrote to Moore: 'I am glad you like the Preface.' (71)
Manx Ballads and Music: Sources
The material in Manx Ballads and Music is a bricolage of printed, manuscript, and oral sources. The most important manuscript source to which Moore had access was a collection put together by one Robert Gawne of the Rowany. In Manx Ballads and Music Moore refers to 'the late Robert Gawne'; and he was evidently deceased at the time of an earlier reference, in 1886. (72) The Gawne collection comprised not just folk songs but other folklore material, which Moore drew on for a paper on holy and healing wells in 1894. (73) His collection also contained carval books, material that Moore would draw on for his Carvalyn Gailckagb. (74) However, Robert Gawne simply cannot be traced. While Bigot's Directory for 1824 promisingly lists a 'Gawne, Wm. Esq. Rouany [sic]', (75) and subsequent census and testamentary records allow us to follow this family, (76) none of them identifies a Robert Gawne. Neither can any of the very few Robert Gawnes in the Manx census records provide a match, regardless of the Rowany connection.
As to the dating of the collection (the manuscript materials of which are now lost) Moore, discussing 'Marish ny Fiddleryn', writes that it was 'written down by the late Robert Gawne some 40 years ago'. (77) That would date this text to at least the mid-1850s. (78) However, William Harrison, writing about versions of 'Shenn Arrane Ghaelgagh er Mylecharane' in his Mona Miscellany of 1869, mentions that 'I have one by Mr Robert Gawne of Douglas in 1837, with some slight alterations, containing nine verses' (79) This pushes the dating of some, or maybe all, of his collecting back into the 1830s.
Moore had access to the Gawne collection in the 1880s, as 'Lesh Sooree', with Gawne acknowledged as its source, appeared in the Manx Note Book, which Moore edited, for 1885. (80) In a piece on 'Manx Literature' published in 1890, Moore gives a list of five folk song titles, calling them 'the best of the unpublished ballads which are in the writer's possession'. (81) Since some of these titles turn up in Manx Ballads and Music credited to Gawne, this appears to be a reference to the Gawne collection. Intriguingly, Moore continues: 'There are many others, but they are chiefly erotic and coarse, and are moreover, written in very corrupt Manx.' Nonetheless, he refers to this material again in Manx Ballads and Music.
I have now to refer to some ballads which have not been included in this collection: They consist of (1) Erotic Ballads, and (2) Modern Ballads. Those in the first class have been excluded because they are too gross and indecent for publication; and those in the second, partly because they are of the most inferior type of doggerel and partly because most of them have been written within the last fifty years. (82)
Moore gives a further footnote to the 'Erotic Ballads', commencing: 'The titles of a few of the best known are [...] The spelling is given as in the original ms.' While the Gawne collection is lost, there is an undated notebook in Moore's own hand titled 'Manx "Odds & Ends"' which includes a page beginning: 'Title of Songs not worth or too coarse to publish from R.G.'s coll.' (83) These titles match the list in the 'Erotic Ballads' footnote.
Harrison in the preface to Mona Miscellany writes: 'Some Manx ms. songs are also in his possession, which might be printed should the council of the Society think proper to allow them to appear in that language without an English rendering.' (84) This must be a reference to the Gawne collection, and places it in Harrison's hands in 1869. Harrison died in 1884 and it seems probable that Moore obtained the Gawne collection From among his papers.
Remarkably, Moore had initially intended to publish some or all of this material. Brown wrote to him in 1896: 'I have none of the Love songs (indecent), which I think you intend publishing in Manx only.' (85) Brown seemingly canvassed Clague in relation to this plan: 'According to Dr Clague these are almost all horribly indecent. He says that one verse, or, at the utmost, two, may be tolerated, but invariably the rest is absolute dirt. Moreover he declares that these songs are exceedingly numerous.' (86) Moore's reply is lost, but in response to his letter Brown wrote: 'It is gratifying to think that you have reason for mistrusting Dr Clague's estimate of Manx Love Songs.' (87) In any case, the material did not appear in Manx Ballads and Music, although it is difficult to know if this represents a change in Moore's editorial principles or whether the delay in the press led to him to drop material simply in order to see the book appear. Nevertheless, it appears that Moore could assume that his audience would be familiar with both the material and the titles, and that Clague too was aware that such songs were widespread. (88)
Moore was also planning a second and expanded edition of The Folk-lore of the Isle of Man, but discovered that fewer copies had been sold than he had been led to believe. He wrote in 1893 to the Manx folklorist Karl Roeder, a German national resident in Manchester: 'Under these circumstances I am contemplating publishing my additional material under the heading of "Further Gleanings of Manx Folklore" in the "Folklore Journal". For I feel that if anything were to happen to me, print is much safer than MS' (89) His folklore notes did eventually appear, in the Antiquary. (90) In one way his concern was justified, as little survives in his own hand relating to either Manx Ballads and Music or to the rest of his antiquarian and political activities. The assumption is that after his death in 1909 his papers at Woodbourne House were simply burned.
Moore's Circle of Collectors
Brown was involved both with Moore and with the Gill brothers and was aware of the differences between what was to be Manx Ballads and Music and Manx National Songs, as he wrote to Egbert Rydings in 1896:
I am glad you have made the acquaintance of my friend and pupil, Mr W. H. Gill. We spent the whole of Friday over his songbook; and a most enjoyable time we had. Gill is a real musical enthusiast, and a learned musician. He treats the songs freely, and puts into them a lot of himself, and his self is very charming. Mr A. W. Moore will have to entrench himself within his antiquarian position, which is a true one and teneable, but hardly popular. (91)
The songs were certainly treated 'freely' in Manx National Songs. While the tunes were sourced from the collecting of Clague and the Gill brothers, the words were produced by what W. H. Gill referred to as 'my staff of poets'. (92) Manx National Songs received one of the most savage reviews on record, the (anonymous) reviewer summing up the book thus:
In the case of the Messrs Gill they have utterly and ignominiously failed to attend to the elementary rules which should be observed by collectors and this failure compels us, with pain, to condemn their book as a thoroughly unsatisfactory, meretricious publication and an unnecessary interference with a subject we wish the authors had not touched, or touched not with sacrilegious hands. (93)
And this was before the attack began in earnest.
Manx Ballads and Music was also under review in the same piece, but received high praise:
In the second of the two books named at the head of our list we have a work of a very different character. The fruit of Mr Moore's labour is worthy of all praise. This is a real Manx book - Manx in subject and in treatment, in illustration and in printing - it is a credit to all concerned in its production. By fidelity to the ancient Manx words of the ballads, by careful translation of these, and by the carefully transcribed music, the book is, and is likely to remain, the most generally interesting book that has been published concerning the island.
