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'Eighth Five Year Plan (1993-98) - Approach Paper.' (excerpt; paper issued by the Pakistan Planning Commission)

Eighth Five Year Plan

The Planning Commission of the Government of Pakistan, issued along with the Federal Budget for 1991-92 in May 1991 a small brochure namely "Eighth Five Year Plan (1993-98) - Approach Paper". This is an excellent approach toward planning of economic development and overall nation - building. The Planning Commission has taken this step for the first time in its long history of existence.

The Eighth Plan is scheduled to commence from July 1, 1993 and the issue of such a paper over two years before the commencement of the Plan period is an invitation to public to generate discussion about planning in Pakistan. The intelligentsia including educationalists, economists, businessmen, industrialists, exporters and importers and politicians should indulge in lively discussion and each section should air its views about the approach to the 8th Plan.

The Government in power, with business like approach to each national issue, will consider the view of each segment of the society and change the planning process and the development system accordingly. Pakistan is an Islamic State but the interests of all minorities are fully safeguarded. All communities, Muslims and non-Muslims, indigenous and foreign, residents and non-residents, Pakistanis have equal opportunities in Pakistan to invest and prosper. Latest Government approach of privatization, disinvestment and deregulation should induce the resident and nonresident Pakistanis and non-Pakistanis to invest in various sectors of the Pakistan economy.

The Approach Paper has the following six major aspects for planning during the 8th Five Year Plan Period: 1. Islamic Way of Life 2. Promotion of Good Governance. 3. Affirmative Action for Women and

Other Disadvantaged Groups. 4. Promotion of Social Justice and

Eradication of Social Evils. 5. Promotion of Social and Economic

Well-Being of the People. 6. Plan Size and Financing.

In Introduction, in the very first paragraph it has been stated that, "The basic approach under-lying the Eighth Plan would be to develop a concept of development befitting a sovereign, self-reliant, Islamic nation, with full participation of its citizens, in a democratic, decentralized framework. "In the last paragraph of the introduction, it has been stated, that "In Planning for the fulfilment of the constitutional obligations of the State, the Eighth Plan will also take due cognizance of the need re-orient plans, planning processes, and institutions in the light of the priorities of the federal and provincial governments, the emerging consensus on the respective roles of the private and public sectors, and of the evolving international environment."

In the first chapter great emphasis has been laid on Islamic education, education in general and its quality and promotion of English language.

As regards Islamic way of life for the Muslims of Pakistan, two Articles of the Constitution have been quoted as given below:

Art 31 (1): Steps shall be taken to enable the Muslims of Pakistan, individually and collectively, to order their lives in accordance with the fundamental principles and basic concepts of Islam and to provide facilities whereby they may be enabled to understand the meaning of life according to the Holy Quran and Sunnah.

Art 31 (2): The State shall endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan, (a) to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiyat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language and to secure correct and exact printing and publishing of the Holy Quran; (b) to promote unity and the observance of the Islamic moral standards; and (c) to secure the proper organization of Zakat, Ushr, Auqaf and mosques.

It has been stated, that, "The Eighth Plan will also be guided by the findings of the commissions on Islamization of education and on Islamization of the economy to be established under the Bill for the Enforcement of the Shariah, 1991." Education will be the main instrument for enforcement of Islamic way of life by the Muslims. The quality of education will be improved. English will be promoted and material will be translated from English and other foreign languages into Urdu and other local languages.

Under the approach for "Promotion of Good Governance" - Article 32 of the Constitution is required to be implemented. Under it, "The State shall encourage local Government institutions composed of elected representatives of the areas concerned and in such institutions special representation will be given to peasants, workers and women,. "Under it three types of reforms are envisaged during the Eighth Plan Period. These are:

1) Administrative Reforms including decentralization,

deregulation and privatization

and service reforms. 2) Local Government Reform. 3) Rural (and Urban) democratization.

