"Whores and Thieves of the Worst Kind": A Study of Women, Crime, and Prisons, 1835-2000.
Influenced by the work of philosophers such as Michel Foucault and social control theorists like David Garland, studies in crime and punishment have blossomed over the past thirty years. During this time scholarship moved beyond producing straightforward institutional histories of prisons and reformatories to an analysis of the social constructions of criminality and the manner in which penal systems function to support class-based ideals, and especially in America, racial hierarchy. However, outside of a few groundbreaking works by scholars like Estelle B. Freedman and Nicole Hahn Rafter, remarkably few studies have focused on female convicts and their role the criminal justice system. At the same time, many institutional histories still remain to be researched and written. L. Mara Dodge, in a penetrating new monograph on women in Illinois state prisons and reformatories from 1835 to 2000, offers a new kind of institutional history, one that both reflects the latest thrust of criminal justice studies and breaks new ground into the way prison histories reveal "much about the shifting perceptions and boundaries of proper femininity" (12).
Dodge has chosen a particularly compelling approach to organizing her study. She begins with four chapters that trace the development of women in Illinois' nineteenth-century prison system. These are followed by more conceptual chapters analyzing the social construction of crime and criminality. She repeats this pattern of institutional narrative followed by conceptual analysis through five distinct parts of her work. Invariably, the conceptual chapters, focusing on issues like the gender-based assumptions held by parole board members, prove more compelling. In preparing a study that covers 165 years Dodge has conducted an exhaustive search of state records. She has augmented archival material with personal interviews when possible of warders, staff, and convicts from the Illinois State Reformatory for Women. The result is a powerfully researched study that is not confined to an examination of women in prison but one that examines women's experiences of the entire criminal justice funnel, from policing decisions and the courts to factors guiding governors' pardons and parole boards. Dodge's approach to writing prison history should serve as a model for future projects.
While the scope of this study makes it difficult at times for an overarching thesis to hold the institutional narrative together, several important themes do consistently emerge. The social construction of criminality and the manner in which the state penal system enforced "proper" notions of female behavior reside at the heart of Dodge's work. In an assault on the liberal, positivist approach to criminal justice studies, Dodge contends that "the number of women sentenced to prison bore no relationship to the absolute number of crimes women committed" (71). Instead, Dodge argues that the machinery of the criminal justice system worked to enforce a narrow, middle-class definition of appropriate female behavior. Women who transgressed such notions; single women, working class women, African Americans, lesbians, women living in non-traditional arrangements with men, were more likely to find themselves caught-up in the criminal justice machinery than middle-class white women who engaged in similar violations of the law. Dodge also charts the double standard reflected in this approach to understanding women's criminal behavior. "Although male criminals earned social disapproval and punishment for their law-breaking activities," Dodge concludes that "the woman who violated the law threatened not only legal norms, but the boundaries of femininity itself' (15-16).
This middle-class morality also defined female convicts' experiences of prison life. Whether incarcerated during the nineteenth century at the predominantly male penitentiaries at Alton, Joliet or Chester, or in the separate Joliet Women's Prison during the progressive era, or in Illinois State Reformatory for Women at Dwight after 1930, Dodge explains that such class based notions of proper womanhood informed every aspect of women's carceral experience. Regardless of the era, the domestic ideal centering on turning female convicts into well-behaved, heterosexual, married women formed the foundation of rehabilitative prison regimes promulgated at Illinois' various penal institutions. Most of the research into women's reformatories focuses on the progressive era, a time when women's rehabilitation moved to the front of the national prison reform movement. By offering a study that covers a 150 plus year span, and carrying her examination to the closure of the Dwight Reformatory in 1972 Dodge offers the first major study of women's reformatories that extends beyond the progressive era. However, Dodge finds that while the character of Dwight changed some with turnover in superintendents and shifts in local and national politics, ultimately little meaningful change over time emerged in the foundational gender and class based assumptions of prison administrators and penal reformers.
A chief attribute of Dodge's study is her trenchant assessment of the inherent tensions between the various rehabilitative theories espoused by prison reformers and the reality of prison life. Dodge does not take the assertions of prison superintendents or state legislators at their word. Instead she probes the reality of life inside the penitentiary's walls, examining convicts' responses to incarceration and the construction of an inmate subculture. Such an approach allows Dodge to challenge the findings of scholars like Freedman and Rafter who maintain that female inmates ultimately embraced the social control agenda of progressive era penal reformers. Dodge counters that female convicts instead resisted reform attempts through large and small acts alike, such as the prison riot in 1929 or by simply maintaining a relationship with another convict that had been forbidden by prison staff. Dodge maintains that, "many prisoners continued to resist and even flaunt Victorian and Progressive Era conceptions of gentility, sexual restraint, and proper feminine behavior even after their incarceration" (203-04). In the final analysis control and custodial concerns dominated the reality of all Illinois penal institutions over time. "Although women's prisons are commonly viewed as more benign and treatment-oriented than men's institutions," Dodge concludes that such institutions ultimately "came to rely on a rigid system of discipline and control and failed to offer significant treatment programs" (264).
There is little to complain of here. At times Dodge draws firm conclusions from scant evidence, especially when dealing with the nineteenth-century material. Furthermore, a separate, more focused chapter on convict resistance would prove useful. Finally, despite the project's subtitle, Dodge's work really ends in 1972 with the closing of the Dwight Reformatory. At that time Illinois and the nation shifted to an integrative, co-curricular approach to female corrections, an approach that coincided with a larger backlash towards the victim-rights movement and the resurgence of a more punitive approach to corrections. The relationship between these events needs to be explained in greater detail than they are given here. However, such criticisms are minor given the substantial contribution offered by Dodge.
Queens University of Charlotte
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|Publication:||Journal of Social History|
|Article Type:||Book Review|
|Date:||Mar 22, 2005|
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