But there are questions to be raised about Manx Ballads and Music: about the exact nature of the 'antiquarian position' that Moore was adopting; and about whether or not Moore himself had followed the 'elementary rules which should be observed by collectors'.
It must be stressed that Moore was not a field-collector: 'As for me I have not, as you know, enough spare time to go about among the people as I could wish, & I do not profess to be more than a compiler.' (94) Moore was able instead to call upon a circle of helpers, chief of whom was one Robert Henry 'Harry' Bridson. In Manx Ballads and Music, Moore paid fulsome tribute to his work: 'Coming to the music, I have to acknowledge the skill and perseverance which Mr H. Bridson has shown in obtaining so many of the tunes. His work has been difficult and, indeed, it would have been found impossible by any one who is not only a thorough musician but a good Manxman.' (95) The need to be a 'good Manxman' well conveys the patriotic impulse of Moore's endeavour.
Bridson was not the only collector. Moore writes: 'Twenty-nine tunes have been obtained by Mr H. Bridson, two by Mr J. E. Kelly of Peel, two by Mrs Ferrier, one each by Mr James B. Nicholson, Miss A. Gell, and Miss Graves.' (96) That makes a total of thirty-six collected from singers in the field, of which the greater number were collected by Bridson; but in the list of tunes obtained from each singer there are only thirty-five titles. (97) Margaret Ferrier and James Nicholson were themselves the 'sources' of their tunes, and Bridson likewise contributed three, so this reduces the number of tunes collected from singers to a total of twenty-nine.
This number relates, however, to those tunes that did appear in Manx Ballads and Music, and it is clear that the actual total collected was greater: 'In cases where the versions given have varied slightly, that which appeared to be more correct has been taken. But in the few cases where the tunes of the same song vary considerably, such as in "Yn Bollan Bane", "Hop-tu-naa", and "Mylecharane" two versions are given.' (98) Not only were more tunes collected than appeared in Manx Ballads and Music, but it seems that more singers were involved. The Gill brothers were out collecting in the autumn of 1898 when they came across John Lace at St Jude's, in Andreas parish in the north of the island. (99) There is a field note in the hand of Deemster J. F. Gill in which he jotted down items known to Lace under the heading 'Lace's stock', (100) adding the comment 'gave tunes to Bridson'. (101) Laces name is nowhere mentioned in Manx Ballads and Music.
Moore lists the names of the singers against the tunes collected, but the collector for each tune is not named, leaving one to puzzle out how best to fit the singers and collectors together. A suggested fit is shown in Table 1. The rationale in matching singer and collector is that no singer was visited by more than one collector (otherwise any attempt at matching will simply collapse). With the removal of Ferrier and Nicholson (who were their own sources), those who collected from others are reduced to just four in number. In order to account for the discrepancy of one tune in Moore's totalling, Bridson's count is reduced by one, leaving him collecting twenty-eight tunes instead of twenty-nine. This enables us to fit in Annie Cell's collecting. She lived in Castletown and contributed just one tune: John Bridson of Colby was the source of one tune and he is the obvious match since he is the only singer from the south of the island.
'Harry' Bridson (1868-1925)
Robert Henry Bridson, as he was recorded in the 1891 census, was aged twenty-three and lived at 14 Cronkburne Village. (102) His occupation was given as accountant, and he was presumably employed in a book-keeping position at the nearby Tromode Sail and Rope Works. In 1901 he was still living at Cronkburne but in the old village, his occupation given as clerk. (103) Married now, with three children, the household was English-speaking. According to his obituary, he was at one time a schoolmaster at Cronkburne, and 'he was for many years secretary to the late Mr A. W. Moore, S.H.K. [Speaker of the House of Keys] when that gentleman was proprietor of the Cronkbourne (or, Tromode) factory, and he assisted that gentleman greatly in his researches into old Manx folklore and folksong.' (104)
Margaret F. Ferrier, aged fifty-six in 1891, was the wife of Edward Ferrier, the Government Chaplain, and they lived in Castletown, at 3 Arbory Road, with their four unmarried daughters, together with a cook and housemaid. (105) She supplied two tunes, 'Hop-tunaa' and 'Roie Ben Sheen Tammy', on her own account.
Miss A[nnie] Gell
Annie Gell, aged thirty-seven in 1891, was the unmarried daughter of Sir James Gell, the Island's Attorney General and former High Bailiff of Castletown. (106) She lived at home, which was at 10 and 11 Bowling Green Road in Castletown. She spoke English only. (107) She was also a cousin to the Gill brothers (her branch of the family having earlier changed the spelling of their surname from Gill to Gell) and her interest in folk song collecting is also evident from her acquisition of a text of'The Demon Lover'. (108)
Miss [Elizabeth Jane] Graves
This is likely to be Elizabeth Jane Graves, aged forty-seven in 1891, unmarried and living with her widowed mother and other siblings at Woodville, Tynwald Road, Peel. (109) The Graves family had run a shipbuilding business in Peel.
J E. Kelly
John E. Kelly was an assistant grocer and confectioner, working for his father. (110) Aged twenty-eight in 1891, he lived at home, at 2 Bridge Street, Peel. According to Brown's Directory for 1894, the family premises were on Athol Place, where they also carried on a seed and patent merchants business. (111)
James B. Nicholson
James B. Nicholson was a house painter and organist, aged forty-eight in 1891, and living in Douglas with his wife, Annie, at 2 Stanley Terrace, Broadway. (112) His brother, John Miller Nicholson, was an artist and photographer of distinction who was to provide a number of pencil sketches as illustrative material for Manx Ballads and Music. (113) James supplied one tune, 'Mylecharaine', on his own account.
John Bridson was a farmer, aged fifty, living on Claughbane Road, Colby, in Arbory. (114) Brown's Directory for 1894 lists him as a tenant farmer. (115) In 1881 he was enumeratedon-board of the Eden, bound for the Irish mackerel fishery. (116) The 1901 census shows him as speaking only English. (117)
JohnCain was a retired police officer with the rank of Inspector, aged sixty-one in 1891, living at 72 Circular Road, Douglas, with his wife, son, and two domestic servants. (118) In 1881 he was serving as a sergeant and resided then at 10 Great Nelson Street, Douglas. (119)
Philip Cain (d.l896)
Philip Cain was aged seventy in 1891 and was a retired farmer and shoemaker, living at Renscault, East Baldwin, in Braddan with his wife and grandson. (120) In 1881 he is listed as a shoemaker only, living at Ballagraue Cottage, Marown. (121) His nickname was Thillie the Desert', said to be because of the poor ground he farmed. Of all the singers found in the 1890s, he had the widest reputation and his name frequently crops up, as in an interview as late as 1962: "Ihey were great for fiddlers in them days. Phillie the Desert would play for the dancing - he was one that was going round to play [at the Mhellia or harvest supper] and he would be telling stories about the fairies.' (122)
At present unidentified, although he lived in Peel (Cregeen is a typical Manx family name).