In the third Chapter, "Affirmative Action for Women and other Disadvantaged Groups," the implementation of Art. 33 to 36 is envisaged during the Eighth Plan Period. These articles are given below:

Art 33: The State shall discourage parochial, racial, tribal, sectarian and provincial prejudices among the citizens.

Art 34: Steps shall be taken to ensure full participation of women in all spheres of life.

Art 35: The State shall protect the marriage, the family, the mother and the child.

Art 36: The Sate shall safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of minorities, including their due representation in the Federal and Provincial services.

Three steps are envisaged to be taken in this connection during the Eighth Plan Period. These include: 1. Equalizing Access to Opportunities; 2. Increasing Women's share in Development; 3. Inducting the Informal Sector.

Under Chapter 4 of the Paper, "Promotion

of Social Justice and

Eradication of Social Evils", the implementation

of Article 37 of the Constitution is envisaged, which is reproduced below:

Art 37: The State shall

a) promote with special care, the educational

and economic interests of backward

classes or areas; b) remove illiteracy and provide free

compulsory secondary education

within minimum possible period; c) make technical and professional education

generally available and higher

education equally accessible to all on

the basis of merit; d) Ensure inexpensive and expeditious

justice; e) make provision for ensuring just and

humane conditions of work, ensuring

that children and women are not

employed in vocations unsuited to

their age or sex, and for maternity

benefits for women in employment. f) enable the people of different areas,

through education, training,

agricultural and industrial

development and other methods to

participate fully in all forms of national

activities including employment in the

service of Pakistan. g) prevent prostitution, gambling and

taking of injurious drugs, printing, publication,

circulation and display of

obscene literature and advertisements. h) prevent the consumption of alcohol,

liqour otherwise than for medicinal,

and, in the case of non-Muslims,

religious purposes; and i) decentralize the Government administration

so as to facilitate expeditious

disposal of its business to meet the

convenience and requirements of the


There are four ways of implementation of this Article during the Eighth Plan period, namely (i) Literacy and Education, (ii) Nutrition, Health and Population Welfare, (iii) Regional Distribution of Economic Growth, and (iv) Income Distribution and Poverty.

The fifth chapter shows the approach under "Promotion of Social and Economic Well Being of the People". This will be the implementation of the Article 38 of the Constitution which is reproduced below:

Art 38: The State shall:

a) secure the well being of the people, irrespective of sex, caste, creed or race, by raising their standards of living, by preventing the concentration of wealth and means of production and distribution in the hands of a few to the detriment of the general interest and by ensuring equitable adjustment of rights between employers and employees, and landlords and tenants; b) provide for all citizens, within the available resources of the country, facilities for work and adequate livelihood with reasonable rest and leisure; c) provide for all persons employed in

the service of Pakistan or other wise,

social security by compulsory social

insurance or other means; d) provide basic necessities of life, such

as food, clothing, housing education

and medical relief for all such citizens,

irrespective of sex, caste, creed or

race, as are permanently or temporarily

unable to earn their livelihood on

account of infirmity, sickness or unemployment. e) reduce disparity in the income and

earnings of individuals, including persons

in the various classes of the

service of Pakistan; and f) eliminate riba as early as possible,

For implementation of this Article five

approaches have been defined

namely (i) Employment, Jobs for all,

(ii) Agriculture: Meeting Food and Raw

Material Needs, (iii) Industry,

Competing for the Global Market, (iv)

Infrastructure: Rationalizing Investment,

and (v) Environment: Toward

Sustainable Development.

Plan Size and Financing

It has been estimated that during 1980's incremental capital/output ratio of 3.4 was realized and the 6 per cent annual growth target may require total fixed investment of at least Rs. 1500 billion at 1992-93 prices. This figure may be higher if the capital intensity of investment rises due to greater investment in power plants and other capital-intensive sectors. Investment in public sector is anticipated at Rs. 650 billion and fixed investment in private sector Rs. 770 billion. Another Rs. 80 billion will be in changes in stocks. National Savings will be required to finance 85 per cent of investment.
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Author:Khan, Abdul Majid
Publication:Economic Review
Date:Aug 1, 1991
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