Thomas Crellin (d.1907)
Thomas Crellin, aged sixty-seven, was a master mariner living at 3 Christian Street, Peel, with his wife and a domestic servant. (123) He had obtained his master's ticket in 1851. (124) In 1881 they were at 9 Christian Street. (125) Nicknamed 'Tommy the Mate', he was also a coal merchant - or, rather, he sold coal from the quayside at Peel. (126) He was a local poet, as Brown recounts: 'These Peel men are most interesting: they were the upper class, not "Tommy the Mate" & Co. I saw Tommy, though, next morning. He recited to me some of his verses. The nice old creature! but really egotistic in a degree which - Well, they don't get much from us, and the kindly listener is to them at once a solace and a temptation.' (127) His reminiscences of Peel were given as a talk in 1901 and subsequently appeared in the Isle of Man Examiner. (128) He was sufficiently well known in Peel for his death in 1907 to occasion an obituary in the Peel City Guardian. (129)
James Gawne, seventy-four years old, was a labourer and lived at 46 Glenfaba Road, Peel. (130)
Miss Mary Gawne
Mary Gawne was a fishing-net finisher living at 26 Circular Road, Peel, renting a room there from Elizabeth Bell and family. (131) Although recorded as aged thirty-nine in the 1891 census, she had been baptized on 10 November 1850 at Patrick, making her in fact forty in April 1891. In 1881 she was a housekeeper at 2 Peter's Lane, Peel. (132) In 1872 there had been a brief attempt to promote the Manx language and a 'Manx Reading' was held in January 1872 in Peel, later repeated in Douglas. (133) This event consisted of various recitations and songs performed in Manx, and the report of the event mentions that a 'Miss Mary Gawne' was one of the singers. (134) Accordingly, she may have learned her repertoire as an enthusiast for the Manx language.
William Harrison lived on the Dhowin in Andreavs, a quarterland known to have been occupied by crofters, especially wood-workers. (135) Aged fifty-three, he worked as a joiner. In 1901 he is to be found lodging with the Teare family at 1 Victoria Avenue, Onchan, still working as a joiner, presumably employed by James Teare, who is likewise listed as a joiner.(136) Harrison was able to speak both Manx and English.
John Quayle was a tenant farmer, aged sixty-three, working The Cronk, in the parish of Patrick. (137) His three sons were all lead-miners, as he had once been. In 1881 he was recorded working as a lead-miner but living at Ardole, Patrick. (138) The mine workings were at Foxdale, in the same parish.
Thomas Wynter (the spelling of the surname varies, but this seems to be the correct form) was aged thirty-six and lived on the Glebe Road in Andreas, where he worked as a coachman and groom, presumably to the rector of Andreas. (139) In 1901 he was to be found at Bishops Court, the seat of the islands bishop, in a similar post. (140) Born in Bride, he was bilingual; his wife, a year older than he and born in the same parish, was not.
William Cashen and Robert Kerruish contributed texts but not tunes, and their words were matched to collected tunes. Moore was also passed texts from two other folklore collectors: John Rhys, the Professor of Celtic at Oxford, who provided words for 'Hudgeon y Fidder' and 'Yn Maarliagh Mooar'; and Karl Roeder, who provided words for Inneen jeh'n Bochilley'.
William Cashen was the harbourmaster at Peel, and custodian of Peel Castle. Born into a crofting and fishing family at Dalby, he later became a blue-seas sailor before being shipwrecked off Peel. (141) He then remained on land and entered government service. He was the author of a remarkable account of Manx folklore and folk-life, the only insider account of life on the island from the nineteenth century, although put together and published in 1912, after his death. (142) He provided Moore with the words to 'Arrane Queeyl Nieuee', 'Yn Eirey Cronk yn Ollee', 'Yn Graihder Jouylagh', 'Hi, Haw, Hum', 'Juan-y-Jaggad Keear!' 'Madgyn y Jiass', 'Mraane Kilkenny', 'My Vannaght er Shiu', 'Yn Shenn Laair', 'Yn Sterrym ec Port-le-Moirrey' and 'Ushtey Millish 'sy Garee'.
R[obert] Kerruish (1849-1919)
In 1891 Robert Kerruish farmed Magher-e-Breck in Maughold parish on the island's north-east shoulder. (143) Aged forty-two, he lived there with his wife, aged thirty, and their five children, together with a farm labourer and a domestic servant. He was later to succeed his father, when he died in 1898, at the adjacent farm of Booilevelt. At one time, he was a member of the House of Keys for the parish and at some date served as Captain of the Parish. (144) He provided the words to 'Inneenyn Eirinee'.
Of these singers, one lived in Dougias (John Cain), another relatively close by in Braddan (Philip Cain), and two in Peel (Thomas Crellin, Mary Gawne). Bridson's foray into the Manx countryside itself was restricted to Glen Meay in Patrick, a parish on the west coast (John Quayle), and Andreas, a parish and village in the north of the island (Thomas Wynter). All except Thomas Wynter were also visited by the Gill brothers on their own collecting tours, indicating that these singers had an established reputation in the island.
Conclusion; 'I do not profess to be more than a compiler'
Moore did not 'go about among the people' - that was reserved for Harry Bridson, Annie Gell, E. J. Graves, and J. E. Kelly. While Bridson collected sets of words as well as tunes, given that Moore credits four singers (John Cain, Thomas Crellin, John Quayle, Thomas Wynter) as the sources of six texts in Manx Ballads and Music, it is unclear whether all of the singers provided sets of words and Moore choose to discard some of them as he patched in words from other sources to match the tunes presented in the book.
Tunes colteTable 1cted by Moore's helpers(suggested best fit) Coffector Singer Tune 1 Harry Bridson John Cain Yn Bollan Bane 2 Yn Coayl jeh ny Baatyn-Skeddan 3 Philip Cain Yn Bollan Bane 4 Car-v-Phoosee 5 Hop-tu-naa 6 Ihuroi as Ellioc 7 Thomas Crellin Graih my Chree 8 Inneenyn Eirinee 9 Juan y Jaggad Keear 10 Mannin Vcg Veen 11 Marrinys yn Ticer 12 Snieu Wheevl Snicu 13 Ushrey Millish 14 Mary Gawne Car-y-Phoosee 15 Eirev Cronk yn Ollee 16 [Lullaby] 17 Mraane Kilkenny 18 Yn Coayl jeh ny Baatyn-Skcddan 19 William Harrison Jemmy as Nancy 20 John Quayle Arrane Sooree 21 Dooinncy Seyr v'ayns Exeter 22 Yn Graihder Jouylagh 23 Thomas Wynter Eishc as Nish 24 Ny Three Eeasteyryn Boghtey 25 Ta Mee Nish Keayney 26 Annie Gell John Bridson Kiark Kaureeney 27 Miss Graves H. Cregeen Ec ny Fiddleryn 28 J. E. Kelly James Gawne Jemmy as Nancy 29 Yn Shenn Dolphin
By way of an example of Moore's approach, Thomas Crellin had seven tunes reproduced in Manx Ballads and Music. 'Graih ny Chree' appeared with the words by Crellin himself; 'Inneenyn Eirinee' was matched to a text from Mona Miscellany (1873 edition) and a set of words provided by Robert Kerruish; 'Juan y Jaggad Keear' had words supplied by William Cashen; 'Mannin Veg Veen' and 'Marrinys yn Tiger1 were paired with texts from Mona Miscellany (1873 edition); and 'Snieu Wheeyl Snieu' and 'Ushtey Millish' were matched with texts from Cashen.
'Inneenyn Eirinee' was not the only composite text. John Quayle had three tunes used in Manx Ballads and Music. 'Arrane Sooree' was paired with a text from the Manx Note Book;'Dooinney Seyr v'ayns Exeter' with a text from the Manx Note Book and his own words; and 'Yn Graihder Jouylagh' with a mixture of words from Quayle and Cashen. Thus Moore separated tunes and words collected in the field, and he felt free to select a set of words drawn from a printed or manuscript source to match a tune. Likewise, he saw no problem with creating composite texts from the material he had to hand.
To return to the question raised in Browns 1896 letter (quoted above): 'Why two?' (145) His concern was down to his principled refusal - though with an element of self-regard - to work with either camp of collectors in producing sets of words in the Anglo-Manx dialect to sit alongside tunes found or acquired. In the light of Browns refusal, Gill employed his 'staff of poets' to produce frankly ludicrous sets of made-to-order words to sit alongside the collected tunes, while Moore simply provided literal translations of the Manx Gaelic texts. That said, he still adopted a 'mix and match1 approach.
In one sense Manx Ballads and Music falls into what D. K. Wilgus calls a 'public' printing: namely, 'carefully noted, accompanied tunes, composite or edited texts, cursory notes, and little indication of source' - as opposed to the 'private scholarship of the Folk-Song Society' where '[t]he pattern of collecting was local and individual; the publishing was collective and judicial'. (146) When Manx Ballads and Music appeared there was no Folk-Song Society in existence (that was to come two years later and W. H. Gill would be a founding figure). With the founding of the Folk-Song Society there was established a new editorial strategy, new 'elementary rules' as the Manx Sun reviewer would have it, to inform both folk song editing and publication, and it would show that Moore's own position was now untenable.
Yet, despite the critique advanced here, Manx Ballads and Music remains a work of interest. Thanks to Moore's prefatory materials we can identify his circle of collectors and singers; the census records allow us to locate the majority of them and to see just who they were in real life. The surviving manuscript materials held at the Manx National Heritage Library give an insight into the progress of the book through the press.The letters between Moore and Brown provide further insight into the editorial process. What remains now is for Manx Ballads and Music to be 'de-compiled' and its original materials re-edited anew. Only this action will make Manx Ballads and Music a 'teneable' publication.
(1.) Clague's four tune books are now deposited in Douglas, Isle of Man, Manx National Heritage Library [MNHL], MS 448/1-3 A, MS 449 B. A copy made by Edmund Goodwin is at MNHL, MD 778. Goodwin's index to his transcript is at MNHL, MS 956 C. Texts to match a number of Clagues tunes have been found among his notebooks at MNHL, MS 450 A. See George Broderick, 'Manx Traditional Songs and Song Fragments, ii: Manx Museum MS 450 A, Bealoideas, 50 (1982), 1-41. The Clague collection was edited in large part by A. G. Gilchrist in JFSS, 7.3 (no. 28) (1924); 7.4 (no. 29) (1925); 7.5 (no. 30) (1926). For a facsimile reprint, see Dr John Clague: Manx Traditional Song, ed. by Stephen Miller, 3 vols (Onchan: Chiollagh Books, 2000).
(2.) The personal papers of Deemster Gill were released in 2000 (MNHL, MS 09702, Deemster J. E Gil] Papers). For a guide to their contents, see Stephen Miller, "The Deemster Gill Papers (MS 09702)', Proceedings of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, 11.4 (2007 [for 2003-05]), 571-72. Deemster J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2, includes a transcript of the Gills' collecting tours: 'The Original Collection of Manx Folk Music - made by His Honour the Deemster Gill[,] Mr W. H. Gill & Dr. Clague[,] completed in 1895 & 1896'.
(3.) W. H. Gill, Manx National Songs with English Words, selected from the MS. Collection of the Deemster Gill, Dr J. Clague, and W. H. Gill and arranged by W. H. Gill (London: Boosey, 1896).
(4.)A. W. Moore, Manx Ballads and Music (Douglas: G. & R. Johnson, 1896).
(5.) Gill lectured before the Royal Musical Association in 1895 and while revising the proofs of his calk he wrote to his brother that its publication would 'proclaim us first in the field' (Deemster J. E Gill Papers, Box 2, W. H. Gill to Deemster J, F. Gill, 23 July 1895). For the published lecture, see W. H. Gill, 'Manx Music,' Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association, 21 (1895), 115-31; reproduced in Manz National Music', pp. v-xi. As will be seen, Moore had started work on Manx Ballads and Music in 1891.
(6.) W. H. Gill, 'Manx Miniatures, no. iv: A Plea for Modern Manx Music,' Mannin, 7 (1916), 85-90 (p. 386).
(7.) The preface and arranger's preface are dated July 1896. According to William Cubbon, A Bibliographical Account of the Isle of Man, 2 vols (London: Oxford University Press [for the Manx Museum and Ancient Monument Trustees], 1933-39), 11, 1062, Manx National Songs was published on 23 September 1896.
(8.) MNHL, MS 1272/52 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to Egbert Rydings, 28 June 1896; reproduced in T. E. Brown-Egbert Rydings', Mannin, 9 (1917), 505-10.
(9.) With the release of the Deemster Gill papers, this group of collectors can now be examined in depth. For the first pieces of assessment, see Robert Corteen Carswell, 'Music Collected in the Isle of Man in the Late Nineteenth Century: "Rescue Archaeology" and the Published Results' (unpublished MA dissertation, University of Liverpool, 2001); Chloe Woolley, 'Parallels between Descriptive Revival Models and the Manx Traditional Music Scene: From the 1970s to the Present Day', in 'Completed and Restored to Use: Revival and Dissemination of Manx Folklore and Tradition during the 20th Century, ed. by Stephen Miller (Onchan: Chiollagh Books, 2004), pp. 1 - 14. Deemster Gills circle of helpers is discussed in Stephen Miller, "'The kind cooperation of many local friends": Deemster J. F Gill's Search for Manx Folk Singers (1895-98)', Folklore, 102(2009), 176-93.
(10.) For a fuller biographical notice, see Dr John Clague, Cooinaghtyn Manninagh I Manx Reminiscences, Introduction by Stephen Miller (Onchan: Chiollagh Books, 2005), pp. i-xiii.
(11.) Isle of Man Government, Medical Aid and Poor Relief Commission (Isle of Man): Report and Evidence, with appendices (Douglas: James Brown & Son, 1879), pp. 61-62.
(12.) MNHL, MS 2147/2 A, Dr John Clague to Edmund Goodwin, 4 April 1899: 'I should tell you that I am able to speak Manx fairly well, that is, I can converse with any one on any ordinary subject, but 1 should not like to make a very long speech, though that would be due to want of practice. My chief practice in speaking is on matters relating to my own profession, as I always speak in Manx to those who understand it.'
(13.) A biographical piece is C. T. C-, 'Mr W. H. Gill and the "Manx Fisherman's Hymn"', The Choir, 6 (1915), 75-78; repr. as C. T. C-, 'A Manx Composer: Mr W. H. Gill and his Work' Manx Quarterly, 16(1916), 369-71. An obituary is William Cubbon, 'Passing of a Great Manx Figure', Isle of Man Weekly Times, 7 July 1923, p. 3; repr. as William Cubbon, 'W. H. Gill: Composer, Writer, Artist', Ihe Barrovian (1923), 103-08. See also Stephen Miller, 'From Sicily to Angmering: W. H. Gill (1839-1923)', Newsletter of 'the Angmering History Society (2004).
(14.) See 'W. H. Gill', in The Catalogue of Printed Music in the British Library to 1980, ed. by Robert Balchin, vol. 23 (London: K. G. Saur, 1983), pp. 296-98; William Cubbon, 'W. H. Gills Manuscripts', in A Bibliographical Account of the Isle of Man, II, 1071-72.
(15.) I am grateful to Robert Carswell for this last detail.
(16.) A photograph of his father, Joseph Gill (1810-76), sent from Sicily in 1862, is inscribed 'To dear Fred with his fathers love Palermo, August 10th 1862' (Deemster J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2).
(17.) For a biographical notice, see A. W. Moore, 'John Frederick Gill (b.1842, d 1899)' in Manx Worthies (Douglas: S. K. Broadbent, 1901), pp. 69-70. Of the many obituaiy notices, a representative one is 'Death of Deemster Gill,' Isle of Man Examiner, 21 October 1899, p. 3.
(18.) Moore, 'John Frederick Gill', p. 70.
(19.) An obituary notice is Arthur William Moore. Died Nov 12th, 1909,' Manx Quarterly, 7 (1911), 687-93- See also A. M. Harrison, 'Moore, Arthur William (1853-1909)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography ([Oxford]: Oxford University Press, 2004) (http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/35087) [accessed 8 March 2011]; John Belchem, 'The Little Manx Nation: Antiquarianism, Ethnic Identity, and Home Rule Politics in the Isle of Man, 1880-1918', Journal of British Studies, 39 (2000), 217-40, where Moore is extensively discussed; and Robert Fyson, Tlie Anglo-Manxman: A Life of A. W Moore (Douglas: Manx Heritage Foundation, 2009). For his folklore and folk song publications, see Stephen Miller, A. W. Moore: An Interim Checklist of Writings on Manx Folkways', Manx Notes: Folkways and Language, 10 (1993), 1-2. An overall bibliography for Moore is still lacking.
(20.) A. W. Moore, The Folk-lore of the Isle of Man (Douglas and London: David and Son; David Nutt, 1891).
(21.) A. W. Moore, Carvalyn Gailckagh ([Isle of Man]: John Christian Fargher, 1891). Carvalswtrt locally composed carols in Manx Gaelic, sung on Christmas Eve.
(22.) A. W. Moore, 7he Surnames and Place-Names of the Isle of Man (London: Elliot Stock, 1890).
(23.) A. W. Moore, The Book of Common Prayer in Manx Gaelic, 2 vols, Manx Society, vols 32-33 (Douglas: Manx Society, 1893-94). The same year also saw the appearance of A. W. Moore, Diocesan Histories: Sodor and Man (London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, (1893.)
(24.) Gill, Manx National Songs, p. iii.
(25.) Gill, Manx National Songs, p. ix. Gill left his waistcoat behind on this trip: 'I asked you to send a waistcoat I left behind. Did you get my letter?' (Deemscer J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2, W. H. Gill to Deemster J. F. Gill, 25 October 1894).
(26.) Gill, 'Manx Music', in Manx National Songs, p. ix.
(27.) Deemster J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2, W. H. Gill to Deemster J. F Gill, 24 February 1895. The Deemster's own letter is lost.
(28) MNHL, MS 168 A, A. W. Moore Diary (1892-99), 20 December 1896.
(29.) MNHL, MS 1272/52 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 27 December 1896.
(30.) [Review] 'Manx Ballads and Music', Isle of Man Examiner, 9 January 1897, p. 3.
(31.) The Introduction to Music' is dated September 1896 (Moore, Manx Ballads and Music, p. xxxvi).
(32.) 'Principal Events of 1897', Isle of Man Examiner Almanac 1898 (Douglas: Isle of Man Examiner, 1897), p. 13: '5 January 1897. Publication of Mr A. W. Moores collection of Manx songs and Music/
(33.) '1896: A Retrospect,' The Manxman, 2 January 1897, p. 3.
(34.) [Review] 'Manx Ballads and Music', The Manxman, 9 January 1897, pp. 2-3.
(35.) [Advertisement] 'Manx Ballads &c Songs', Manx Sun, 30 January 1897, p. 8.
(36.) [Prospectus] Manx Ballads and Songs (Douglas: G. &c R. Johnson, ); Deemster J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2, Dr John Clague to Deemster J. F. Gill, 13 December 1894: 'My dear Deemster, I [...] received Johnson's circular by last nights post.'
(37.) MNHL, MS 1180/22 A, A. W. Moore to G. W. Wood, 13 September 1895.
(38.) Deemscer J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2, W. H. Gill to Deemster J. F. Gill, 7 December 1894: 'Miss Wood is coming to lecture in London. She is friend and professional ally of Curwens and tho' he has refused Moore's book as it was might take it as it reconstructed on our lines. She may have other Publisher friends.' With Boosey committed to the Gill brothers and Glague, Moore must have realized his only option was to remain with the Johnsons and hope for the best. Miss M. L. Wood was responsible for harmonizing the tunes for Manx Ballads and Music. 'Death of Miss Wood', Isle of Man Examiner, 9 January 1925, p. 7: 'She provided the harmonic arrangements for the old airs contained in Mr A. W. Moores "Manx Ballads", for that real "Manx national anthem", "Elian Vannin", and for other popular compositions.'
(39.) MNHL, MS 1397 A, A. W Moore to G. W. Wood, 8 June 1891 (in Moores letters, the word 'Manx' always appears in lower-case). Mona Melodies is J[ohn] Barrow, The Mona Melodies (London: Mitchells Musical Library & Instrument Warehouses, ). See further Paul Graham, 'Barrow, John Henry (1796-1858)\ Oxford Dictionary of"National Biography ([Oxford]: Oxford University Press, 2004) (http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/56408) [accessed 13 March 2011].
(40.) Deemster J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2, W. H. Gill to Deemster J. K Gill, 27 November 1894; Dr John Clague to Deemster J. F. Gill, 5 December 1894; Dr John Clague to Deemster J. F. Gill, 13 December 1894. See Stephen Miller, cuThe Mona Melodies are now published and ready for delivery": A Bibliographical Note on Mona Melodies (1820)', Proceedings of the Isle of Man Natural History and Antiquarian Society, 11.4 (2007 [for 2003-05))> 565-70.
(41.) Newly Discovered Letters ofT E. Brown, ed. by Andrew Graham Dakyns and Belinda Robinson, 2 vols (Douglas: Manx Heritage Foundation, 2004), II, 199-200.
(42.) Letters of Thomas Edward Brown, ed. by Sidney T. Irwin, 2 vols (London: Archibald Constable, 1900), I, 167.
(43.) MNHL, MS 1180/4 A, A. W. Moore to G.W.Wood, 12 September 1891.
(44.) MNHL, MS 1180/5 A, A. W Moore to G. W. Wood, 22 September 1891.
(45.) Gill, 'Manx Music', in Manx National Songs, p. ix: 'My old friend and schoolfellow, Dr John Clague of Castletown, a gentleman well versed in the folk-lore and language of the country, and learned in all its ancient musical traditions, had been collecting material for many years past.'
(46.) A.P.Graves, To Return to All That: An Autobiography (London: Jonathan Cape, 1930), pp. 180,183.
(47.) Graves, To Return to All That, p. 183.
(48.) A. P. Graves, 'Manx Folk Song, Mannin, 2 (1913), 91-96 (p. 92).
(49.) Graves, 'Manx Folk Song', p. 92.
(50.) MNHL, MS 1277/24 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W Moore, 8 November 1892. Extracts from the correspondence between Brown and Moore in MNHL, MS 1277 A, can be found in Stephen Miller, '"About translating the ballads I have my doubts": Letters from T. E. Brown to A, W. Moore (1892-96)', Manx Notes, 76 (2006), 1 -10.
(51.) MNHL, MS 1277/25 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 6 December 1892.
(52.) Brown was later sought out by W. H. Gill to do the same thing for Manx National Songs, as is apparent from a letter from the Rev. T. E. Brown to Horatio F. Brown, 25 August 1895, in Letters of Thomas Edward Brown, II 115-16: 'The Manx tunes will be out ere long in two different collections, one by A. W. Moore, the other by W. H. Gill. Gill wants me to write English words for "Mylchraine". The Manx words are abominably inadequate; and I have long ago refused to translate them. The modern words would require to have an entirely new motif! For Brown, see Richard Tobias, T E. Brown (Boston: Twayne, 1978).
(53.) MNHL, MS 1277/32 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W Moore, 19 January 1894.
(54.) Rev. T. E. Brown to S. T. Irwin, 28 January 1894, in Letters of Thomas Edward Brown, II, 14-15.
(55.) MNHL, MS 1277/34 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 13 April 1894. The Tittle Manx Nation' is a reference to Hall Caine, 'The Little Manx Nation (London: Heinemann, 1891).
(56.) Rev. T. E. Brown, The Gel of Ballasallaw: A Song of the Souse Side (Douglas: S. K. Broadbent, 1894).
(57.) Rev. T. E. Brown, 'Manx Songs', Ramsey Courier, 27 September 1895, p. 5.
(58.) Rev. T. E. Brown, 'Preface', in Moore, Manx Ballads and Music, pp. ix-xiii. For a reprint, see Stephen Miller, "Manx Ballads and Music (1896): T. E. Brown s "Preface"', Manx Notes, 70 (2006), 1-4. There is a manuscript draft of the preface, headed 'Manx Ballads,' at MNHL, MS 1281 C; reproduced in Stephen Miller, '"Manx Ballads" (MS 1281 C): T. E. Brown's Draft Preface for Manx Ballads and Music (1896)', Manx Notes, 71 (2006), 1-4. For comparison of the manuscript and printed versions, see Stephen Miller, "Manx Ballads and Music (1896): T. E. Brown's Draft and Printed Preface', Manx Notes, 72 (2006), 1-7.
(59.) MNHL, MS 1277/37 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W Moore, 14 November 1894.
(60.) MNHL, MS 1277/38 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W Moore, 22 November 1894.
(61.) MNHL, MS 1277/50 A, Rev. T E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 19 February 1896.
(62.) MNHL, MS 1277/52 A, Rev. T E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 13 March 1896.
(63.) MNHL, MS 1277/53 A, Rev. T E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 16 March 1896.
(64.) MNHL, MS 1277/54 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 22 March 1896.
(65.) MNHL, MS 1277/55 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 23 March 1896.
(66.) John Strachan, 'A Manx Folksong,' Zeitschrift fur celtische Philologie, I (1897), 54-58. Henebry was later to return in 1889(?), when he came across Edward Faragher of Cregneash, Karl Roeder's principal informant. MNHL, MS 2146/6 A, Edward Faragher to Karl Roeder, 25 December [1889?]: lI had a long talk in the summer with a Catholic Priest and he could read my manx writing very well and pronounce every word and understand it well enough he told me he had been in the Island 6 years ago and had published some manx songs that he had learned from Tom Kermode in Bradda. blind Tom. but I never come across any of them.1 This letter is undated and it is possible that it belongs to 1901 and that Strachan and Henebry visited the island again in 1895. ft also indicates that more material was collected from Kermode than the single song that appeared in Zeitschriftfur celtische Philologie.
(67.) Moore, Manx Ballads and Music, p. xxii n. .
(68.) There had been copper mining at Bradda Head, hence the pun.
(69.) Deemster J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2, Dr John Clague to Deemster J. R Gill, 25 December 1895; reproduced with commentary in Stephen Miller, '"I have discovered a new 'mine' at Bradda": Dr John Clague and Thomas Kermode/ Manx Notes, 20 (2004), 1-4.
(70.) Clague was later paid fulsome tribute to Kermode: 'He had a wonderfully good memory, and he was good to sing, and he knew the Manx language very well, lhe greater part of the words and songs that 1 have are taken down from his singing, and I spent many happy hours in writing them down. Although he was blind, he continued at his work as a fisherman for many years. He had great intelligence, and 1 owe him a great deal for the knowledge he has given me of the life of the Manx at the beginning of the nineteenth century. He deserves this to preserve his memory1 (Clague, Cooinaghtyn Manninagh, p. 22).
(71.) MNHL, MS 1277/56 A, Rev. X E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 25 April 1896.
(72.) A. W. Moore, 'Some Account of the Manx Society, Manx Note Book, 2 (1886), 174-79 (p. 176 n. ).
(73.) A. W. Moore, 'Water and Well-Worship in Man, Folklore, 3 (1894), 212-29 (p. 212).
(74.) 'The chief sources from which these Carols have been derived are the books of Mr J. C. Fargher, of the late John Quine, of Ballacrink, Baldwin; of the late John Kelly, of Baldwin; of the late William Wade, of Ramsey, and of the late Robert Gawne, of the Rowany (Moore, Carvalyn Gailckagh, p. xx).
(75.) Pigot and Co.'s City of Dublin and Hibernian Provincial Directory [...] lhe whole concluding with a complete Isle of Man Directory and Guide (London and Manchester: J. Pigot, 1824), p. 205.
(76.) See transcripts at (www3.telus.net/lawson/twill/1864_002.html) and (www3.telus.net/lawson/twill/1866_009.html) [accessed 14 March 2011].
(77.) Moore, Manx Ballads and Music, p. xxii.
(78.) The 1851 census lists four Robert Gawnes in the Isle of Man, but the oldest is only twelve years old and the youngest eleven months.
(79.) William Harrison, Mona Miscellany: A Selection of Proverbs, Sayings, Ballads, Customs, Superstitions, and Legends Peculiar to the Isle of Man, Manx Society, vol. 16 (Douglas: Manx Society, 1869), p. 57.
(80.) 'Manx Ballad: "Lesh Sooree" (Courting Song)', Manx Note Book, 1.4 (1885), 142-44.
(81.) A. W. Moore, "Manx Literature', Yn Lioar Manninagh, 1.7 (1890), 110-15 (p. 112).
(82.) Moore, Manx Ballads and Music, p. xxix.
(83.) MNHL, MS 221 A, Manx 'Odds & Ends1 (undated notebook compiled by A. W. Moore).
(84.) Harrison, Mona Miscellany, p. viii.
(85.) MNHL, MS 1277/50 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 19 February 1896.
(86.) MNHL, MS 1277/52 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 13 March 1896. Clague's view is echoed in a letter between the Gill brothers about the form of what was to become Manx National Songs. Deemster J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2, Deemster J. F. Gill to W. H. Gill, 29 October 1894: Another objection to the song form is that the Manx words are not in all cases available [...] & in some instances they are not fit, or grounds of decency, to be published.'
(87.) MNHL, MS 1277/53 A, Rev. T. E. Brown to A. W. Moore, 16 March 1896.
(88.) Regardless of his attitude, Clague did record one example of an erotic folk song. See 'Abraham Juan' in George Broderick, 'Manx Traditional Songs and Song Fragments, ii: Manx Museum MS 450 A', Bealoideas, 50 (1982), 1-41 (pp. 3-5).
(89.) Manchester Central Library, Manchester City Archives, M277/12/1 -65, A. W. Moore to Karl Roeder, 30 November 1893; reproduced in Stephen Miller, "I do not profess to be more than a compiler": A. W. Moore to Karl Roeder (1897)', Manx Notes, 40 (2005), 1-3.
(90.) His eleven contributions are listed in Miller, 'A. W. Moore: An Interim Checklist'.
(91.) Rev. T. E. Brown to Egbert Rydings, 28 June 1896.
(92.) Deemster J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2, W. H. Gill to Deemster J. F. Gill, 19 November 1895. Gill was later to regret the way in which he had produced Manx National Songs. MNHL, MS 09495, Sophia Morrison Papers, Box 2, W. H. Gill to Sophia Morrison, 3 June 1908: 'I am only too glad of this opportunity to confess the unsuitableness & inefficiency of a great many of the English words in MNS which were used as make-shifts in the absence of more suitable ones when the book was published 12 years ago.'
(93.) [Review] 'Manx National Songs and Manx Ballads and Music', Manx Sun, 16 January 1897. This piece is known only from two newspaper clippings in a scrapbook in MNHL, Printed Collections, J48/60, Music Hymns Carols Scrapbook, 5-6 and 36-37. Both are annotated with the date of appearance, but they differ between 16 January 1897 and 6 June 1897. The MNHL and British Library holdings of the Manx Sun for 1897 both lack this issue. However, Rev. T. Talbot, [Letter to the Editor], Manx Sun, 30 January 1897, confirms that the review was published in the issue for 16 January 1897. For a reprint of the review, see Stephen Miller, '"A thoroughly unsatisfactory, meretricious publication": The Manx Sun Review of Manx National Songs (1896)', Manx Notes, 46 (2005), 1-9; also Stephen Miller, '"He had certainly 'set it down' to me": Rev. John Quine Denies Attribution of the Manx Sun Review (1896)', Manx Notes, 47 (2005), 1-2.
(94.) A. W. Moore to Karl Roeder, 30 November 1893.
(95.) Moore, Manx Ballads and Music, p. xxxvi.
(96.) Moore, Manx Ballads and Music, p. xxxiii, n. .
(97.) Moore, Manx Ballads and Music, pp. xxxiii-xxxiv.
(98.) Moore, Manx Ballads and Music, p. xxxiii.
(99.) Visited 5 October 1898. See Deemster J. F. Gill Papers, Box 2, 'The Original Collection of Manx Folk Music', p. 47.
(100.) There may be a pUn of sorts here: herrings salted down for the winter, on which Manx people depended, especially in the countryside, were known as 'the stock'.
(101.) Deemster J. F Gill Papers, Box 2, untitled and undated folded sheets containing various notes.
(102.) Census Enumerators' Book for Braddan 1891, RG 12/4690, fol. 38, sch. 51.
(103.) Census Enumerators' Book for Braddan 1901, RG 13/5301, fol. 35, sch. 33.
(104.) 'Death of Mr Harry Bridson', Isle of Man Examiner, 9 January 1925, p. 5.
(105.) Census Enumerators' Book for Castletown 1891, RG 12/4691, fol. 11, sch. 45.
(106.) Census Enumerators' Book for Castletown 1891, RG 12/4691, fol. 29, sch. 49.
(107.) Census Enumerators' Book for Castletown 1901, RG 13/5308, fol. 136, sch. 27.
(108.) MNHL, MD 96-13, ['The Demon Lover'], endorsed 'To Miss Gell with Thomas Kelly's compliments', undated. Thomas Kelly remains unknown.
(109.) Census Enumerators' Book for Peel 1891, RG 12/4683, fol. 11, sch. 81.
(110.) Census Enumerators' Book for Peel 1891, RG 12/4683, fol. 24, sch. 223.
(111.) Brown's Directory for the Isle of Man (Douglas: Brown and Son, 1894).
(112.) Census Enumerators' Book for Douglas 1891, RG 12/4689, fol. 109, sch. 15.
(113.) See Joseph E. Douglas, John Millar [sic] Nicholson (Douglas: Victoria Press, 1931).
(114.) Census Enumerators' Book for Arbory 1891, RG 12/4691, fol. 71, sch. 16.
(115.) Brown's Directory for the Isle of Man.
(116.) Census Enumerators' Book for Vessels 1881, RG 11 /5609, fol. 94.
(117.) Census Enumerators' Book for Arbory 1901, RG 13/5301, fol. 1256, sch. 13.
(118.) Census Enumerators' Book for Douglas 1891, RG 12/4688, fol. 25, sch. 48.
(119.) Census Enumerators' Book for Douglas 1881, RG 11/5604, fol. 35.
(120.) Census Enumerators' Book for Braddan 1891, RG 12/4690, fol. 47, sch. 36.
(121.) Census Enumerators' Book for Marown 188L RG 1 1/5598, fol. 18.
(122.) MNHL, Manx Museum Folk-Life Survey, L/15 B, 4, Mrs Lace, Cronk-y-Voddy, Michael, interviewed by I. M. Killip, 1962.
(123.) Census Enumerators' Book for Peel 1891, RG 12/4683, fol. 7, sch. 28.
(124.) MNHL MD 299, Master's Certificate of Service, No. 70438, issued 27 May 1851.
(125.) Census Enumerators' Book for Peel 1881, RG 11/5597, fol. 6.
(126.) MNHL, MD 299, receipt (in rhyme) sent by 'lhomas Crellin to Hall Caine, undated.
(127.) Rev. T. E. Brown to S. T. Irwin, 1 1 November 1893, in Letters of lhomas Edward Brown, I, 227. For an example of Crellin's verses, see MNHL, MD 299, 'Peel Wesleyan Basaar [sic]' undated.
(128.) 'What Mr Thos Crellin Remembers', Isle of Man Examiner, 2 March 1901, p. 3; reproduced and discussed in Stephen Miller, "'They would fiddle and dance to a late hour": Thomas Crellin Looks Back', Manx Notes, 25 (2004), 1-5; also Stephen Miller, "'Thos Crellin (The Mate) Peel": Thomas Crellin as Singer', Manx Notes, 26 (2004), 1-4.
(129.) 'Death of Mr Tho[ma]s Crellin', Peel City Guardian, 25 May 1907, p. .
(130.) Census Enumerators' Book for Peel 1891, RG 12/4683, fol. 65, sch. 114.
(131.) Census Enumerators' Book for Peel 1891, RG 12/4683, fol. 19, sch. 208.
(132.) Census Enumerators' Book for Peel 1881, RG 1 1/5597, fol. 91.
(133.) 'The Manx Readings at Peel', Mona's Herald, 10 January 1872, p. 6. For the Douglas events, see 'Manx Readings and Concert', Monas Herald, 21 Feburary 1872, pp. 5--6; 'The Manx Readings in rhe Victoria Half, Monas Herald, 6 March 1872, p. 3; 'The Manx Readings', Mona's Herald, 1 May 1872, p. 6.
(134.) For more on this and further about Mary Gawne, see Stephen Miller, '"Miss Gawne": Mary Gawne as Singer', Manx Notes, 29 (2004), 1-3.
(135.) Census Enumerator's Book for Andreas 1891, RG 12/4684, fol. 64, sch. 38.
(136.) Census Enumerator's Book for Onchan 1901, RG 13/5302, fol. 132, sch. 144. See I. M. Killip, 'Crofting in the Isle of Man', Folk Life, 9 (1971), 61-78.
(137.) Census Enumerators' Book for Patrick 1891, RG 12/4682, fol. 62, sch. 103.
(138.) Census Enumerators'Book for Patrick 1881, RG 11/5596, fol. 55.
(139.) Census Enumerator's Book for Andreas 1891, RG 12/4684, fol. 65, sch. 68. The Archdeacon of Man held the living at Andreas. A. W. Moore's uncle had been incumbent from 1844 to 1886 and was succeeded in 1887 by the Rev. Hughes-Games, whose daughter Moore was to marry that year.
(140.) Census Enumerator's Book for Ballaugh 1901, RG 13/5300, fol. 44, sch. 23.
(141.) See William Cashen's, William Cashen's Manx Folk-Lore, ed. by Stephen Miller, expanded edn (Onchan: Chiollagh Books, 2005), pp. i-x.
(142.) William Cashen's, William Cashens Manx Folk-Lore, ed. by Sophia Morrison (Douglas: Manx Language Society, 1912); and the 2005 reprint cited in n. 141.
(143.) Census Enumerator's Book for Maughold 1891, RG 12/4684, fol. 171, sch. 48.
(144.) C. K. Radcliffe and J. W Radcliffe, A History of Kirk Maughold (Douglas: Manx Museum and National Trust, 1979), p. 261.
(145.) Rev. T. E. Brown to Egbert Rydings, 28 June 1896.
(146.) D. K. Wilgus, Anglo-American Folksong Scholarship since 1898 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1959), pp. 127-29.
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|Publication:||Folk Music Journal|
|Article Type:||Critical essay|
|Date:||Dec 20, 2011|
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